Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Does the face show what the mind tells? A comparison between dynamic emotions obtained from facial expressions and Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)
    Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Visalli, Michel ; Wijk, Rene de; Jager, Gerry - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 85 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Explicit measures - FaceReader™ (FR) - Facial expressions - Implicit measures - Multiple bite assessment - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)

    Measuring food-evoked emotions dynamically during consumption can be done using explicit self-report methods such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE), and implicit methods such as recording facial expressions. It is not known whether or how dynamic explicit and implicit emotion measures correspond. This study investigated how explicit self-reported food-evoked emotions evaluated with TDE are related to implicit food-evoked emotions determined from facial expressions. Fifty-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration, using multiple bite assessment employing TDE for the first, third and fifth bite of consumption. Consumers were video recorded during each bite of consumption and facial expressions were analysed using FaceReader™. Happy, interested, disgusted and bored were similar descriptors measured explicitly and implicitly. Little overlap was observed regarding the type of emotion characterization by FaceReader™ and TDE. Products were mainly discriminated along the valence dimension (positive – negative), and directly reflected product discrimination in terms of liking. FaceReader™ further differentiated the least liked products from each other on arousal and negative facial expressions. Our results indicated little dynamics in food-evoked emotions within and between bites. Facial expressions seemed more dynamic within bites, while explicit food-evoked emotion responses seemed more dynamic between bites. We conclude that FaceReader™ intensities of emotions and dominance durations observed in TDE are not directly comparable and show little overlap. Moreover, food-evoked emotion responses were fairly stable from first to last bite and only very limited changes were observed using implicit and explicit emotions measures.

    Food perception and emotion measured over time in-lab and in-home
    Wijk, R.A. De; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, I. ; Visalli, M. ; Zandstra, Liesbeth - \ 2019
    Eating context - Facial expressions - Heart rate - Repeated sensory tests
    Background: Real-life human eating behaviour does not take place in a vacuum, rather it happens in context. The context in which consumers eat their foods influences the acceptance of the consumed foods. Consequently, consumers’ hedonic and sensory ratings elicited in a natural consumption context will differ from those elicited under controlled sensory laboratory conditions. Moreover, foods are rarely consumed on one single occasion but are typically consumed repeatedly and ratings may change over repeated consumptions as well. Often, consumer acceptance is tested explicitly, for example with liking ratings, especially when the testing is done outside the laboratory. Implicit tests such as facial expressions and physiological measurements of the autonomic nervous system can provide additional information on consumer acceptance. As a result of technological advantages, such tests are no longer limited to the laboratory but can also be used in natural consumption contexts. Method: Eighteen healthy Dutch consumers (18–65 years of age) tested four test foods plus a warm-up sample ten times on consecutive weekdays and on similar hours using their own laptop and webcam. Test locations alternated between the sensory laboratory and the participant's own home. Explicit measures included liking scores and scores on ten sensory taste/flavour/texture attributes, and implicit measures included facial expressions, heart rate and consumption duration using Face Reader TM . This study was the first to validate the Face Reader TM for usage at home. Results: The liking scores and sensory profiles varied between test foods (p < 0.05), but not between test locations and only some specific sensory attributes showed systematic variation over repeated consumption. In contrast, implicit measures showed systematic effects of test foods, test locations, and repeated consumptions (p < 0.05). Compared to consumption in the laboratory, consumption at home was faster, triggered higher heart rates, and triggered more intense facial expressions of happiness, contempt, disgust and boredom. Conclusions: Implicit tests were more sensitive to effects of test location and repeated consumption than explicit tests. Additional research is required to investigate the relevance of these measures to long term consumer acceptance of food products.
    Food perception and emotion measured over time in-lab and in-home
    Wijk, R.A. De; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, I. ; Visalli, M. ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 170 - 178.
    Eating context - Facial expressions - Heart rate - Repeated sensory tests
    Background: Real-life human eating behaviour does not take place in a vacuum, rather it happens in context. The context in which consumers eat their foods influences the acceptance of the consumed foods. Consequently, consumers’ hedonic and sensory ratings elicited in a natural consumption context will differ from those elicited under controlled sensory laboratory conditions. Moreover, foods are rarely consumed on one single occasion but are typically consumed repeatedly and ratings may change over repeated consumptions as well. Often, consumer acceptance is tested explicitly, for example with liking ratings, especially when the testing is done outside the laboratory. Implicit tests such as facial expressions and physiological measurements of the autonomic nervous system can provide additional information on consumer acceptance. As a result of technological advantages, such tests are no longer limited to the laboratory but can also be used in natural consumption contexts. Method: Eighteen healthy Dutch consumers (18–65 years of age) tested four test foods plus a warm-up sample ten times on consecutive weekdays and on similar hours using their own laptop and webcam. Test locations alternated between the sensory laboratory and the participant's own home. Explicit measures included liking scores and scores on ten sensory taste/flavour/texture attributes, and implicit measures included facial expressions, heart rate and consumption duration using Face Reader TM . This study was the first to validate the Face Reader TM for usage at home. Results: The liking scores and sensory profiles varied between test foods (p < 0.05), but not between test locations and only some specific sensory attributes showed systematic variation over repeated consumption. In contrast, implicit measures showed systematic effects of test foods, test locations, and repeated consumptions (p < 0.05). Compared to consumption in the laboratory, consumption at home was faster, triggered higher heart rates, and triggered more intense facial expressions of happiness, contempt, disgust and boredom. Conclusions: Implicit tests were more sensitive to effects of test location and repeated consumption than explicit tests. Additional research is required to investigate the relevance of these measures to long term consumer acceptance of food products.
    Application and validation of the Feeding Infants : Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS) to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding
    Nekitsing, C. ; Madrelle, J. ; Barends, C. ; Graaf, C. de; Parrott, H. ; Morgan, S. ; Weenen, H. ; Hetherington, M.M. - \ 2016
    Food Quality and Preference 48 (2016)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 228 - 237.
    Complementary feeding - Facial expressions - Food refusal - Infant feeding - Like/dislike - Liking - Scale - Wanting - Weaning

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a novel tool developed to measure liking and wanting in infants during the weaning period. The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS; Hetherington et al., in press) is an evidence based video coding tool, consisting of 13 items. There are 6 measures of avoidance/approach behaviours (turns head away, arches back, pushes spoon away, crying/fussy, leaning forward and rate of acceptance) to assess wanting and 7 facial expressions (brow lowered, inner brow raised, squinting, nose wrinkling, lip corners down, upper lip raised and gaping) to assess liking. Lower scores on the total scale indicated greater wanting and/or liking. The tool was applied to a recent randomized control trial (Hetherington et al., 2015). Method: 36 mother-infant dyads took part in the study and were randomised to the intervention or the control group. Infants were filmed on two occasions whilst eating a generally liked vegetable (carrots) and less preferred vegetable (green bean). 72 video extracts were coded by 4 trained researchers with adequate certification scores, each video was coded by at least two coders. Items and scales were tested for discrimination ((1) intervention vs control; (2) liked vs disliked vegetable) and construct validity (correlation with intake and liking assessed by mother and researcher). Results: Very good discrimination (p <0.001) was obtained for carrots vs green bean for the total score and total negative facial expressions and rejection behaviours (p=0.003). Discrimination for the intervention vs control groups was only obtained for the total rejections and the rate of acceptance (p <05). The FIBFECS subscales had good construct validity as these were significantly correlated with intake and liking ratings (p <0.01). Items such as crying/fussy and leaning forward were removed from the scale as well as inner brow raised, squinting and lip corners down, as these do not correlate with other variables. Their removal did not affect the integrity of the scale. The rate of acceptance parameter was found to have potential as a short method to measure wanting in infants. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the FIBFECS can be used to identify liking and wanting independent of subjective ratings from mothers and researchers, therefore, this tool can be used widely in the study of infant responses to novel foods at the time of weaning. There is potential to develop the tool for infants beyond the period of complementary feeding and to assist in identifying fussy eating in the early stages of development.

    Developing a novel tool to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding - The Feeding Infants : Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS)
    Hetherington, M.M. ; Madrelle, J. ; Nekitsing, C. ; Barends, C. ; Graaf, C. de; Morgan, S. ; Parrott, H. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2016
    Food Quality and Preference 48 (2016)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 238 - 250.
    Complementary feeding - Facial expressions - Food refusal - Infant feeding - Like/dislike - Wanting - Weaning

    Introduction: Consumption of foods is determined in part by how much a food is liked. However, assessing liking in infants is difficult. Research with infants has often relied on indirect measures such as intake or subjective ratings from mothers. Therefore the aim of the present research was to devise a tool adapted from existing techniques which can directly and systematically measure liking in infants during the weaning period. Method: A tool was developed by extracting items from previous studies. In all, 13 items were generated, which included 6 behaviours reflecting avoidance and approach: turning away, arching back, pushing spoon away, crying/fussy, leaning forward and rate of acceptance; also 7 facial expressions thought to reflect affective response; brow lowered, inner brow raised, squinting, nose wrinkling, upper lip raised, lip corners down and gaping. An e-training manual was developed with a certification test to train coders. The coding tool is based on coding the first 9 spoonfuls for each infant. 63 videos were coded by 4 raters, each video was coded by at least 2 different coders. For each spoonful the absence or presence of each item was recorded; for rate of acceptance, a four point scale was used. Results: In the certification test most cues were high in agreement for all coders. Factor analysis indicated two dimensions, one which largely captured gross behaviours and the second featuring a cluster of facial expressions. Internal consistencies of the overall scale and the behaviour and facial expression subscales were acceptable as indicated by Cronbach's alpha >0.7. Intra-class correlation indicated moderate to high inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability for most of the cues. Spearman correlations indicated significant associations of the total number of negative behaviours with rate of acceptance and overall facial expressions. Rejection behaviours corresponded with a low rate of food acceptance and a high rate of negative facial expressions. Two parameters occurred less frequently and did not appear to provide any further discriminatory ability, namely leaning forward and crying/fussiness, these can be removed from the scale for future use. Conclusions: The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS) is structurally valid and reliable for use by trained coders and those who are researching infant eating behaviour. The two factor structure of the tool suggests that the facial expression subscale reflects liking and the behaviour subscale wanting. The tool could also be adapted for mothers and professionals to detect liking and wanting through facial expression and behavioural cues respectively.

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