- Robbert Biesbroek (1)
- Debora Block de (2)
- Reinder Brolsma (1)
- Rutger Brugge van der (1)
- Hade Dorst (1)
- M. Eupen van (1)
- D. Geneletti (1)
- Peter H. Feindt (1)
- Frans H.M. Ven van de (1)
- Alexander Jagt van der (1)
- Stijn Koole (1)
- Ina Maren Sieber (1)
- Robbert P.H. Snep (1)
- M. Pérez-Soba (1)
- Rob Raven (1)
- Hens Runhaar (1)
- Erik Slobbe van (1)
- Joop Spijker (1)
- Toine Vergroesen (1)
- L. Zardo (1)
Urban greening through nature-based solutions – Key characteristics of an emerging concept
Dorst, Hade ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Raven, Rob ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Sustainable Cities and Society 49 (2019). - ISSN 2210-6707
Ecosystem-based adaptation - Environmental governance - Green infrastructure - Multifunctionality - Performance-based planning - Sustainable cities
As a result of urbanisation and climate change, many cities experience the necessity of efficient and sustainable land use. Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)are interventions that address social, economic and environmental sustainability issues simultaneously, thereby presenting a multifunctional, solution-oriented approach to increasing urban sustainability. As elements of the emerging NBS concept resemble related, existing approaches to urban greening, this review assesses the implications of this concept for discourse and practice in urban greening. The paper identifies key NBS principles and compares them with those of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA)and Green Infrastructure (GI). Key differences emerge: the NBS concept incorporates a broader array of interventions and a broader range of perspectives on what qualifies as ‘nature-based’, and it is most explicitly oriented towards providing solutions to complex challenges. NBS implementation could therefore benefit from a more performance-based planning approach; a flexible approach to urban planning which accommodates the integration of multiple land uses and considers urban complexity. We conclude that the NBS concept has potential to unite currently segregated bodies of knowledge generated as part of related approaches to urban greening, and can enable researchers and policymakers to more explicitly discuss the role of nature in addressing a broad range of sustainability challenges.
Shaping conditions for entrepreneurship in climate change adaptation: A case study of an emerging governance arrangement in the Netherlands
Block, Debora de; Feindt, Peter H. ; Slobbe, Erik van - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
Climate change - Ecosystem-based adaptation - Entrepreneurship - Governance arrangements
Planning and implementation of regional climate change adaptation requires new, integrated governance arrangements that often involve public and private actors. Although entrepreneurship is widely considered an important part of such arrangements, little is known about the conditions that enable it, and its actual role is under-researched. Through an in-depth case study of an ecosystem-based adaptation project in the Netherlands, we have analyzed how the variegated actors in a governance network shape six conditions for entrepreneurial success, established in the entrepreneurship literature. Through a framing analysis, we found that all six conditions, i.e., prior career experience, altruistic motivations, financial motives, social networks, financial capital availability, and policies and regulations, were the object of constant negotiations. Their salience varied during the project as a result of variegated framing practices. In the early stages, issue, identity, and relationship frames were used to create a network of people with a range of relevant experience, connected by altruistic motivations. However, as the project progressed, distrust frames and different spatial-and temporal-scale frames created tensions between public and private actors. Accordingly, process frames, financial motivations, and capital availability became increasingly salient, reflecting the need to consolidate rules, roles, and responsibilities. The findings suggest that approaches to climate change adaptation imply ongoing struggles over the conditions that enable entrepreneurial success. We thereby add an important new dimension to the study of adaptation governance.
Mechanism-based explanations of impasses in the governance of ecosystem-based adaptation
Sieber, Ina Maren ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Block, Debora de - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)8. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 2379 - 2390.
Barriers - Climate change - Ecosystem-based adaptation - Governance - Mechanisms
Many climate change adaptation scholars recognise the complexities in the governance of adaptation. Most have used the concept of ‘barriers to adaptation’ in an attempt to describe why governance of adaptation is challenging. However, these studies have recently been critiqued for over simplifying complex governance processes by referring to the static concept of barriers, thereby ignoring dynamic complexity as a root explanatory cause. This paper builds the argument that how barriers are currently used in the literature is insufficient to explain why the governance of adaptation often proves difficult. We adopt a so-called mechanism-based approach to investigate how and why the governance of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) reaches impasses in five cases in Thailand and the Netherlands. Our findings show six causal mechanisms that explain impasses in the five case studies: (1) frame polarisation, (2) timing synchronisation, (3) risk innovation, (4) rules of the game, (5) veto players and (6) lost in translation. Several of these causal mechanisms are recurring and emerge under specific contextual conditions or are activated by other mechanisms. Our findings provide valuable insights into the impasses in the governance of EbA and allow for critical reflections on the analytical value of the mechanism-based approach in explaining why the governance of adaptation proves difficult and how this can be overcome.
Estimating the cooling capacity of green infrastructures to support urban planning
Zardo, L. ; Geneletti, D. ; Pérez-Soba, M. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2017
Ecosystem Services 26 (2017). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 225 - 235.
Climate adaptation - Ecosystem services - Ecosystem-based adaptation - Green Urban Infrastructures
Heatwaves are threatening human wellbeing in our cities, but Green Urban Infrastructures (GUI) can contribute to reduce temperatures and the associated health risks, by virtue of their cooling capacity. GUI present different typologies and consequently different key components, such as soil cover, tree canopy cover and shape, which determines their capacity to provide cooling. The aim of this study is to propose an approach to estimate the cooling capacity provided by GUI in order to generate useful information for urban planners. The methods are based on the review of the literature to identify the functions of GUI that are involved in providing cooling, and the components of GUI that determine those functions, and then to combine them to provide an overall assessment of the cooling capacity. The approach was used to assess 50 different typologies of GUI, which are result of different combinations of the components that influence the cooling, for three climatic regions. An illustrative case study in the city of Amsterdam show the applicability of the approach. This work provides a contribution in the panorama of Ecosystem Service assessment tools to support the mainstreaming of Ecosystem-based measures (such as the creation of GUI) in the planning practice.
Adaptation Planning Support Toolbox : Measurable performance information based tools for co-creation of resilient, ecosystem-based urban plans with urban designers, decision-makers and stakeholders
Ven, Frans H.M. van de; Snep, Robbert P.H. ; Koole, Stijn ; Brolsma, Reinder ; Brugge, Rutger van der; Spijker, Joop ; Vergroesen, Toine - \ 2016
Environmental Science & Policy 66 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 427 - 436.
Collaborative planning - Ecosystem-based adaptation - Green infrastructure - Performance indicators - Planning support system - Urban climate adaptation
Currently, most tools, guidelines and benchmarks for urban adaptation raise awareness on climate change impacts, assess the city's vulnerability and/or address the need for adaptation on a policy-level. However, tools that have the ability to implement adaptation solutions in the actual urban planning and design practice seem to be missing. We developed and tested the Adaptation Planning Support Toolbox (APST) to fill this gap. This toolbox supports local policymakers, planners, designers and practitioners in defining the program of demands, in setting adaptation targets, in selecting from more than 60 blue, green and grey adaptation measures and with informed co-creation of conceptual adaptation plans. The APST provides quantitative, evidence-based performance information on (cost)effectiveness of adaptation measures regarding climate resilience and co-benefits. The APST can be used design workshops, to feed dialogues among stakeholders on where and how which ecosystem-based adaptation measures can be applied. Applications of the AST in various settings and context in cities on different continents have illustrated the added value of the toolbox in bringing policy and practice together with help of science. With more and more cities worldwide that will make the step from policymaking to actual adaptation-inclusive urban (re)development practice we foresee a growing demand for such tools.