Impact of ambient odors on food intake, saliva production and appetite ratings
Proserpio, Cristina ; Graaf, Kees de; Laureati, Monica ; Pagliarini, Ella ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 174 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 35 - 41.
Appetite - Eating behavior - Energy density - Food intake - Olfactory cues - Salivary response
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ambient odor exposure on appetite, salivation and food intake. 32 normal-weight young women (age: 21.4 ± 5.3 year; BMI: 21.7 ± 1.9 kg/m2) attended five test sessions in a non-satiated state. Each participant was exposed to ambient odors (chocolate, beef, melon and cucumber), in a detectable but mild concentration, and to a control condition (no-odor exposure). During each condition, at different time points, participants rated appetite for 15 food products, and saliva was collected. After approximately 30 min, ad libitum intake was measured providing a food (chocolate rice, high-energy dense product) that was congruent with one of the odors they were exposed to. A significant odor effect on food intake (p = 0.034) and salivation (p = 0.017) was found. Exposure to odors signaling high-energy dense products increased food intake (243.97 ± 22.84 g) compared to control condition (206.94 ± 24.93 g; p = 0.03). Consistently, salivation was increased significantly during chocolate and beef exposure (mean: 0.494 ± 0.050 g) compared to control condition (0.417 ± 0.05 g; p = 0.006). Even though odor exposure did not induce specific appetite for congruent products (p = 0.634), appetite scores were significantly higher during odor exposure (p < 0.0001) compared to the no-odor control condition and increased significantly over time (p = 0.010). Exposure to food odors seems to drive behavioral and physiological responses involved in eating behavior, specifically for odors and foods that are high in energy density. This could have implications for steering food intake and ultimately influencing the nutritional status of people.
Assessment of eating rate and food intake in spoon versus fork users in a laboratory setting
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 66 - 69.
Ad libitum food intake - Cutlery use - Eating rate - Energy density - Palatability
Accumulating evidence show positive relationships between eating rate and body weight. Acute food intake is affected by eating rate, bite size, and palatability. The objective was to assess differences between participants who chose to use a spoon vs. fork in eating rate and food intake of four meals that differ in palatability (low vs. high salt) and in energy density (low vs. high fat). Forty-eight healthy adults (16 males, 18-54 y, BMI: 17.8-34.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Participants attended four lunch time sessions after a standardised breakfast. Meals were either (1) low-fat/low-salt, (2) low-fat/high-salt, (3) high-fat/low-salt, or (4) high-fat/high-salt. Nineteen participants (6 males) consistently used a fork and 21 (8 males) used a spoon, 8 participants were inconsistent in cutlery use and excluded from analyses. Spoon users had on average a higher BMI than fork users (p=0.006). Effects of cutlery use, BMI status (BMI<25 vs. BMI>25), salt, and fat, and their interactions were assessed in a General Linear Model. Spoon users consumed faster (fork: 53±2.8g/min; spoon: 62±2.1g/min, p=0.022) and tended to consume more (p=0.09), whereas the duration of the meals were similar (fork: 6.9±0.3min; spoon: 6:7±0.2min, p=0.55). BMI status affected both eating rate and food intake (p=0.005). There were no significant two-way or three-way interactions between salt, fat, and cutlery use on eating rate or food intake. In conclusion, participants who chose to consume with forks ate slower compared to spoon users.
Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children : Results of an exploratory study
Fearnbach, S.N. ; English, Laural K. ; Lasschuijt, Marlou ; Wilson, Stephen J. ; Savage, Jennifer S. ; Fisher, Jennifer O. ; Rolls, Barbara J. ; Keller, Kathleen L. - \ 2016
Physiology and Behavior 162 (2016). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 3 - 9.
Body composition - Children - Energy density - Fat-free mass - fMRI - Neuroimaging
Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (> 1.5 kcal/g) and Low (