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Influence of Cell Configuration and Long-Term Operation on Electrochemical Phosphorus Recovery from Domestic Wastewater
Lei, Yang ; Remmers, Jorrit Christiaan ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata D. Van Der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 7 (2019)7. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 7362 - 7368.
Calcium phosphate - Current density - Electrode distance - Energy consumption - Local high pH
Phosphorus (P) is an important, scarce, and irreplaceable element, and therefore its recovery and recycling are essential for the sustainability of the modern world. We previously demonstrated the possibility of P recovery by electrochemically induced calcium phosphate precipitation. In this Article, we further investigated the influence of cell configuration and long-term operation on the removal of P and coremoved calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and inorganic carbon. The results indicated that the relative removal of P was faster than that of Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon initially, but later, due to decreased P concentration, the removal of Ca and Mg became dominant. A maximum P removal in 4 days is 75% at 1.4 A m -2 , 85% at 8.3 A m -2 and 92% at 27.8 A m -2 . While a higher current density improves the removal of all ions, the relative increased removal of Ca and Mg affects the product quality. While the variation of electrode distance and electrode material have no significant effects on P removal, it has implication for reducing the energy cost. A 16-day continuous-flow test proved calcium phosphate precipitation could continue for 6 days without losing efficiency even when the cathode was covered with precipitates. However, after 6 days, the precipitates need to be collected; otherwise, the removal efficiency dropped for P removal. Economic evaluation indicates that the recovery cost lies in the range of 2.3-201.4 euro/kg P, depending on P concentration in targeted wastewater and electrolysis current. We concluded that a better strategy for producing a product with high P content in an energy-efficient way is to construct the electrochemical cell with cheaper stainless steel cathode, with a shorter electrode distance, and that targets P-rich wastewater.
Household inclusion in the governance of housing retrofitting : Analysing Chinese and Dutch systems of energy retrofit provision
Feijter, F.J. de; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Chen, Y. - \ 2019
Energy Research & Social Science 53 (2019). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 10 - 22.
Housing retrofitting - Governance - Energy consumption - Everyday life - Systems of provision - Household-provider interactions - China - The Netherlands
One of the most important governance challenges in terms of energy saving is the physical upgrading of apartment buildings via housing retrofitting. In urban studies, little focus has been applied to the shape and character of the retrofit governance frameworks to realise inclusion of householders. Little is known about how these different frameworks, and the systems of provision they represent, impact on householders to achieve energy saving in their retrofitted houses. By recognising the importance of the relationship between provision and consumption, this study aims to analyse household inclusion in Chinese and Dutch systems of energy retrofit provision to suggest strategic improvements for intermediation. The empirical data is gathered in qualitative case studies of housing retrofitting in Amsterdam, Beijing and Mianyang (Sichuan province, China) by interviewing local retrofit providers, combined with site observations and reviews of policy documents. This paper shows how the formation of sustainable retrofit practices is co-constituted in shifting constellations of retrofit governance along the public-private-community divide. Public and private modes of housing retrofit provision seem to converge in Beijing, Mianyang and Amsterdam. The findings point to how regulations, processes and technical infrastructures should be adjusted to realise sustainable retrofit practices. The paper concludes that energy housing retrofitting in both Chinese and Dutch contexts requires co-management among householders and social intermediaries.
Microalgal biorefinery for bulk and high-value products : Product extraction within cell disintegration
Postma, P.R. ; Lam, G.P. 't; Barbosa, M.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Olivieri, Giuseppe - \ 2017
In: Handbook of Electroporation Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319328850 - p. 2205 - 2224.
Cell disintegration - Energy consumption - Microalgal biorefinery - PEF - Protein extraction
Microalgae are a promising source for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates for the cosmetic, nutraceutical, chemical, food/feed, and biofuel industry. In comparison with soy and palm oil, microalgae can be produced in a more sustainable way. To make microalgae production economically feasible, all biomass ingredients need to be efficiently utilized, similar to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. However severe conditions can affect the properties of some components in the biomass. To overcome this, focus needs to be put on biorefinery techniques which are mild and effective. Microalgal biorefinery is a linear process consisting of harvesting, cell disintegration, sequential extraction, and further fractionation. Among these steps, the cell disintegration often represents a bottleneck for the extraction of hydrophilic or hydrophobic components, due to the presence of a tough cell wall in many strains. State of the art knowledge on both novel and classical techniques for product extraction within cell disintegration is presented. Comparison is made on the basis of two main criteria: yield of disintegration and energy consumption. The current work gives also a comprehensive outlook on business cases for microalgae biorefinery.
Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection : Milk concentrates as substitutes for milk powders
Depping, Verena ; Grunow, Martin ; Middelaar, Corina van; Dumpler, Joseph - \ 2017
Journal of Cleaner Production 149 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1 - 10.
Dairy products - Energy consumption - Food industry - Life cycle assessment (LCA) - Product design - Supply chains
Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy sector, drying milk into milk powders is a highly energy-intensive process. This study investigates whether switching from milk powders to new products known as milk concentrates diminishes the overall environmental impact along the supply chains of dairy-containing products. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted, which considers individual processing steps that can be combined and operated in various ways to generate a multitude of different skim milk concentrates. For relevant environmental indicators such as cumulative energy demand, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential, concentrates were found to have a lower environmental impact than powders, even if the former are trucked up to 1000 km. This break-even distance is a conservative estimate. It depends upon the environmental impact of raw-milk production. The concentrate with the lowest environmental impact is produced by a combined concentration with reverse osmosis and evaporation to a dry-matter content of 35% and preservation via subsequent pasteurization. This holds for all indicators except eutrophication potential, for which this concentrate is the second-best option. This study identifies the frame within which milk concentrates are an advantageous substitution for milk powder and demonstrates the value of applying environmental assessment to product development and processing-technology selection.
Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain
Sese-Minguez, Saioa ; Boesveld, Harm ; Asins-Velis, Sabina ; Kooij, Saskia van der; Maroulis, Jerry - \ 2017
Water Alternatives 10 (2017)1. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 81 - 99.
Agricultural land use/expansion - Cultural heritage loss - Cànyoles watershed - Drip irrigation - Energy consumption - Spain - Water saving
Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from, or accelerated by, this change including the 1) intensification of well construction causing a redistribution in access to groundwater, water shortages and a lowering of the groundwater table; 2) expansion of irrigation into former rain-dependent uphill areas resulting in increased water use; 3) shift to higher- value monoculture fruit crops, but with associated higher crop water requirements; 4) increased electrical energy consumption and higher costs due to groundwater pumping; and 5) loss of cultural heritage as wells have replaced traditional surface irrigation infrastructure that originated in the Middle Ages. Consequently, the authors argue that transitioning from surface irrigation to drip irrigation should critically look beyond the obvious short-term benefits that are intended by the introduction of the technology, and consider possible unforeseen side effects, that may have serious long-term impacts on the environment and the community.
Energy saving potential of emerging technologies in milk powder production
Moejes, S.N. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2017
Trends in Food Science and Technology 60 (2017). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 31 - 42.
Air dehumidification - Energy consumption - Membrane distillation - Milk powder - Monodisperse-droplet drying - Radio frequency heating
Background: The food industry has a large potential for energy reduction which, with an eye on the future, has to be exploited. Milk powder production consists of many thermal processes and is responsible for 15% of the total energy use in the dairy industry. A reduction in energy consumption can be realized by using innovative technologies instead of realizing incremental process modifications. Scope and approach: In this work first the current practice in milk powder production is described and analyzed with respect to energy consumption. Then the potential of emerging technologies for milk processing like membrane distillation, monodisperse-droplet drying, air dehumidification, radio frequency heating, combined with renewable energy sources as solar thermal systems, are investigated. Finally the energy consumption of the emerging technologies is compared to that of the current technologies, new production chains are proposed and evaluated with respect to their total energy consumption. Key findings and conclusions: In this review we show that the combination of emerging technologies is able to reduce the operational energy consumption for milk powder production up to 60%, i.e. from 10 MJ/kg powder in current production to 4-5 MJ/kg powder. The implementation of these technologies and development of new production chains is essential to meet the future demand on energy efficient processing.
Reducing the carbon footprint of greenhouse grown crops : Re-designing LED-based production systems
Dieleman, J.A. ; Visser, P.H.B. de; Vermeulen, P.C.M. - \ 2016
Acta Horticulturae 1134 (2016). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 395 - 402.
3D functional-structural plant model - Assimilation light - Electricity - Energy consumption - HPS - Light use efficiency - Tomato
To fulfill the market demand for year-round high-quality production, the use of assimilation light has increased over the last decades by 10% per year and continues to expand. The electrical consumption involved largely contributes to the high CO2 emission of greenhouse horticulture. Following the Kyoto protocol, the emission of greenhouse gases should be reduced. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can contribute to the reduction in carbon footprint by their high efficiency in converting electricity into light. Due to their low heat emission, LEDs can be positioned within the canopy, which allows the design of new, low-carbon production systems. Inter-canopy LED lighting is already commercially used on a small scale. This paper describes the steps taken to further optimize LED-based production systems. Since it is impossible to test all possible strategies of using LED lighting, a 3D functional-structural plant model was used to do scenario calculations to determine the light interception of the canopy and crop photosynthesis at different positions and orientations of the LEDs. Orienting inter-lighting LEDs 30° downwards positively affected the light interception by the crop, provided that there was sufficient leaf area below the LEDs to prevent light loss to the floor. Replacing the conventional high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps by LED lamps (efficiency 2.3 μmol J-1) reduced the carbon footprint of a tomato crop by approximately 15%, due to a combination of the higher efficiency of LEDs and an increased use of thermal energy to maintain plant temperatures. These calculations were validated in a greenhouse trial, where the production and energy consumption of a HPS+LED hybrid system was compared to those of a LED top-lighting and LED inter-lighting combination. Plant development and production levels were comparable, whereas the electrical consumption in the LED+LED system was 37% lower than under HPS+LED lighting. Approximately half of the reduction in electricity was used for additional heat input to maintain plant development rate, which agreed well with the carbon footprint calculations. Work in the near future will focus on plant architecture and LEDs with altered light emission patterns, aiming to design new LEDbased production systems, which combine a high production level with a low-carbon footprint.