- M. Guardo Di (1)
- W. Guerra (1)
- Ernst J. Woltering (1)
- Frans J.M. Harren (1)
- A.J. Jong de (1)
- V.M. Kapchina (1)
- T. Letschka (1)
- L. Lozano (1)
- Simona M. Cristescu (1)
- Zhenia P. Yordanova (1)
- Elena T. Iakimova (1)
- A. Tadiello (1)
- R. Velasco (1)
- E. Weg Van de (1)
- E.J. Woltering (2)
- E.T. Yakimova (1)
Genome wide association studies and whole transcriptomic survey decipher the fruit texture regulation in apple towards the selection of novel superior accessions
Guardo, M. Di; Tadiello, A. ; Farneti, B. ; Busatto, N. ; Delledonne, M. ; Guerra, W. ; Letschka, T. ; Lozano, L. ; Velasco, R. ; Weg, E. Van de; Bink, M. ; Costa, F. - \ 2019
Acta Horticulturae 1242 (2019). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 441 - 446.
Ethylene - Fruit quality - GWAS - Marker assisted selection - Pedigree based analysis - Texture
Fruit quality is represented by a series of genetically controlled features that change throughout the entire ontogenic life. Among the several quality traits, texture plays a crucial role, impacting both consumers’ appreciation and postharvest performance. In order to decipher its regulation a multidisciplinary approach was employed. Initially, the texture performance was measured with a high resolution phenotyping device, represented by a texture analyzer equipped with an acoustic device. In the first attempt to dissect the fruit texture genetic control, two QTL mapping strategies were used. The first approach employed six bi-parental families linked by a common pedigree scheme, known as pedigree based analysis. The joint analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data set through a Bayesian statistics identified a series of genomic regions related to both mechanical and acoustic signatures. These regions were further validated with a genome wide association study approach, which considered a much larger phenotypic and genotypic variation. To complement the genetic information, a whole transcriptome analysis was also carried out. To this end, two microarray platforms were designed and used to unravel the functional machinery ongoing during the fruit development and ripening phases, especially with regards to the plant hormone ethylene. In this study, the role of this hormone was dissected applying 1-MCP, a molecule competing with ethylene at receptor level. The combination of these resources provides a valuable source of information, essential to step forward in the comprehension of the genetic and physiological regulation of the fruit texture in apple. This knowledge would enable, in a close future, a more accurate and precise selection of the most favourable and valuable new apple accessions distinguished by a superior fruit quality.
Cell death signaling and morphology in chemical-treated tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells
Iakimova, Elena T. ; Yordanova, Zhenia P. ; Cristescu, Simona M. ; Harren, Frans J.M. ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2019
Environmental and Experimental Botany 164 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 157 - 169.
Cell death - Ethylene - Lipid signaling - Reactive oxygen species - Tobacco BY-2 cells
This study addressed the role of lipid-derived factors together with ethylene and ROS in programmed cell death (PCD) signaling in tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The cells were exposed to the chemical stress agents mastoparan (MP) and ethanol (EtOH). MP is an activator of membrane-associated heterotrimeric G-proteins and downstream phospholipids-dependent processes; EtOH is suggested to affect lipid-associated pathways. The effects of MP and EtOH were compared to cell death in response to CdSO4. All applied chemicals appeared potent cell death inducers. Ethylene and lipid signaling were found instrumental in chemical-induced cell death, presumably in conjunction with ROS. Cadmium and MP induced cell death of apoptotic-like phenotype. Lower EtOH concentrations (1–2%) induced vacuolar cell death associated with autophagy-associated formation of lysosome-like acidic organelles in part of the cells; in other cells in the same suspension apoptotic-like features were observed. At higher EtOH concentration (3%) the dead cells expressed exclusively apoptotic-like morphology. The results suggest that phospholipase D- and phospholipase C-derived phosphatidic acid triggers ROS generation that is responsible for the observed apoptotic-like PCD. Vacuolar cell death in EtOH-treated cells appeared dependent on phospholipase C - phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related pathway. The obtained results indicate that depending on the inducer and stress severity, similar or distinct regulatory pathways can be activated, and the signals may interact in the transmission of the cell death message.
Woltering, E.J. - \ 2016
In: Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780123948076 - p. 292 - 299.
Abscission - ACC - Ethylene - Ethylene sensitivity - Flower petals - Interorgan signaling - Ion leakage - Membrane integrity - Pollination - Programmed cell death - Proteases - Senescence - Vase life
Current knowledge indicates that flower petal senescence is a form of programmed cell death called vacuolar cell death. In this process the cell first degrades most of the cytoplasm and organelles using an array of degradative enzymes present in the vacuole for reuse of the nutrients. The final step in this process is disruption of the vacuolar membrane by which the hydrolytic enzymes are released to 'finish' what is left of the cell. In ethylene-sensitive flowers, ethylene triggers the cell death process, and flower life can be greatly extended by blocking production or perception of ethylene. This has led to development of very effective chemical treatments with broad application and molecular genetic strategies of potential commercial value. In ethylene-insensitive flowers, the senescence program may be similar to that of ethylene-induced senescence. However, the hormonal or developmental events that trigger the cell death processes in ethylene-insensitive species have not been identified. Many genes and transcriptional regulators with putative roles in senescence have been identified using transcriptomic approaches. Testing their functions in transgenic plants is necessary to design new concepts and treatments for prolonging the life of flowers.
A critical role for ethylene in hydrogen peroxide release during programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells
Jong, A.J. de; Yakimova, E.T. ; Kapchina, V.M. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2002
Planta 214 (2002)4. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 537 - 545.
Apoptosis - Ethylene - Tomato - Hydrogen peroxide - Respiration, animal
Camptothecin, a topo isomerase-I inhibitor used in cancer therapy, induces apoptosis in animal cells. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells, camptothecin induces cell death that is accompanied by the characteristic nuclear morphological changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear and DNA fragmentation that are commonly associated with apoptosis in animal systems. These effects of camptothecin can effectively be blocked by inhibitors of animal caspases, indicating that, in tomato suspension cells, camptothecin induces a form of programmed cell death (PCD) with similarities to animal apoptosis (A.J. De Jong et al. (2000) Planta 211:656-662). Camptothecin-induced cell death was employed to study processes involved in plant PCD. Camptothecin induced a transient increase in H2O2 production starting within 2 h of application. Both camptothecin-induced cell death and the release of H2O2 were effectively blocked by application of the calcium-channel blocker lanthanum chloride, the caspase-specific inhibitor Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium, indicating that camptothecin exerts its effect on cell death through a calcium- and caspase-dependent stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, we show that ethylene is an essential factor in camptothecin-induced PCD. Inhibition of either ethylene synthesis or ethylene perception by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine or silver thiosulphate, respectively, blocked camptothecin-induced H2O2 production and PCD. Although, in itself, insufficient to trigger H2O2 production and cell death, exogenous ethylene greatly stimulated camptothecin-induced H2O2 production and cell death. These results show that ethylene is a potentiator of the camptothecin-induced oxidative burst and subsequent PCD in tomato cells. The possible mechanisms by which ethylene stimulates cell death are discussed.