Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Forest plantations in Southwestern Europe : A comparative trend analysis on investment returns, markets and policies
Pra, Alex ; Masiero, Mauro ; Barreiro, Susana ; Tomé, Margarida ; Martinez De Arano, Inazio ; Orradre, Gabriel ; Onaindia, Aitor ; Brotto, Lucio ; Pettenella, Davide - \ 2019
Forest Policy and Economics 109 (2019). - ISSN 1389-9341
Europe - Financial analysis - Forest plantations - Investment returns - Market trends - Timber production

This paper represents the first analysis of forest plantation investments on a comparative perspective in the context of Southwestern Europe. We estimated and compared potential investment returns at aggregate level for some of the most important productive forest plantation species in the region, including hybrid poplar in northern Italy, in Castile and León (Spain) and in Navarre (Spain), eucalyptus and maritime pine in Portugal, and radiata pine in the Basque Country (Spain). We carried out a financial analysis before-taxes, using typical capital budgeting indicators. Indicators were calculated according to a baseline scenario as well as in alternative scenarios, analyzing how the main policy and market factors influence returns. We also carried out a trend analysis to provide means for comparing the evolution of expected and actual returns in recent years. Overall, our results indicate that in Southwestern Europe there are some opportunities for reasonably attractive investment returns (IRR > 5%) from forest plantations mainly for current landowners and forest products industry, and only in some cases potentially interesting also for financial investors. Nevertheless, there are significant differences among species and contexts as well as structural limitations in the region – i.e. related to timber market, biotic and abiotic risks and forest holdings structure – that new investors would have to take into consideration. More in specific, hybrid poplar plantations in Italy and Spain are estimated to provide on average the potentially highest returns, but the large range of variability and the high land and opportunity costs are unlikely to make them an attractive investment for non-landowners. Eucalyptus plantations in Portugal are estimated to be the only investment where non-landowners could expect to get relatively interesting and stable returns, although a recent law reform in the country could limit new investments. Maritime pine and radiata pine plantations in Portugal and Spain present lower returns, suffering the situation of depressed stumpage prices after the 2008 economic crisis, which strongly affected the sawmilling sector.

SHARP-Indicators Database towards a public database for environmental sustainability
Mertens, Elly ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah van; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
Data in Brief 27 (2019). - ISSN 2352-3409
Diet - Environment - Europe - Food - Greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - Land use (LU) - Life cycle analyses (LCA)

To initiate the achievement of an European-wide applicable public database for indicators of environmental sustainability of the diet, we developed the SHARP Indicators Database (SHARP-ID). A comprehensive description of the development of the SHARP-ID is provided in this article. In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten. Extrapolations based on similarities in type of food, production system and ingredient composition were made to obtain estimates of GHGE and LU per kg of food as eaten for 944 food items coded with a unique FoodEx2-code of EFSA and consumed in four European countries, i.e. Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy and France. This LCA-food-item database can be linked to food intake data collected at the individual level in order to calculate the environmental impact of individual's diets. The application of this database to European survey data is described in an original research article entitled “Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries” (Mertens et al., 2019).

Dermanysuss gallinae attacks humans. Mind the gap!
Cafiero, Maria Assunta ; Barlaam, Alessandra ; Camarda, Antonio ; Radeski, Miroslav ; Mul, Monique ; Sparagano, Olivier ; Giangaspero, Annunziata - \ 2019
Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S22 - S34.
dermatitis - diagnosis - Europe - future needs - humans - management

Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite primarily known as a pest of domestic and wild birds. It occasionally feeds on a range of mammals, and, more importantly, is of growing concern in human medicine. This review highlights mite attacks on people working with poultry, and updates the increasing incidence of dermanyssosis in urban environments in Europe. Although several cases of dermanyssosis have been documented, there are a number of reasons why diagnosis of D. gallinae infestations in humans is likely to be underestimated. Firstly, medical specialists are not well aware of D. gallinae infestations in humans. There is also a lack of collaboration with specialists from other disciplines. The problem is compounded by misdiagnoses and by the lack of diagnostic tools. We review the literature on human dermanyssosis cases in Europe, and also provide information on the epidemiology, clinical, histo-pathological and immunological aspects of dermanyssosis. We stress the need for improved recognition of this challenging infestation in humans, and provide straightforward recommendations for health practitioners, starting with collection of the correct anamnestic information and including appropriate management methods for case recognition and resolution. Finally, we indicate the most urgent areas to be addressed by future research. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSDermanyssus gallinae is of growing concern in human medicine. Most physicians are not well aware of dermanyssosis in humans. Bio-epidemiological and clinical aspects of this ectoparasitosis are highlighted. Practical key actions for diagnosis and correct management of infestation in humans are provided.

Parasite control in organic cattle farming: Management and farmers' perspectives from six European countries
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao ; Moakes, Simon ; Thüer, Susann ; Grovermann, Christian ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Verkaik, Jan ; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela ; Höglund, Johan ; Petkevičius, Saulius ; Thamsborg, Stig ; Werne, Steffen - \ 2019
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 18 (2019). - ISSN 2405-9390
Anthelmintic use - Cattle - Europe - Fasciola hepatica - Gastrointestinal nematodes - Organic farming

Organic ruminant production is expanding in the EU, but parasite management remains a constant challenge. Mandatory outdoor access for all age groups can increase exposure to pasture borne parasites, whilst restrictions in the prophylactic use of anthelmintics can limit parasite control. The scientific community has been working to deliver effective parasite control strategies and alternative approaches in order to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR). However, the current parasite control practices and overall awareness with regards to AR and alternative approaches on farms are largely unknown and may be causing a knowledge gap between the scientific and farming communities. Therefore, a structured survey was conducted in six European countries (Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Lithuania, Sweden) to provide basic data on practices, management and farmers' perspectives for grazing and parasite control (gastrointestinal worms and liver flukes) on organic cattle farms. Overall, 375 surveys were collected (282 dairy and 93 beef farms) in 2015–2016, and analysed descriptively. Additionally, surveys from the 228 dairy farms were assessed using a double-hurdle adoption model to identify the factors involved in the decision to drench against gastrointestinal parasites. Generally, there are prominent differences between countries, with monitoring methods differing especially, which has important implications in terms of knowledge transfer. For example, media warning was the most common method in DE, while antibody testing in bulk tank milk was the common method in NL. In other countries, clinical signs (diarrhoea, hair coat quality, and reduced weight or yield) and liver condemnation data were used frequently. In general, organic farmers from the six participating countries indicated that they would accept alternative approaches despite greater cost and labour. The likelihood of drenching were higher on farms with smaller farm areas, higher number of young stock and total livestock units and farms where faecal egg counts were used to monitor the parasites. In conclusion, it was evident that grazing and parasite management varied between the countries even though they operate under the same basic principles. Parasite management strategies must therefore be country specific and disseminated with appropriate methods.

SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
Multi-host disease management: The why and the how to include wildlife
Portier, Julien ; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre ; Hutchings, Mike R. ; Monchâtre-Leroy, Elodie ; Richomme, Céline ; Larrat, Sylvain ; Poel, Wim H.M. Van Der; Dominguez, Morgane ; Linden, Annick ; Santos, Patricia Tavares ; Warns-Petit, Eva ; Chollet, Jean Yves ; Cavalerie, Lisa ; Grandmontagne, Claude ; Boadella, Mariana ; Bonbon, Etienne ; Artois, Marc - \ 2019
BMC Veterinary Research 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Coordination - Decision-making framework - Emerging infectious diseases - Europe - Integrated management - Policy making - Proportionate management - Risk assessment - Wildlife - Zoonosis

In recent years, outbreaks caused by multi-host pathogens (MHP) have posed a serious challenge to public and animal health authorities. The frequent implication of wildlife in such disease systems and a lack of guidelines for mitigating these diseases within wild animal populations partially explain why the outbreaks are particularly challenging. To face these challenges, the French Ministry of Agriculture launched a multi-disciplinary group of experts that set out to discuss the main wildlife specific concepts in the management of MHP disease outbreaks and how to integrate wildlife in the disease management process. This position paper structures the primary specific concepts of wildlife disease management, as identified by the working group. It is designed to lay out these concepts for a wide audience of public and/or animal health officers who are not necessarily familiar with wildlife diseases. The group's discussions generated a possible roadmap for the management of MHP diseases. This roadmap is presented as a cycle for which the main successive step are: step 1-descriptive studies and monitoring; step 2-risk assessment; step 3-management goals; step 4-management actions and step 5-assessment of the management plan. In order to help choose the most adapted management actions for all involved epidemiological units, we integrated a decision-making framework (presented as a spreadsheet). This tool and the corresponding guidelines for disease management are designed to be used by public and health authorities when facing MHP disease outbreaks. These proposals are meant as an initial step towards a harmonized transboundary outbreak response framework that integrates current scientific understanding adapted to practical intervention.

Alpha diversity of vascular plants in European forests
Večeřa, Martin ; Divíšek, Jan ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Knollová, Ilona ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Campos, Juan Antonio ; Čarni, Andraž ; Crespo Jiménez, Guillermo ; Ćuk, Mirjana ; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fernández-González, Federico ; Gégout, Jean Claude ; Indreica, Adrian ; Jandt, Ute ; Jansen, Florian ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Řezníčková, Marcela ; Rodwell, John S. ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Šilc, Urban ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Chytrý, Milan - \ 2019
Journal of Biogeography 46 (2019)9. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 1919 - 1935.
diversity - Europe - European Vegetation Archive (EVA) - forest vegetation - plant community - predictive modelling - Random Forests - species-richness patterns - vascular plants - vegetation-plot database

Aim: The former continental-scale studies modelled coarse-grained plant species-richness patterns (gamma diversity). Here we aim to refine this information for European forests by (a) modelling the number of vascular plant species that co-occur in local communities (alpha diversity) within spatial units of 400 m2; and (b) assessing the factors likely determining the observed spatial patterns in alpha diversity. Location: Europe roughly within 12°W–30°E and 35–60°N. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: The numbers of co-occurring vascular plant species were counted in 73,134 georeferenced vegetation plots. Each plot was classified by an expert system into deciduous broadleaf, coniferous or sclerophyllous forest. Random Forest models were used to map and explain spatial patterns in alpha diversity for each forest type separately using 19 environmental, land-use and historical variables. Results: Our models explained from 51.0% to 70.9% of the variation in forest alpha diversity. The modelled alpha-diversity pattern was dominated by a marked gradient from species-poor north-western to species-rich south-eastern Europe. The most prominent richness hotspots were identified in the Calcareous Alps and adjacent north-western Dinarides, the Carpathian foothills in Romania and the Western Carpathians in Slovakia. Energy-related factors, bedrock types and terrain ruggedness were identified as the main variables underlying the observed richness patterns. Alpha diversity increases especially with temperature seasonality in deciduous broadleaf forests, on limestone bedrock in coniferous forests and in areas with low annual actual evapotranspiration in sclerophyllous forests. Main conclusions: We provide the first predictive maps and analyses of environmental factors driving the alpha diversity of vascular plants across European forests. Such information is important for the general understanding of European biodiversity. This study also demonstrates a high potential of vegetation-plot databases as sources for robust estimation of the number of vascular plant species that co-occur at fine spatial grains across large areas.

Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe

The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.

Use of organic inputs by arable farmers in six agro-ecological zones across Europe : Drivers and barriers
Hijbeek, R. ; Pronk, A.A. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Verhagen, A. ; Ruysschaert, G. ; Bijttebier, J. ; Zavattaro, L. ; Bechini, L. ; Schlatter, N. ; Berge, H.F.M. ten - \ 2019
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 275 (2019). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 42 - 53.
Barriers - Compost - Drivers - Europe - Manure - Straw

Soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural soils builds up via – among others - the use of organic inputs such as straw, compost, farmyard manure or the cultivation of green manures or cover crops. SOM has benefits for long-term soil fertility and can provide ecosystem services. Farmer behaviour is however known to be motivated by a larger number of factors. Using the theory of planned behaviour, we aimed to disentangle these factors. We addressed the following research question: What are currently the main drivers and barriers for arable farmers in Europe to use organic inputs? Our study focuses on six agro-ecological zones in four European countries (Austria, Flanders [Belgium], Italy and the Netherlands) and four practices (straw incorporation, green manure or cover crops, compost and farmyard manure). In a first step, relevant factors were identified for each practice with farmers using 5 to ten semi-structured interviews per agro-ecological zone. In a second step, the relevance of these factors was quantified and they were classified as either drivers or barriers in a large scale farm survey with 1263 farmers. In the semi-structured interviews, 110 factors that influenced farmer decisions to use an organic input were identified. In the larger farm survey, 60% of the factors included were evaluated as drivers, while 40% were evaluated as barriers for the use of organic inputs. Major drivers to use organic inputs were related to the perceived effects on soil quality (such as improved soil structure or reduced erosion) and the positive influence from social referents (such as fellow farmers or agricultural advisors). Major barriers to use organic inputs were financial (increased costs or foregone income) and perceived effects on crop protection (such as increased weeds, pests and diseases, or increased pesticide use). Our study shows that motivating farmers to use organic inputs requires specific guidance on how to adapt cultivation practices to reduce weeds, pests and diseases for specific soil types, weather conditions, and crops. In addition, more research is needed on the long-term financial consequences of using organic inputs.

Influence of changes in socioeconomic and climatic conditions on future heat-related health challenges in Europe
Rohat, Guillaume ; Flacke, Johannes ; Dosio, Alessandro ; Pedde, Simona ; Dao, Hy ; Maarseveen, Martin van - \ 2019
Global and Planetary Change 172 (2019). - ISSN 0921-8181 - p. 45 - 59.
Climate Change - Europe - Health risk - Heat stress - Shared Socioeconomic Pathways - Vulnerability

The majority of assessments of future heat-related health risk are based on projections of heat hazards superimposed solely on current socioeconomic conditions, thus neglecting the potential contribution of drivers of heat stress risk other than climate change. Partly to address this drawback, the climate change research community has developed a new scenario framework, made up of distinct sets of climate and socioeconomic scenarios. The few assessments of future heat-related health risk that have employed this new framework have focused on changes in population exposure but have often not accounted for future populations' vulnerability. In this paper, we combine European Shared Socioeconomic Pathways with Representative Concentration Pathways to provide spatially explicit European projections of heat-related health risk that account for multiple changes in both socioeconomic and climatic conditions. In doing so, we also address the challenge of accounting for projections of determinants of vulnerability under varying levels of socioeconomic development. Results reveal that the proportion of the European population at very high risk of heat stress will show a steady increase – from 0.4% currently to 20.3%, 32.6%, or 48.4% in 2050 depending on the scenario combination – unless substantial political changes occur rapidly and steadily shift the current socioeconomic development pathway towards sustainability. Ambitious mitigation policies associated with rapid technological progress to enhance human capital could also moderate future heat-related health challenges. Such challenges are unevenly spread across Europe, with the Mediterranean region and Scandinavia being respectively the most and the least impacted regions. Future heat-related health challenges are substantially influenced by varying levels of socioeconomic development, primarily through changes in vulnerability – changes in population exposure being only of secondary importance. The former may even have a more significant impact on future heat stress risk than climate change, particularly in the British Isles and in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, there is an undeniable necessity to consider the future state of vulnerability – and its uncertainties under varying socioeconomic scenarios – when assessing future heat-related health challenges and designing health adaptation strategies.

Homogenization of daily temperature series in the European Climate Assessment & Dataset
Squintu, Antonello A. ; Schrier, Gerard van der; Brugnara, Yuri ; Klein Tank, Albert - \ 2019
International Journal of Climatology 39 (2019)3. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 1243 - 1261.
Europe - homogenization - quantile matching - temperature - trends

The daily maximum and minimum temperature series of the European Climate Assessment & Dataset are homogenized using the quantile matching approach. As the dataset is large and the detail of metadata is generally missing, an automated method locates breaks in the series based on a comparison with surrounding series and applies adjustments which are estimated using homogeneous segments of surrounding series as reference. A total of 6,500 series have been processed and after removing duplicates and short series, about 2,100 series have been adjusted. Finally, the effect of the homogenization of daily maximum and minimum temperature on trend estimation is shown to produce a much more spatially homogeneous and then plausible picture.

New European socio-economic scenarios for climate change research : operationalising concepts to extend the shared socio-economic pathways
Kok, Kasper ; Pedde, Simona ; Gramberger, Marc ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Holman, Ian P. - \ 2019
Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 643 - 654.
Europe - Multi-scale - Narratives - Shared socio-economic pathways - Socio-economic scenario

Scenarios have been recognised as a useful tool for planning, which have resulted in a strong increase in the number of (multi-scale) scenarios in climate change research. This paper addresses the need for methodological progress and testing of conceptual considerations, by extending the global shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). We present a set of four European SSPs until 2100 and a novel method to develop qualitative stories for Europe equivalent to the global SSPs starting from an existing set of European scenarios. Similar to the global SSPs, the set includes a sustainable future with global cooperation and less intensive lifestyles (We are the World; Eur-SSP1); a future in which countries struggle to maintain living standards in a high-carbon intensive Europe (Icarus; Eur-SSP3); a world in which power becomes concentrated in a small elite and where Europe becomes an important player (Riders on the Storm; Eur-SSP4); and one where a lack of environmental concern leads to the over-exploitation of fossil fuel resources addressed by technological solutions (Fossil-fuelled Development; Eur-SSP5). We conclude that the global SSPs are a good starting point for developing equivalent continental scale scenarios that, in turn, can serve multiple purposes. There are, however, methodological challenges related to the choice for equivalence and the exact methods by which scenarios are constructed that need to be tested further.

Improving WOFOST model to simulate winter wheat phenology in Europe : Evaluation and effects on yield
Ceglar, A. ; Wijngaart, R. van der; Wit, A. de; Lecerf, R. ; Boogaard, H. ; Seguini, L. ; Berg, M. van den; Toreti, A. ; Zampieri, M. ; Fumagalli, D. ; Baruth, B. - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 168 - 180.
Calibration - Crop yield forecasting - Europe - Phenology - Triticum aestivum - WOFOST

This study describes and evaluates improvements to the MARS crop yield forecasting system (MCYFS) for winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Europe, based on the WOFOST crop simulation model, by introducing autumn sowing dates, realistic soil moisture initialization, adding vernalization requirements and photoperiodicity, and phenology calibration. Dataset of phenological observations complemented with regional cropping calendars across Europe is used. The calibration of thermal requirements for anthesis and maturity is done by pooling all available observations within European agro-environmental zones and minimizing an objective function that combines the differences between observed and simulated anthesis, maturity and harvest dates. Calibrated phenology results in substantial improvement in simulated dates of anthesis with respect to the original MCYFS simulations. The combined improvements to the system result in a physically more plausible spatial distribution of crop model indicators across Europe. Crop yield indicators point to better agreement with recorded national winter wheat yields with respect to the original MCYFS simulations, most pronounced in central, eastern and southern Europe. However, model skill remains low in large parts of western Europe, which may possibly be attributed to the impacts of wet conditions.

Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries
Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; D’Addezio, Laura ; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Favret, Sandra ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, Ellen ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2019
European Journal of Nutrition 58 (2019)4. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 19.
Diet - Dietary guidelines - Europe - Foods - Nutrients - SUSFANS
Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. Results: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8–19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4–3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288–2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268–285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.
Detection and characterization of distinct alphacoronaviruses in five different bat species in Denmark
Lazov, Christina M. ; Chriél, Mariann ; Baagøe, Hans J. ; Fjederholt, Esben ; Deng, Yu ; Kooi, Engbert A. ; Belsham, Graham J. ; Bøtner, Anette ; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun - \ 2018
Viruses 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 1999-4915
Coronavirus - Europe - Host restriction - Nucleotide sequencing - Phylogenetic analysis - Vespertilionidae

Bat populations harbour a multitude of viruses; some of these are pathogenic or potentially pathogenic in other animals or humans. Therefore, it is important to monitor the populations and characterize these viruses. In this study, the presence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in different species of Danish bats was investigated using active surveillance at different geographical locations in Denmark. Faecal samples were screened for the presence of CoVs using pan-CoV real-time RT-PCR assays. The amplicons, obtained from five different species of bats, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a species-specific clustering with the samples from Myotis daubentonii, showing a close resemblance to coronavirus sequences obtained from the same species of bat in Germany and the United Kingdom. Our results show, for the first time, that multiple, distinct alphacoronaviruses are present in the Danish bat populations.

Prevalence of tick-borne viruses in Ixodes ricinus assessed by high-throughput real-time PCR
Gondard, Mathilde ; Michelet, Lorraine ; Nisavanh, Athinna ; Devillers, Elodie ; Delannoy, Sabine ; Fach, Patrick ; Aspan, Anna ; Ullman, Karin ; Chirico, Jan ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Wal, Fimme Jan van der; Koeijer, Aline de; Solt-Smits, Conny van; Jahfari, Seta ; Sprong, Hein ; Mansfield, Karen L. ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Klitgaard, Kirstine ; Bødker, Rene ; Moutailler, Sara - \ 2018
Pathogens and Disease 76 (2018)8. - ISSN 2049-632X
Europe - microfluidic analysis - molecular epidemiology - surveillance - tick borne viruses

Ticks are one of the principal arthropod vectors of human and animal infectious diseases. Whereas the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in Europe is well studied, there is less information available on the prevalence of the other tick-borne viruses (TBVs) existing worldwide. The aim of this study was to improve the epidemiological survey tools of TBVs by the development of an efficient high-throughput test to screen a wide range of viruses in ticks. In this study, we developed a new high-throughput virus-detection assay based on parallel real-time PCRs on a microfluidic system, and used it to perform a large scale epidemiological survey screening for the presence of 21 TBVs in 18 135 nymphs of Ixodes ricinus collected from five European countries. This extensive investigation has (i) evaluated the prevalence of four viruses present in the collected ticks, (ii) allowed the identification of viruses in regions where they were previously undetected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the capabilities of this new screening method that allows the detection of numerous TBVs in a large number of ticks. This tool represents a powerful and rapid system for TBVs surveillance in Europe and could be easily customized to assess viral emergence.

Widespread and Accelerated Decrease of Observed Mean and Extreme Snow Depth Over Europe
Fontrodona Bach, A. ; Schrier, G. van der; Melsen, L.A. ; Klein Tank, A.M.G. ; Teuling, A.J. - \ 2018
Geophysical Research Letters 45 (2018)22. - ISSN 0094-8276 - 8 p.
acceleration - decreasing - Europe - snow depth - widespread

Accumulated snow amounts are a key climate change indicator. It combines the competing effects of climate change-driven changes in precipitation and stronger snowmelt related to increasing temperatures. Here we provide observational evidence from a pan-European in situ data set that mean snow depth generally decreases stronger than extreme snow depth. Widespread decreases in maximum and mean snow depth were found over Europe, except in the coldest climates, with an average decrease of −12.2%/decade for mean snow depth and −11.4%/decade for maximum snow depth since 1951. These trends accelerated after the 1980s. This has strong implications for the availability of freshwater in spring, while extremes in snow depth, usually very disruptive to society, are decreasing at a slower pace.

Integrated Forest Governance in Europe : An introduction to the special issue on forest policy integration and integrated forest management
Sotirov, Metodi ; Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 960 - 967.
Biodiversity - Europe - Forests - Governance - Integrated forest management - Policy change - Policy integration - Resilience - Sustainable forest management
In this introduction to the Special Issue, we set out the key definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions of integrated forest governance. By so doing, we identify and account for the interplay between forest policy integration and integrated forest management as two constituting elements of integrated forest governance. Second, we summarize the main findings reported in the regular papers, and link them to the outlined definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions. This introduction further takes stock and classifies the main paradoxes of, barriers to, and drivers of forest policy integration and integrated forest management. It then structures the main empirical findings and conclusions along the key analytical dimensions and links them to the state of the art knowledge. Finally, we draw policy relevant conclusions and outline suggestions for future research.
Assessing impacts of soil management measures on ecosystem services
Schwilch, Gudrun ; Lemann, Tatenda ; Berglund, Örjan ; Camarotto, Carlo ; Cerdà, Artemi ; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N. ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Krzeminska, Dominika ; Marañón, Teodoro ; Rietra, René ; Siebielec, Grzegorz ; Thorsson, Johann ; Tibbett, Mark ; Valente, Sandra ; Delden, Hedwig van; Akker, Jan van den; Verzandvoort, Simone ; Vrînceanu, Nicoleta Olimpia ; Zoumides, Christos ; Hessel, Rudi - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ecosystem services - Europe - Land management - Soil - Soil remediation

Only a few studies have quantified and measured ecosystem services (ES) specifically related to soil. To address this gap, we have developed and applied a methodology to assess changes in ecosystem services, based on measured or estimated soil property changes that were stimulated by soil management measures (e.g., mulching, terracing, no-till). We applied the ES assessment methodology in 16 case study sites across Europe representing a high diversity of soil threats and land use systems. Various prevention and remediation measures were trialled, and the changes in manageable soil and other natural capital properties were measured and quantified. An Excel tool facilitated data collection, calculation of changes in ecosystem services, and visualization of measured short-term changes and estimated long-term changes at plot level and for the wider area. With this methodology, we were able to successfully collect and compare data on the impact of land management on 15 different ecosystem services from 26 different measures. Overall, the results are positive in terms of the impacts of the trialled measures on ecosystem services, with 18 out of 26 measures having no decrease in any service at the plot level. Although methodological challenges remain, the ES assessment was shown to be a comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of the trialled measures, and also served as an input to a stakeholder valuation of ecosystem services at local and sub-national levels.

Towards a coordination of European activities to diagnose and manage insect diseases in production facilities
Eilenberg, J. ; Oers, M.M. van; Jensen, A.B. ; Lecocq, A. ; Maciel-Vergara, G. ; Santacoloma, L.P.A. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Hesketh, H. - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)3. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 157 - 166.
Diagnostic service - Europe - Insect pathogen - Insect pathogen management - Insect production

The rapid increase in insect production for food and feed both in Europe and elsewhere in the world has led to a need for a coordinated action to assist producers in the diagnosis and management of insect diseases in production stock. Diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other insect pathogens can be detrimental for reared insects and may cause significant economic loss to producers. Here, we suggest how academia, commercial companies and other insect producers can jointly develop best practice for diagnosing insect diseases early and thereby manage such diseases efficiently. First, we analyse different ways of transmission of insect diseases in closed and semi-closed production facilities. Thereafter we describe four recent cases where companies have requested advice about insect pathogens in their insect stock namely: with giant mealworm Zophobas morio, yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor, house cricket Acheta domesticus, and with lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus. Our experience dealing with these cases gave us insight to suggest how we should coordinate European activities to establish a service to diagnose and provide advice, and how different European laboratories specialised in insect pathology should collaborate. An important issue will be to educate a new generation of insect pathologists, who with a combination of classical insect pathology methods and the most modern tools can become professionals in diagnosing and managing the various types of insect pathogens.

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