Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==Environmental risk assessment
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Improving environmental risk assessments of chemicals: Steps towards evidence-based ecotoxicology
Martin, Olwenn V. ; Adams, Julie ; Beasley, Amy ; Belanger, Scott ; Breton, Roger L. ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Buonsante, Vito A. ; Galay Burgos, Malyka ; Green, John ; Guiney, Patrick D. ; Hall, Tilghman ; Hanson, Mark ; Harris, Meagan J. ; Henry, Tala R. ; Huggett, Duane ; Junghans, Marion ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Maack, Gerd ; Moermond, Caroline T.A. ; Panter, Grace ; Pease, Anita ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Roberts, Mike ; Rudén, Christina ; Schlekat, Christian E. ; Schoeters, Ilse ; Solomon, Keith R. ; Staveley, Jane ; Stubblefield, Bill ; Sumpter, John P. ; Warne, Michael S.J. ; Wentsel, Randall ; Wheeler, James R. ; Wolff, Brian A. ; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Zahner, Holly ; Ågerstrand, Marlene - \ 2019
Environment International 128 (2019). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 210 - 217.
Chemical safety - Decision-making - Ecological risk assessment - Ecotoxicology - Environmental risk assessment - Evidence-based
Use of models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines in European aquaculture : Current situation and future perspectives
Rico, Andreu ; Vighi, Marco ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Horst, Mechteld ter; Macken, Ailbhe ; Lillicrap, Adam ; Falconer, Lynne ; Telfer, Trevor C. - \ 2018
Reviews in Aquaculture (2018). - ISSN 1753-5123
Antimicrobials - Antiparasitics - Aquaculture - Environmental models - Environmental risk assessment

Veterinary Medicinal Products (VMPs) are used in intensive aquaculture production to treat a wide range of bacterial and parasitic infestations. Their release into the environment poses concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological risks to aquatic ecosystems, which need to be evaluated making use of appropriate Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) schemes and models. This study presents an overview of the major aquaculture production systems in Europe, the VMPs most commonly used, and the environmental quality standards and regulatory procedures available for their ERA. Furthermore, it describes the state-of-the-art on the development of environmental models capable of assessing the fate, exposure, ecotoxicological effects and risks of VMPs in aquaculture production systems, and discusses their level of development and implementation within European aquaculture. This study shows that the use of environmental models in regulatory ERA is somewhat limited in many European countries. Major efforts have been dedicated to assess the fate and exposure of antiparasitic compounds in salmonid cage systems, particularly in Scotland, while models and scenarios for assessing dispersal of antimicrobials, in general, and antiparasitic compounds in the Mediterranean as well as in Scandinavian regions are less available. On the other hand, the use of ecological models for assessing the effects and risks of VMPs is almost absent. Recommendations are provided to improve the chemical exposure and effect assessments and the ecological realism of the modelling outcomes, paying special attention to the protection goals set for the regulatory ERA of VMPs in Europe.

Toward sustainable environmental quality : Priority research questions for Europe
Brink, Paul J. Van den; Boxall, Alistair B.A. ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Brooks, Bryan W. ; Rudd, Murray A. ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Spurgeon, David ; Verougstraete, Violaine ; Ajao, Charmaine ; Ankley, Gerald T. ; Apitz, Sabine E. ; Arnold, Kathryn ; Brodin, Tomas ; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel ; Chapman, Jennifer ; Corrales, Jone ; Coutellec, Marie Agnès ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Fick, Jerker ; Ford, Alex T. ; Giménez Papiol, Gemma ; Groh, Ksenia J. ; Hutchinson, Thomas H. ; Kruger, Hank ; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. ; Loutseti, Stefania ; Marshall, Stuart ; Muir, Derek ; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E. ; Paul, Kai B. ; Rico, Andreu ; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael ; Römbke, Jörg ; Rydberg, Tomas ; Segner, Helmut ; Smit, Mathijs ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Vighi, Marco ; Werner, Inge ; Zimmer, Elke I. ; Wensem, Joke van - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2281 - 2295.
Chemical management - Environmental risk assessment - Global megatrends - Key questions exercise - Sustainability

The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals have been established to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals will require a healthy and productive environment. An understanding of the impacts of chemicals which can negatively impact environmental health is therefore essential to the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, current research on and regulation of chemicals in the environment tend to take a simplistic view and do not account for the complexity of the real world, which inhibits the way we manage chemicals. There is therefore an urgent need for a step change in the way we study and communicate the impacts and control of chemicals in the natural environment. To do this requires the major research questions to be identified so that resources are focused on questions that really matter. We present the findings of a horizon-scanning exercise to identify research priorities of the European environmental science community around chemicals in the environment. Using the key questions approach, we identified 22 questions of priority. These questions covered overarching questions about which chemicals we should be most concerned about and where, impacts of global megatrends, protection goals, and sustainability of chemicals; the development and parameterization of assessment and management frameworks; and mechanisms to maximize the impact of the research. The research questions identified provide a first-step in the path forward for the research, regulatory, and business communities to better assess and manage chemicals in the natural environment.

Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi
Cascone, P. ; Radkova, M. ; Arpaia, S. ; Errico, S. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Magarelli, R.A. ; Djilianov, D. ; Guerrieri, E. - \ 2018
Journal of Pest Science 91 (2018)2. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 565 - 574.
Environmental risk assessment - Genetically modified plants - In planta tests - Non-target organisms - Tritrophic interactions - Unintended effects
Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two blight-resistant GM potato clones with the aphid species Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, a non-target arthropod frequently feeding on potato plants and one of the major pests of that crop. One of the potato events used in our experiments caused an increased fertility of the aphids in the first generation, and consequently, a positive effect on the growth of the aphid population was estimated. When a second generation of the aphid was reared on potato leaves of the same GM event, differences in aphid fertility were no longer observed. Behavioural studies conducted in a wind tunnel using the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday indicated that neither of the two tested GM varieties had a significant effect on the attractiveness of potato plants towards the parasitoid. In planta tests proved to be sensitive protocols to detect unintended effects on a non-target arthropod; experimental results, however, indicate that these effects are not expected to be biologically relevant in this tritrophic system, if these GM events become available for commercial use in the future.
Biodiversity analyses for risk assessment of genetically modified potato
Lazebnik, Jenny ; Dicke, Marcel ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2017
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 249 (2017). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 196 - 205.
Biodiversity - Biodiversity index - Environmental risk assessment - Functional groups - Genetically modified crops - Multivariate analysis
An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the impact of site, year, potato genotype, and fungicide management regime on arthropod community composition. Three potato genotypes were compared: the cultivar Désirée, susceptible to the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, a genetically modified cisgenic clone of Désirée resistant to P. infestans and the cultivar Sarpo Mira, also resistant to late blight. We aimed to test several ways to measure biodiversity in the context of risk assessment by using both univariate biodiversity indices and multivariate ordination methods, categorizing the pitfall trap catch by taxonomic or functional category. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson biodiversity indices both showed strong differences between sites, years and potato genotypes, but showed no effects of the fungicide management regime. The effect of genotype was due to cultivar differences between Désirée and Sarpo Mira rather than between the GM-event (A15-31) and its isogenic comparator Désirée. Multivariate permutation analyses and RDA ordination confirmed these findings and also showed interactions between year, site and either genotype or treatment. The added value of the multivariate analysis was that it provided information on the specific arthropod groups or taxa that contributed to community structure. Multivariate analyses are recommended for use as a sensitive method to compare functionally important arthropod groups driving community structure within the framework of environmental risk assessments, or for the process of indicator species selection.
Postregistration monitoring of pesticides is urgently required to protect ecosystems
Vijver, Martina G. ; Hunting, Ellard R. ; Nederstigt, Tom A.P. ; Tamis, Wil L.M. ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Bodegom, Peter M. van - \ 2017
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36 (2017)4. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 860 - 865.
Ecology - Environmental risk assessment - Monitoring - Pesticides - Water

Current admission policies for pesticides follow a controlled experimental tiered risk assessment approach, giving results that are difficult to extrapolate to a real-world situation. Later analyses of compounds such as DDT and neonicotinoid pesticides clearly show that the actual chemical impacts frequently affect many more components of an ecosystem than a priori suggested by risk assessment. Therefore, to manage the actual risks for ecosystems imposed by manufactured compounds, it is proposed that current admission policies for chemicals be enriched by using postregistration monitoring. Such monitoring is essential to identify unexpected direct and indirect impacts on organisms by accounting for multiple propagation routes and exposures. Implementation of postregistration monitoring could build on existing monitoring networks. This approach would tackle the current policy impasse of compartment-based regulations versus exposure-based regulations, and, more importantly, would provide a safety lock for risk assessment across compartments and more likely ensure the protection of our natural environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:860–865.

Effects of a genetically modified potato on a non-target aphid are outweighed by cultivar differences
Lazebnik, Jenny ; Arpaia, Salvatore ; Baldacchino, Ferdinando ; Banzato, Paolo ; Moliterni, Stefania ; Vossen, Jack H. ; Zande, Els M. van de; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2017
Journal of Pest Science 90 (2017)3. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 855 - 864.
Environmental risk assessment - Genetic modification - Greenhouse - Myzus persicae - Non-target testing - Phytophthora infestans - Solanum tuberosum
Insect–plant interactions may be unintentionally affected when introducing genetically modified (GM) crops into an agro-ecosystem. Our aim was to test the non-target effects of a late blight-resistant GM potato on Myzus persicae in greenhouse and climate room experiments and understand how position and number of R gene insertions can affect non-targets in GM events. We also aimed to compare results to baseline differences among three conventional potato varieties varying in resistance to late blight. Aphid development and survival were affected by some GM events in the first generation, though effects disappeared in the second generation. Effects were not dependent on the presence of a marker gene or the insertion of a second resistance gene. Positional effects of gene insertion influenced aphid performance on certain GM events. However, aphid fitness varied considerably more between conventional potato varieties than between Désirée and the GM events. Comparing different GM events to the non-transformed variety is relevant, since unintended effects of insertion can occur. Our protocols can be recommended for in planta risk assessments with aphids. Ecological perspective is gained by selecting several measured endpoints and by comparing the results with a baseline of conventional cultivars.
Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms : The relevance of in planta studies
Arpaia, Salvatore ; Birch, A.N.E. ; Kiss, Jozsef ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Messéan, Antoine ; Nuti, Marco ; Perry, Joe N. ; Sweet, Jeremy B. ; Tebbe, Christoph C. - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 583 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 123 - 132.
Bacillus thuringiensis - Ecosystem services - Environmental risk assessment - Insect resistance - Insect-plant interactions - Non-target organisms - Risk management
In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols. The importance of in planta studies as a strategy to address impacts of GMPs on non-target organisms is demonstrated, to evaluate both effects due to the intended modification in plant phenotype (e.g. expression of Cry proteins) and effects due to unintended modifications in plant phenotype resulting from the transformation process (e.g. due to somaclonal variations or pleiotropic effects). In planta tests are also necessary for GMPs in which newly expressed metabolites cannot easily be studied in vitro. This paper reviews the scientific literature supporting the choice of in planta studies as a fundamental tool in ERA of GMPs in cultivation dossiers; the evidence indicates they can realistically mimic the ecological relationships occurring in their receiving environments and provide important insights into the biology and sustainable management of GMPs.
Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making
Rudén, Christina ; Adams, Julie ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Schlekat, Christian E. ; Wheeler, James R. ; Henry, Tala R. - \ 2017
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13 (2017)4. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 652 - 663.
Data evaluation - Environmental risk assessment - Peer-reviewed literature - Regulatory decision making - Relevance evaluation

Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance aspects also need to be considered by scientists when designing, performing, and reporting ecotoxicological studies to facilitate their use in ERA.

Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Rico, Andreu ; Horst, Mechteld M.S. Ter; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 568 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 498 - 506.
Environmental risk assessment - Macrobrachium rosenbergii - Occupational health hazards - PERPEST - Pesticides - TOXSWA

The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients. The PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks when the first tier assessment indicated a possible risk. Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide (sulphur) were recorded as part of this investigation. The most commonly reported pesticide was sulphur (used by 29% of the interviewed farmers), followed by thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and phenthoate (21%). A large portion of the interviewed farmers described negative health symptoms after pesticide applications, including vomiting (51%), headache (18%) and eye irritation (12%). The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios. The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn production yields.

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