Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Influence of Cell Configuration and Long-Term Operation on Electrochemical Phosphorus Recovery from Domestic Wastewater
Lei, Yang ; Remmers, Jorrit Christiaan ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata D. Van Der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 7 (2019)7. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 7362 - 7368.
Calcium phosphate - Current density - Electrode distance - Energy consumption - Local high pH

Phosphorus (P) is an important, scarce, and irreplaceable element, and therefore its recovery and recycling are essential for the sustainability of the modern world. We previously demonstrated the possibility of P recovery by electrochemically induced calcium phosphate precipitation. In this Article, we further investigated the influence of cell configuration and long-term operation on the removal of P and coremoved calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and inorganic carbon. The results indicated that the relative removal of P was faster than that of Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon initially, but later, due to decreased P concentration, the removal of Ca and Mg became dominant. A maximum P removal in 4 days is 75% at 1.4 A m -2 , 85% at 8.3 A m -2 and 92% at 27.8 A m -2 . While a higher current density improves the removal of all ions, the relative increased removal of Ca and Mg affects the product quality. While the variation of electrode distance and electrode material have no significant effects on P removal, it has implication for reducing the energy cost. A 16-day continuous-flow test proved calcium phosphate precipitation could continue for 6 days without losing efficiency even when the cathode was covered with precipitates. However, after 6 days, the precipitates need to be collected; otherwise, the removal efficiency dropped for P removal. Economic evaluation indicates that the recovery cost lies in the range of 2.3-201.4 euro/kg P, depending on P concentration in targeted wastewater and electrolysis current. We concluded that a better strategy for producing a product with high P content in an energy-efficient way is to construct the electrochemical cell with cheaper stainless steel cathode, with a shorter electrode distance, and that targets P-rich wastewater.

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