Designing healthier and acceptable diets using data envelopment analysis
Kanellopoulos, A. ; Gerdessen, J.C. ; Ivancic, Ante ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2020
Public Health Nutrition 23 (2020)13. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2290 - 2302.
Benchmark - DEA - Diet model - Efficiency - Nutrition - public health
Objective: The objective of this research is to propose methodology that can be used to benchmark current diets based on their nutrient intakes and to provide guidelines for improving less healthy diets in a way that is acceptable for the studied population.
Design: We discuss important limitations of current diet models that use optimization techniques to design healthier and acceptable diets. We illustrate how data envelopment analysis could be used to overcome such limitations, and we describe mathematical models that can be used to calculate not only healthier but also acceptable diets.
Setting: We used data from the Nutrition Questionnaires plus dataset of habitual diets of a general population of adult men and women in The Netherlands (n 1735).
Participants: Adult population.
Results: We calculated healthier diets with substantial higher intakes of protein, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and vitamins, and substantially lower intakes of Na, saturated fats and added sugars. The calculated diets are combinations of current diets of individuals that belong to the same age/gender group and comprise of food itemintakes in proportions observed in the sample.
Conclusions: The proposed methodology enables the benchmarking of existing diets and provides a framework for proposing healthier alternative diets that resemble the current diet in terms of foods intake as much as possible.
Energy consumption on dairy farms: A review of monitoring, prediction modelling, and analyses
Shine, Philip ; Upton, John ; Sefeedpari, Paria ; Murphy, Michael D. - \ 2020
Energies 13 (2020)5. - ISSN 1996-1073
Dairy - Efficiency - Energy - Machine-learning - Modelling - Review - Sustainable agriculture
The global consumption of dairy produce is forecasted to increase by 19% per person by 2050. However, milk production is an intense energy consuming process. Coupled with concerns related to global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, increasing the production of milk must be met with the sustainable use of energy resources, to ensure the future monetary and environmental sustainability of the dairy industry. This body of work focused on summarizing and reviewing dairy energy research from the monitoring, prediction modelling and analyses point of view. Total primary energy consumption values in literature ranged from 2.7 MJ kg-1 Energy Corrected Milk on organic dairy farming systems to 4.2 MJ kg-1 Energy Corrected Milk on conventional dairy farming systems. Variances in total primary energy requirements were further assessed according to whether confinement or pasture-based systems were employed. Overall, a 35% energy reduction was seen across literature due to employing a pasture-based dairy system. Compared to standard regression methods, increased prediction accuracy has been demonstrated in energy literature due to employing various machine-learning algorithms. Dairy energy prediction models have been frequently utilized throughout literature to conduct dairy energy analyses, for estimating the impact of changes to infrastructural equipment and managerial practices.
Sustainable food processing: A production planning and scheduling perspective
Akkerman, Renzo - \ 2019
In: Sustainable Food Supply Chains Elsevier - ISBN 9780128134115 - p. 105 - 114.
Sustainability - Food processing - Efficiency - Changeover - Cleaning Utilities - Scheduling
In food-processing industries, agricultural raw materials are processed into consumer products or food ingredients. Within this context, efficiency and sustainability are mainly impacted by losses of valuable food products that already caused significant monetary and environmental impacts, as well as by the inefficient use of utilities such as energy, water, and cleaning agents. In turn, these factors are mostly driven by product changeovers and cleaning of production and storage equipment. Efforts to improve the efficiency and sustainability of food processing, therefore, emphasize managerial and technological solutions to decrease the number and impact of changeovers. This chapter first distinguishes technological and managerial perspectives on product losses and utility consumption. Elaborating on the managerial perspective, we subsequently provide an overview of cyclic production planning and scheduling approaches that can be used to improve efficiency and sustainability. The intuitive nature of cyclic planning frameworks also provides a lean perspective on planning that facilitates implementation processes.
Assessment of the Suna trap for sampling mosquitoes indoors and outdoors
Mburu, Monicah M. ; Zembere, Kennedy ; Hiscox, Alexandra ; Banda, Jomo ; Phiri, Kamija S. ; Berg, Henk Van Den; Mzilahowa, Themba ; Takken, Willem ; McCann, Robert S. - \ 2019
Malaria Journal 18 (2019)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
Anophelines - CDC-LT - Culicines - Efficiency - HLC - Indoors - Outdoors - Sampling - Simultaneous use - Suna trap
Background: Entomological monitoring is important for public health because it provides data on the distribution, abundance and host-seeking behaviour of disease vectors. Various methods for sampling mosquitoes exist, most of which are biased towards, or specifically target, certain portions of a mosquito population. This study assessed the Suna trap, an odour-baited trap for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes both indoors and outdoors. Methods: Two separate field experiments were conducted in villages in southern Malawi. The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling mosquitoes was compared to that of the human landing catch (HLC) indoors and outdoors and the Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention Light Trap (CDC-LT) indoors. Potential competition between two Suna traps during simultaneous use of the traps indoors and outdoors was assessed by comparing mosquito catch sizes across three treatments: one trap indoors only; one trap outdoors only; and one trap indoors and one trap outdoors used simultaneously at the same house. Results: The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling female anophelines was similar to that of HLC indoors (P = 0.271) and HLC outdoors (P = 0.125), but lower than that of CDC-LT indoors (P = 0.001). Anopheline catch sizes in the Suna trap used alone indoors were similar to indoor Suna trap catch sizes when another Suna trap was simultaneously present outdoors (P = 0.891). Similarly, catch sizes of female anophelines with the Suna trap outdoors were similar to those that were caught outdoors when another Suna trap was simultaneously present indoors (P = 0.731). Conclusions: The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling mosquitoes was equivalent to that of the HLC. Whereas the CDC-LT was more efficient in collecting female anophelines indoors, the use of this trap outdoors is limited given the requirement of setting it next to an occupied bed net. As demonstrated in this research, outdoor collections are also essential because they provide data on the relative contribution of outdoor biting to malaria transmission. Therefore, the Suna trap could serve as an alternative to the HLC and the CDC-LT, because it does not require the use of humans as natural baits, allows standardised sampling conditions across sampling points, and can be used outdoors. Furthermore, using two Suna traps simultaneously indoors and outdoors does not interfere with the sampling efficiency of either trap, which would save a considerable amount of time, energy, and resources compared to setting the traps indoors and then outdoors in two consecutive nights.
Agronomic effects of bovine manure : A review of long-term European field experiments
Zavattaro, Laura ; Bechini, Luca ; Grignani, Carlo ; Evert, Frits K. van; Mallast, Janine ; Spiegel, Heide ; Sandén, Taru ; Pecio, Alicja ; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente ; Guzmán, Gema ; Vanderlinden, Karl ; Hose, Tommy D'; Ruysschaert, Greet ; Berge, Hein F.M. ten - \ 2017
European Journal of Agronomy 90 (2017). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 127 - 138.
Efficiency - Farmyard manure - Nitrogen - Response ratio - Slurry - Soil organic carbon
To evaluate the agronomic value of animal manure, we quantified the effects of pedo-climatic, crop and management factors on crop productivity, N use efficiency, and soil organic matter, described with simple indicators that compare manures with mineral fertilizers. We selected 80 European long-term field experiments that used bovine farmyard manure or bovine liquid slurry, alone (FYM and SLU) or combined with mineral fertilizers (FYMm and SLUm), and compared them to mineral fertilizer only reference treatments. We collected 5570 measurements from 107 papers. FYM produced slightly lower crop yields (−9.5%) when used alone and higher (+11.3%) yields when used in combination with N fertilizer (FYMm), compared to those obtained using mineral fertilizers only. Conditions promoting manure-N mineralization (lighter soil texture, warmer temperature, longer growing season, and shallower incorporation depth) significantly increased the effect of FYM/FYMm on crop yield and yield N. The production efficiency of FYM (yield:N applied ratio) was slightly lower than that of mineral fertilizers (-1.6%). The apparent N recoveries of FYM and FYMm were 59.3% and 78.7%, respectively, of mineral fertilizers. Manured soils had significantly higher C (+32.9% on average for FYM and FYMm) and N (+21.5%) concentrations. Compared to mineral fertilizers, yield was reduced by 9.1% with SLU, but not with SLUm. Influencing factors were similar to those of FYM/FYMm. Efficiency indicators indicated SLU (but not SLUm) was less effective than mineral fertilizers. Slurry significantly increased SOC (on average for SLU and SLUm by +17.4%) and soil N (+15.7%) concentrations. In conclusion, compared to mineral N fertilizers, bovine farmyard manure and slurry were slightly less effective on the crop, but determined marked increases to SOC and soil N, and thus, to long-term soil fertility maintenance.
From personalized exchange towards anonymous trade: A field experiment on the workings of the invisible hand
Bulte, Erwin ; Kontoleon, Andreas ; List, John ; Turley, Ty ; Voors, Maarten - \ 2017
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 133 (2017). - ISSN 0167-2681 - p. 313 - 330.
Africa - Anonymity - Efficiency - Social relations - Status - Trade experiment
The experimental literature has shown the tendency for experimental trading markets to converge to neoclassical predictions. Yet, the extent to which theory explains the equilibrating forces in markets remains under-researched, especially in the developing world. We set up a laboratory in 94 villages in rural Sierra Leone to mimic a real market. We implement several treatments, varying trading partners and the anonymity of trading. We find that when trading with co-villagers average efficiency is somewhat lower than predicted by theory (and observed in different contexts), and markets do not fully converge to theoretical predictions across rounds of trading. When participants trade with strangers efficiency is reduced more. Anonymizing trade within the village does not affect efficiency. This points to the importance of behavioral norms for trade. Intra-village social relationships or hierarchies, instead, appear less important as determinants of trading outcomes. This is confirmed by analysis of the trader-level data, showing that individual earnings in the experiment do not vary with one's status or position in local networks.
Water and nitrogen use efficiencies in citrus production : A meta-analysis
Qin, Wei ; Assinck, F.B.T. ; Heinen, Marius ; Oenema, Oene - \ 2016
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 222 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 103 - 111.
Citrus - Efficiency - Fertilizer - Irrigation - Meta-analysis - Nitrogen - Oranges - Water
Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors for citrus production. Reported effects of water and N inputs on citrus yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) vary greatly, mainly due to differences in cultivars, tree age, climate, soil types, and water and N input levels. So far, no systematic analysis has been performed, and as a result, the interactive effects of water and N inputs on yield, WUE and NUE of citrus orchards are unknown. Also, gaps between attainable and actual yields, WUE and NUE have not been established yet. Here, we report on a global meta-analysis of yields, WUE and NUE of citrus production systems, using 1009 observations from 55 studies, conducted in 11 countries. Median citrus yields ranged from 30 to 60 t ha-1, which were in between average global yields (range 10-30 t ha-1) and attainable yields (range 60-90 t ha-1). Median WUE ranged from 2.5 to 5 kg m-3 and median NUE from 150 to 350 kg kg-1. Citrus yields were related to water and N inputs and tree age. Relationships between water and N inputs and yield, WUE and NUE were also analysed for sub-datasets and quantiles, to examine the relationships near the extremes. There were statistical significant interactions between water and N inputs in yield and NUE, but not in WUE. This indicates that studies aiming at the optimization of water and N inputs must consider interactions and optimize water and N inputs simultaneously. Based on our analyses, we estimated that reducing over-optimal irrigation to optimal irrigation may increase citrus yield by 20%, WUE by 30% and NUE by 15%. Similarly, reducing over-optimal N fertilization to optimal N fertilization may increase yield by 10%, WUE by 15% and NUE by 40%. We concluded that there is room for a significant increase in yield, WUE and NUE through the simultaneous optimization of water and fertilizer N inputs via precision fertigation.
Variation in nitrogen use efficiencies on Dutch dairy farms
Daatselaar, Co Hg ; Reijs, Joan R. ; Oenema, Jouke ; Doornewaard, Gerben J. ; Aarts, Frans - \ 2015
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95 (2015)15. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 3055 - 3058.
Dairy farms - Efficiency - Nitrogen use efficiency - Variation
BACKGROUND: On dairy farms, the input of nutrients including nitrogen is higher than the output in products such as milk and meat. This causes losses of nitrogen to the environment. One of the indicators for the losses of nitrogen is the nitrogen use efficiency. In the Dutch Minerals Policy Monitoring Program (LMM), many data on nutrients of a few hundred farms are collected which can be processed by the instrument Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA, in Dutch: Kringloopwijzer) in order to provide nitrogen use efficiencies. RESULTS: After dividing the dairy farms (available in the LMM program) according to soil type and in different classes for milk production ha-1, it is shown that considerable differences in nitrogen use efficiency exist between farms on the same soil type and with the same level of milk production ha-1. CONCLUSION: This offers opportunities for improvement of the nitrogen use efficiency on many dairy farms. Benchmarking will be a useful first step in this process.