How addition of peach gel particles to yogurt affects oral behavior, sensory perception and liking of consumers differing in age
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica ; Santagiuliana, Marco ; Ong, Xian ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2020
Food Research International 134 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
Chewing - Composite foods - Eating rate - Mechanical contrast - Oral processing - Particles - Texture perception
Addition of particles to foods, such as fruit pieces to dairy products or vegetable pieces to soup, is a convenient approach to alter nutritional composition, appearance, perception and acceptance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of peach gel particles to yogurt on oral behavior, sensory perception and liking of consumers differing in age. One homogeneous yogurt and seven yogurts with peach gel particles were prepared. The added peach gel particles varied in size, fracture stress, or concentration. Oral behavior of n = 62 healthy Dutch, young adults (21 ± 2 years) and n = 62 healthy Dutch elderly (70 ± 5 years) participants was characterized by video recordings. Yogurts’ sensory properties and liking were scored on nine-point scales. Elderly consumed yogurts with higher number of chews and longer consumption time leading to lower eating rate than young adults. Addition of particles, regardless of characteristics, increased number of chews, consumption time, and decreased eating rate up to 60% for both consumer groups, with an average decrement of 110 g/min for young and of 63 g/min for elderly consumers. With increasing peach gel hardness and concentration, the number of chews and consumption time increased while eating rate decreased. Peach gel particle size did not affect oral behavior. Sensory perception of yogurts with added peach gel particles was similar for healthy young adult and healthy elderly. Only small differences in sensory perception were observed between the young adults and elderly for flavor attributes, crumbliness, juiciness, and perceived particle size. Similarly, minor differences in liking of a few yogurts with peach pieces were observed between both consumer groups. Thus, healthy ageing seems to affect sensory perception of semi-solid foods to a limited extent only. We conclude that changes in food texture by addition of particles can be used as a strategy to steer eating rate and potentially impact food intake of young adult and elderly consumers while maintaining or enhancing food palatability. Additionally, particle characteristics can be modified to target specific consumer groups that might differ in eating capabilities.
Effects of eating with an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback on eating rate and body weight: a randomized controlled trial
Hermsen, Sander ; Mars, Monica ; Higgs, Suzanne ; Frost, Jeana H. ; Hermans, Roel C.J. - \ 2019
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1479-5868 - 1 p.
Eating rate - Feedback - Randomized controlled trial - Sensory - Weight loss
BACKGROUND: Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation: people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. A high eating rate contributes to overeating and potentially to weight gain. Previous studies showed that an augmented fork that delivers real-time feedback on eating rate is a potentially effective intervention to decrease eating rate in naturalistic settings. This study assessed the impact of using the augmented fork during a 15-week period on eating rate and body weight. METHODS: In a parallel randomized controlled trial, 141 participants with overweight (age: 49.2 ± 12.3 y; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.48 kg/m2) were randomized to intervention groups (VFC, n = 51 or VFC+, n = 44) or control group (NFC, n = 46). First, we measured bite rate and success ratio on five consecutive days with the augmented fork without feedback (T1). The intervention groups (VFC, VFC+) then used the same fork, but now received vibrotactile feedback when they ate more than one bite per 10 s. Participants in VFC+ had additional access to a web portal with visual feedback. In the control group (NFC), participants ate with the fork without either feedback. The intervention period lasted four weeks, followed by a week of measurements only (T2) and another measurement week after eight weeks (T3). Body weight was assessed at T1, T2, and T3. RESULTS: Participants in VFC and VFC+ had a lower bite rate (p < .01) and higher success ratio (p < .0001) than those in NFC at T2. This effect persisted at T3. In both intervention groups participants lost more weight than those in the control group at T2 (p < .02), with no rebound at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback is a viable tool to reduce eating rate in naturalistic settings. Further investigation may confirm that the augmented fork could support long-term weight loss strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The research reported in this manuscript was registered on 4 November 2015 in the Netherlands Trial Register with number NL5432 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/5432 ).
Small food texture modifications can be used to change oral processing behaviour and to control ad libitum food intake
Mosca, Ana Carolina ; Pohlenz Torres, Armando ; Slob, Evalien ; Graaf, Kees de; McEwan, Jean A. ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Appetite 142 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663
Eating rate - Food intake - Food texture - Oral processing behaviour - Satiation
Little is known whether small modifications of food texture are sufficient to influence satiation. This study used four iso-caloric yogurts differing in viscosity (low/high) and granola particle size (small/large) to investigate the influence of small texture modifications on oral processing behaviour, eating rate and ad libitum intake. Yogurt viscosity differed by a factor of 1.57x to 1.81x. Granola particle size was 6 mm and 12 mm (2-fold difference). Granola particle concentration based on weight was constant (15% w/w). Oral processing behaviour was quantified by video recording consumers eating yogurt ad libitum (n = 104). Ratings for appetite, liking and product familiarity were also quantified. A decrease in yogurt viscosity significantly decreased spoon size, number of chews per spoon and oral exposure time per spoon but did not significantly affect eating rate and ad libitum intake. A decrease in granola particle size from 12 mm to 6 mm at constant weight concentration significantly increased number of chews per spoon and decreased spoon size, eating rate and ad libitum intake without affecting liking. The differences in eating rate and ad libitum intake between yogurts containing small and large granola particles were 5 g/min (7%) and 17 g (5%), respectively. We suggest that the volume of granola particles added to the yogurt and not the size of particles per se was the driver of oral processing behaviour. We conclude that relatively small modifications in yogurt texture, especially granola particle size, are sufficient to change oral processing behaviour and ad libitum intake. These findings demonstrate that small texture modifications of foods, such as the size of granola particles added to yogurt, can be used to modulate eating rate and food intake within a meal.
Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking
Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.
The effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork on eating rate, satiation, and food intake
Hermans, Roel C.J. ; Hermsen, Sander ; Robinson, Eric ; Higgs, Suzanne ; Mars, Monica ; Frost, Jeana H. - \ 2017
Appetite 113 (2017). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 7 - 13.
Digital technology - Eating rate - Food intake - Satiety - Vibrotactile feedback
Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. A total of 114 participants were randomly assigned to the Feedback Condition (FC), in which they received vibrotactile feedback from their fork when eating too fast (i.e., taking more than one bite per 10 s), or a Non-Feedback Condition (NFC). Participants in the FC took fewer bites per minute than did those in the NFC. Participants in the FC also had a higher success ratio, indicating that they had significantly more bites outside the designated time interval of 10 s than did participants in the NFC. A slower eating rate, however, did not lead to a significant reduction in the amount of food consumed or level of satiation. These findings indicate that real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork is capable of reducing eating rate, but there is no evidence from this study that this reduction in eating rate is translated into an increase in satiation or reduction in food consumption. Overall, this study shows that real-time vibrotactile feedback may be a viable tool in interventions that aim to reduce eating rate. The long-term effectiveness of this form of feedback on satiation and food consumption, however, awaits further investigation.
Assessment of eating rate and food intake in spoon versus fork users in a laboratory setting
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 66 - 69.
Ad libitum food intake - Cutlery use - Eating rate - Energy density - Palatability
Accumulating evidence show positive relationships between eating rate and body weight. Acute food intake is affected by eating rate, bite size, and palatability. The objective was to assess differences between participants who chose to use a spoon vs. fork in eating rate and food intake of four meals that differ in palatability (low vs. high salt) and in energy density (low vs. high fat). Forty-eight healthy adults (16 males, 18-54 y, BMI: 17.8-34.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Participants attended four lunch time sessions after a standardised breakfast. Meals were either (1) low-fat/low-salt, (2) low-fat/high-salt, (3) high-fat/low-salt, or (4) high-fat/high-salt. Nineteen participants (6 males) consistently used a fork and 21 (8 males) used a spoon, 8 participants were inconsistent in cutlery use and excluded from analyses. Spoon users had on average a higher BMI than fork users (p=0.006). Effects of cutlery use, BMI status (BMI<25 vs. BMI>25), salt, and fat, and their interactions were assessed in a General Linear Model. Spoon users consumed faster (fork: 53±2.8g/min; spoon: 62±2.1g/min, p=0.022) and tended to consume more (p=0.09), whereas the duration of the meals were similar (fork: 6.9±0.3min; spoon: 6:7±0.2min, p=0.55). BMI status affected both eating rate and food intake (p=0.005). There were no significant two-way or three-way interactions between salt, fat, and cutlery use on eating rate or food intake. In conclusion, participants who chose to consume with forks ate slower compared to spoon users.