Preference and perception of fat in salty and sweet foods
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Costanzo, Andrew ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 64 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 131 - 137.
Fat - Preference - Salt - Saltiness - Sugar - Sweetness - Taste
Introduction Higher liking for fat is a risk factor for obesity. Fat in food is often combined with a sweet or salty taste. This study aims to investigate the role of fat on pleasantness and perception in both a salty and a sweet liquid food product. Methods In a complete factorial design, 47 participants (23 males) tasted creamy tomato soup and custard in four fat concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30%), combined with four salt concentrations (0.04, 0.35, 0.7, 1.5%) in soup, and four sugar concentrations (0.56, 4.5, 9, 18%) in custard. Participants rated pleasantness, saltiness intensity, sweetness intensity and fattiness intensity. The preferred fat concentrations were determined by hedonic ranking. Results Fat and salt separately affected pleasantness in soup (P <.01). Fat, sugar and their interaction affected pleasantness in custard (P <.001). Sugar and salt were a stronger influencer of pleasantness than fat. Preference for fat in soup was variable, whereas the highest concentration of 30% fat was preferred in custard (P <.001). Ratings of fattiness intensity were more responsive to fat concentrations in soup than in custard (P-interaction fat × food base <.001). Conclusion Salt and sugar are stronger influencers on food liking than fat. Across foods, there is no consistent effect of fat on perception or on liking, therefore the attractiveness of fat in foods cannot be generalised. The attraction to high fat levels in custard, while hardly perceiving differences in fat concentrations, remains unclear and needs further investigation.
Quality of dietary fat intake and body weight and obesity in a mediterranean population : Secondary analyses within the PREDIMED trial
Beulen, Yvette ; Martínez-González, Miguel A. ; Rest, Ondine van de; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi ; Sorlí, José V. ; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique ; Fiol, Miquel ; Estruch, Ramón ; Santos-Lozano, José M. ; Schröder, Helmut ; Alonso-Gómez, Angel ; Serra-Majem, Luis ; Pintó, Xavier ; Ros, Emilio ; Becerra-Tomas, Nerea ; González, José I. ; Fitó, Montserrat ; Martínez, J.A. ; Gea, Alfredo - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
Body weight - Cohort study - Fat - Obesity - Substitution models
A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of −0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): −0.69, −0.07), and −0.51 kg (95% CI: −0.81, −0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to −0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake.
Effects of salt and fat combinations on taste preference and perception
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Newman, Lisa P. ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2016
Chemical Senses 41 (2016)3. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 189 - 195.
Fat - Fat taste sensitivity - Salt - Taste intensity - Taste preferences
Fat and salt are a common and attractive combination in food and overconsumption of either is associated with negative health outcomes. The major aim was to investigate contributions and interactions of salt and fat on taste pleasantness and perception. The minor aim was to investigate individual fat taste sensitivity (detection threshold of oleic acid [C18:1]) on pleasantness for fat. In a complete factorial design, 49 participants (18-54 years, 12 males) tasted tomato soups with 4 different fat concentrations (0-20%) and 5 different salt concentrations (0.04-2.0%). The preferred concentration and the discrimination ability for both fat and salt were determined by ranking tests. Results show that salt and fat affected pleasantness separately (P < 0.01), with salt having the strongest effect. Fat concentrations 0%, 5%, and 10% did not differ in pleasantness, whereas 20% was less pleasant (P < 0.05). There were no interactions for fat and salt on pleasantness or saltiness and fattiness intensity. Fat taste sensitive participants preferred lower fat concentrations than less sensitive participants (P = 0.008). In conclusion, the strong effect of salt on pleasantness in this study suggests that salt, rather than fat, play a major role in the attraction to savory fatty foods.
Salt promotes passive overconsumption of dietary fat in humans
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Costanzo, Andrew ; Newman, Lisa P. ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2016
The Journal of Nutrition 146 (2016)4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 838 - 845.
Ad libitum food intake - Fat - Fat taste sensitivity - Salt - Satiation
Background: Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated. Objectives: Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt. Methods: Forty-eight healthy adults [16men and 32women, aged 18-54 y, bodymass index (kg/m2): 17.8-34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n-6). In a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%)with sauce (44%); sauces weremanipulated to be 1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl,wt:wt), 2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt), 3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or 4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured. Results: Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P = 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P = 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (P < 0.001). A sex × fat interaction was found (P = 0.006), with women consuming 15% less by weight of the high-fat meals than the low-fat meals. Fat taste sensitivity was negatively associated with the intake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste × salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat 2 low-fat meals; P = 0.012). Conclusions: The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat.
Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves
Pantophlet, A.J. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Vonk, R.J. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 10022 - 10032.
Fat - Insulin sensitivity - Lactose - Veal calves
In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120 ± 2.8 kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2 ± 0.5 × 10-2 [(mg/kg·min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75 ± 13 g/d) than in HF calves (21 ± 6 g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5 ± 0.6 g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4 ± 0.9 g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2 ± 0.7 g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that increasing the contribution of fat to the digestible energy intake from the MR from 20 to 50%, at the expense of lactose does not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in calves. However, a high-lactose MR increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, whereas a high-fat MR increases fat accumulation in liver but not muscle.
Prenatal, but not early postnatal, exposure to a Western diet improves spatial memory of pigs later in life and is paired with changes in maternal prepartum blood lipid levels
Clouard, Caroline ; Kemp, Bas ; Val-Laillet, David ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Bartels, Andrea C. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2016
FASEB Journal 30 (2016)7. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 2466 - 2475.
Cholestero - Cognition - Fat - Prenatal programming programming - Refined sugar
Maternal obesity and perinatal high-fat diets are known to affect cognitive development. We examined the effects of late prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to a Western-type diet, high in both fat and refined sugar, on the cognition of pigs (Sus scrofa) in the absence of obesity. Thirty-six sows and their offspring were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 3 2 factorial arrangement, with 8 wk prenatal and 8 wk postnatal exposure to a Western diet (enriched in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol) or control diets as factors. Compared to controls, piglets exposed to the prenatal Western diet showed enhanced working and reference memory during the acquisition and reversal phases of a spatial hole-board task. Mothers fed the prenatal Western diet had higher prepartum blood cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. Postnatal exposure to the Western diet did not affect piglet cognitive performance, but it did increase postpartum maternal and postweaning piglet cholesterol levels. The Western diet had no effect on maternal or offspring insulin sensitivity or leptin levels. In conclusion, a prenatal Western diet improved memory function in pigs, which was paired with changes in prepartum maternal blood cholesterol levels. These findings highlight the key role of late fetal nutrition for long-term programming of cognition.-Clouard, C., Kemp, B., Val-Laillet, D., Gerrits, W. J. J., Bartels, A. C., Bolhuis, J. E. Prenatal, but not early postnatal, exposure to a Western diet improves spatial memory of pigs later in life and is paired with changes in maternal prepartum blood lipid levels.
Validation of an automated screening method for persistent organic contaminants in fats and oils by GC × GC-ToFMS
Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Tienstra, Marc ; Lommen, Arjen ; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 211 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 645 - 653.
Fat - GC × GC-ToFMS - Qualitative analysis - Screening - Validation
An screening method, comprised of straightforward sample treatment based on silica clean-up, GC × GC-ToFMS detection and automated data processing with the non-proprietary free downloadable software MetAlignID, has been successfully validated with respect to false negatives for the sum PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), for the sum of BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183, for the four markers of PAHs and for a number of emerging brominated flame retardants. A screening detection limit (SDL) equal to or lower than the maximum regulatory level was always achieved. MetAlignID considerably decreased the time needed for data treatment from 20 to 5 min/file. Automated identification of the signature mass spectral patterns was applied to identify chlorinated- and brominated-containing substances with more than two halogen atoms, and PAH derivates. Although the success rate was variable and needs to be further improved, the tool was considered to be of added value.
Adipose tissue macrophages : going off track during obesity
Boutens, Lily ; Stienstra, Rinke - \ 2016
Diabetologia (2016). - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 879 - 894.
Adipose tissue - Fat - Immune cells - Inflammation - Insulin resistance - Macrophages - Metabolism - Obesity - Review
Inflammation originating from the adipose tissue is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although a plethora of different immune cells shapes adipose tissue inflammation, this review is specifically focused on the contribution of macrophages that reside in adipose tissue in lean and obese conditions. Both conventional and tissue-specific functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese adipose tissue are discussed and linked with metabolic and inflammatory changes that occur during the development of obesity. Furthermore, we will address various circulating and adipose tissue-derived triggers that may be involved in shaping the ATM phenotype and underlie ATM function in lean and obese conditions. Finally, we will highlight how these changes affect adipose tissue inflammation and may be targeted for therapeutic interventions to improve insulin sensitivity in obese individuals.(Table presented.)