Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The role of microalgae in the bioeconomy
    Acién Fernández, F.G. ; Reis, Alberto ; Wijffels, René H. ; Barbosa, Maria ; Verdelho, Vitor ; Llamas, Bernardo - \ 2021
    New Biotechnology 61 (2021). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 99 - 107.
    Bioeconomy - Bioenergy - Biomaterials - Biostimulants - Cosmetics - Feed - Food - Microalgae - Photobioreactor - Wastewater treatment

    The bioeconomy is a new and essential paradigm for reducing our dependence on natural resources and responding to the environmental threats that the Earth is currently facing. In this regard, microalgae offer almost unlimited possibilities for developing a modern bioeconomy given their metabolic flexibility and high biomass output rates, even when produced under harsh conditions, such as when treating wastewaters or using flue gases. In this article, the microalgal contribution to important economic activities such as the production of food and feed, cosmetics and health-related compounds is reviewed. Moreover, potential contributions of microalgae to emerging sectors are discussed, as in the production of biomaterials, agriculture-related products, biofuels and provision of services such as wastewater treatment and the clean-up of industrial gases. The different microalgal production technologies have also been analyzed to identify the main bottlenecks affecting microalgal use in different applications. Finally, the major challenges facing microalgal biotechnology in enlarging its contribution to the bioeconomy are evaluated, and future trends discussed.

    Fractionation platform for target identification using off-line directed two-dimensional chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance
    Laan, Tom van der; Elfrink, Hyung ; Azadi-Chegeni, Fatemeh ; Dubbelman, Anne Charlotte ; Harms, Amy C. ; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Braumann, Ulrich ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Duynhoven, John van; Hankemeier, Thomas - \ 2021
    Analytica Chimica Acta 1142 (2021). - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 28 - 37.
    Food - Identification - Mass spectrometry - Metabolomics - Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - Two-dimensional chromatography

    The unambiguous identification of unknown compounds is of utmost importance in the field of metabolomics. However, current identification workflows often suffer from error-sensitive methodologies, which may lead to incorrect structure annotations of small molecules. Therefore, we have developed a comprehensive identification workflow including two highly complementary techniques, i.e. liquid chromatography (LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and used it to identify five taste-related retention time and m/z features in soy sauce. An off-line directed two-dimensional separation was performed in order to purify the features prior to the identification. Fractions collected during the first dimension separation (reversed phase low pH) were evaluated for the presence of remaining impurities next to the features of interest. Based on the separation between the feature and impurities, the most orthogonal second dimension chromatography (hydrophilic interaction chromatography or reversed phase high pH) was selected for further purification. Unknown compounds down to tens of micromolar concentrations were tentatively annotated by MS and structurally confirmed by MS and NMR. The mass (0.4–4.2 μg) and purity of the isolated compounds were sufficient for the acquisition of one and two-dimensional NMR spectra. The use of a directed two-dimensional chromatography allowed for a fractionation that was tailored to each feature and remaining impurities. This makes the fractionation more widely applicable to different sample matrices than one-dimensional or fixed two-dimensional chromatography. Five proline-based 2,5-diketopiperazines were successfully identified in soy sauce. These cyclic dipeptides might contribute to taste by giving a bitter flavour or indirectly enhancing umami flavour.

    Using implicit rather than explicit measures of emotions
    Wijk, René A. de; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J. - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Emotions - Explicit measures - Food - Implicit measures - Laboratory studies - Real-life studies

    Implicit and explicit measures are typically combined in laboratory food studies. Results of these laboratory studies often show little additional value of implicit compared to explicit measures. We argue that implicit measures of food experience should not be regarded as a more expensive and more complex equivalent of established explicit measures. Instead, each type of measure provides complementary information. Whereas explicit measures capture especially the sensory aspects of the food itself, implicit measures capture especially the total food experience from pre- to post- consumption, which not only relates to the food itself but also to factors such as the physical and social context in which foods are consumed in real life. This requires that implicit measures are applied outside the conventional laboratory habitat. Fortunately, this becomes increasingly possible with current technical developments.

    Food proteins are a potential resource for mining cathepsin L inhibitory drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2
    Madadlou, Ashkan - \ 2020
    European Journal of Pharmacology 885 (2020). - ISSN 0014-2999
    COVID-19 - Food - Infection - Lactoferrin - Protein - Virus

    The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells proceeds by a proteolysis process, which involves the lysosomal peptidase cathepsin L. Inhibition of cathepsin L is therefore considered an effective method to decrease the virus internalization. Analysis from the perspective of structure-functionality elucidates that cathepsin L inhibitory proteins/peptides found in food share specific features: multiple disulfide crosslinks (buried in protein core), lack or low contents of (small) α-helices, and high surface hydrophobicity. Lactoferrin can inhibit cathepsin L, but not cathepsins B and H. This selective inhibition might be useful in fine targeting of cathepsin L. Molecular docking indicated that only the carboxyl-terminal lobe of lactoferrin interacts with cathepsin L and that the active site cleft of cathepsin L is heavily superposed by lactoferrin. A controlled proteolysis process might yield lactoferrin-derived peptides that strongly inhibit cathepsin L.

    Detection and quantification of hepatitis E virus RNA in ready to eat raw pork sausages in the Netherlands
    Boxman, Ingeborg L.A. ; Jansen, Claudia C.C. ; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans J.T. ; Hägele, Geke ; Sosef, Nils P. ; Dirks, René A.M. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 333 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1605
    Dried sausage - Fermented sausage - Food - HEV - Salami - Viral extraction

    The aim of the present study was to assess raw pork sausages collected on the Dutch market for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. 46 of 316 (14.6%) products sampled from Dutch retail stores in 2017–2019 were positive for HEV RNA. HEV RNA was detected in 10.8% of “cervelaat” (n = 74), 18.5% of salami (n = 92), 26.1% of “metworst” (n = 46), 16.3% of “snijworst” (n = 43) samples. This was significantly more often than in other raw pork sausages like dried sausages, fuet or chorizo (3.3%, n = 61). The percentage of HEV RNA positive products was not significantly different for products sold as either sliced or unsliced deli meat. The average viral load in positive tested products was 2.76 log10 genome copies per 5 g, incidentally reaching up to 4.5 log10 genome copies per 5 g. The average HEV RNA level was significantly higher in samples collected in 2017 than those in samples collected in 2018, and most of the samples in 2019. Typing by sequence analysis was successful for 33 samples, all revealing genotype 3c. The results support recent epidemiological studies that identified specific raw pork sausages as risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection in the Netherlands. Persons at risk, including Dutch transplant recipients, have been advised to avoid the consumption of raw pork sausages. The study warrants a continuation of monitoring to follow the HEV RNA levels in pork products for use in risk assessments and risk management.

    Data from a survey of sensor technologies for food intake measurement
    Driedonks-van Dongen, Ellen ; Rijgersberg, Hajo ; Daniels, Freek ; Ummels, Meeke - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Consumer science - Food - Nutrition - Sensors
    A survey of potential non-invasive sensing technologies suitable for measuring food intake and meal properties.
    The effects of the name “genomics” on emerging attitudes in the Netherlands and Ukraine
    Boersma, Reginald ; Gremmen, Bart - \ 2020
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 92 (2020). - ISSN 1573-5214
    Attitude formation - Food - Interpretation - Naming - Public perception - Science communication

    Public opinion is important for the success of a plant breeding practice. Currently, the relatively new practice of genomics-accelerated breeding is under development. From initial findings in research on consumer acceptance, it appears that people experience a strong link between genetic manipulation (GM) and genomics-accelerated breeding after hearing the name “genomics,” leading to an unfavourable evaluation of genomics-accelerated breeding. There are indications that when genomics is presented with the purpose of enhancing food production, the negative link with GM is perceived more readily than when it is presented for other purposes. In the current article, we conduct experiments with the purpose of studying the transference of unfavourable attitudes from GM to genomics-accelerated breeding. The main focus is to investigate if this transfer is influenced by the presented purpose of plant breeding, resp. enhancing food or biofuel production. The results show that universally respondents use their attitudes towards GM to evaluate genomics. In a culture where GM is perceived as controversial (Ukraine), more favourable attitudes towards both practices result when presenting GM in relation to biofuel rather than to food.

    Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach unveils molecular changes in raw and processed foods and beverages
    Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Aceves, Christine M. ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Aleti, Gajender ; Almaliti, J. ; Bouslimani, A. ; Brown, Elizabeth A. ; Campeau, Anaamika ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chaar, Rama ; Silva, Ricardo R. da; Demko, Alyssa M. ; Ottavio, Francesca Di; Elijah, Emmanuel ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Ferguson, L.P. ; Holmes, Xavier ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Koester, I. ; Kwan, B. ; Li, Jie ; Li, Yueying ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Molina-Santiago, Carlos ; Ni, B. ; Oom, Aaron L. ; Panitchpakdi, Morgan W. ; Petras, Daniel ; Quinn, Robert ; Sikora, Nicole ; Spengler, Katharina ; Teke, B. ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Ul-Hasan, S. ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vrbanac, Alison ; Vu, Anthony Q. ; Wang, Steven C. ; Weldon, K. ; Wilson, K. ; Wozniak, Jacob M. ; Yoon, Michael ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 302 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Fermentation - Food - LC-MS/MS - Metabolomics - Molecular networking - Tea - Untargeted mass spectrometry - Yogurt

    In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.

    Nitrogen footprints
    Leip, Adrian ; Uwizeye, Aimable - \ 2019
    In: Encyclopedia of Ecology / Fath, B., Elsevier - ISBN 9780444641304 - p. 370 - 382.
    Agriculture - Consumption - Energy - Food - Footprints - Nitrogen - Production

    N is one of essential element of life on earth, but it contributes in its reactive form to the global environmental problems that are already larger than our earth is able to cope with, and it expected further aggravate (Galloway and Leach, 2016) driven by the increasing demand of food products fuelled by growth of human population, rising incomes and urbanization. The quantification of N footprints at production level can support decision and policy making in the economy, by raising awareness of different stakeholders such as farmers, industrial actors, businesses, governments and scientists on the global threats of anthropogenic activities. These stakeholders have responsibility to reduce the environmental pressures by continuous improvement of the production system through technology and innovation. N footprint is also a tool to inform consumers on the impact of their lifestyle choices on the N pollution, which is essential to share the responsibility in protecting the planet. Raising awareness to all stakeholders and consumers at all levels will help to reduce the N footprint.

    SHARP-Indicators Database towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, Elly ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah van; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
    Data in Brief 27 (2019). - ISSN 2352-3409
    Diet - Environment - Europe - Food - Greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - Land use (LU) - Life cycle analyses (LCA)

    To initiate the achievement of an European-wide applicable public database for indicators of environmental sustainability of the diet, we developed the SHARP Indicators Database (SHARP-ID). A comprehensive description of the development of the SHARP-ID is provided in this article. In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten. Extrapolations based on similarities in type of food, production system and ingredient composition were made to obtain estimates of GHGE and LU per kg of food as eaten for 944 food items coded with a unique FoodEx2-code of EFSA and consumed in four European countries, i.e. Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy and France. This LCA-food-item database can be linked to food intake data collected at the individual level in order to calculate the environmental impact of individual's diets. The application of this database to European survey data is described in an original research article entitled “Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries” (Mertens et al., 2019).

    Enhancement of co-production of nutritional protein and carotenoids in Dunaliella salina using a two-phase cultivation assisted by nitrogen level and light intensity
    Sui, Yixing ; Muys, Maarten ; Waal, Dedmer B. Van de; Adamo, Sarah D'; Vermeir, Pieter ; Fernandes, Tânia V. ; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E. - \ 2019
    Bioresource Technology 287 (2019). - ISSN 0960-8524
    Food - Microalgae - Nitrogen limitation - Pigment - Single-cell protein

    Microalga Dunaliella salina is known for its carotenogenesis. At the same time, it can also produce high-quality protein. The optimal conditions for D. salina to co-produce intracellular pools of both compounds, however, are yet unknown. This study investigated a two-phase cultivation strategy to optimize combined high-quality protein and carotenoid production of D. salina. In phase-one, a gradient of nitrogen concentrations was tested. In phase-two, effects of nitrogen pulse and high illumination were tested. Results reveal optimized protein quantity, quality (expressed as essential amino acid index EAAI)and carotenoids content in a two-phase cultivation, where short nitrogen starvation in phase-one was followed by high illumination during phase-two. Adopting this strategy, productivities of protein, EAA and carotenoids reached 22, 7 and 3 mg/L/d, respectively, with an EAAI of 1.1. The quality of this biomass surpasses FAO/WHO standard for human nutrition, and the observed level of β-carotene presents high antioxidant pro-vitamin A activity.

    Growth potential of rock oyster (Sacosstrea cucullata) exposed to dynamic environmental conditions simulated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model
    Chowdhury, Mohammed Shah Nawaz ; Wijsman, Johannes W.M. ; Shahadat Hossain, M. ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
    Journal of Sea Research 147 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 19 - 27.
    DEB model - Food - Monsoon - Saccostrea cucullata - Spatial and temporal variation
    A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the intertidal rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) is presented and applied for three different sites (Sonadia, Kutubdia and Inani) located in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh, covering a distinct environmental gradient. At the three sites, field observations of oyster growth, temperature, total particulate matter (TPM) and food availability (Chlorophyll-a and Particulate Organic Matter-POM) were carried out during a period from September 2014 to August 2017. DEB model simulations produced temporal, as well as spatial variation in oyster growth as a function of the prevailing environmental conditions. Growth rates of oysters were highest (shell increment: 3 cm yr) at Sonadia Island due to the high food concentrations. Growth rates were relatively low (shell increment: 1.94 cm yr−1) at Kutubdia and none of oysters survived in Inani during the monsoon period. At this site TPM concentrations were quite high (889 ± 101 mg l−1), but Chlorophyll-a was quite low (1.86 ± 0.16 μg l −1) during monsoon period. Temporal variation is largely monsoon driven. The period between November to May was the main growing season for oysters along the Bangladesh coast. In contrast, growth slowed down significantly during the monsoon months (June–September). DEB model simulations for S. cucullata showed good fit (Goodness of fit score > 8.54 out of 10 and low mean relative error, MRE <0.18) with observed growth data for all three locations throughout the seasons. Therefore, the model can be used to evaluate potential sites for oyster development either for aquaculture, restoration or coastal protection to enhance coastal resilience.
    Light regime and growth phase affect the microalgal production of protein quantity and quality with Dunaliella salina
    Sui, Yixing ; Muys, Maarten ; Vermeir, Pieter ; Adamo, Sarah D'; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E. - \ 2019
    Bioresource Technology 275 (2019). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 145 - 152.
    Food - Microalgae - Microbial protein - Photoperiod - Single-cell protein

    The microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for carotenogenesis, yet its protein production for human nutrition has rarely been reported. This study unveils the effects of growth phase and light regime on protein and essential amino acid (EAA) levels in D. salina. Cultivation under 24-h continuous light was compared to 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) of D. salina showed accumulating trends up to 1.53 in the stationary phase, surpassing FAO/WHO standard for human nutrition. Light/dark conditions inferred a higher light-usage efficiency, yielding 5–97% higher protein and 18–28% higher EAA mass on light energy throughout the growth, accompanied by 138% faster growth during the light phase of the light/dark cycle, compared to continuous light. The findings revealed D. salina to be especially suitable for high-quality protein production, particularly grown under light/dark conditions, with nitrogen limitation as possible trigger, and harvested in the stationary phase.

    Regulatory Status of Nanotechnologies in Food in the EU
    Rasmussen, Kirsten ; Rauscher, Hubert ; Gottardo, Stefania ; Hoekstra, Eddo ; Schoonjans, Reinhilde ; Peters, Ruud ; Aschberger, Karin - \ 2018
    In: Nanomaterials for Food Applications Elsevier - ISBN 9780128141304 - p. 381 - 410.
    Food - Legislation - Nanomaterials - Nanotechnology - Risk assessment - Safety

    This chapter provides a state-of-the-art description, as of November 2017, of legislation covering food-related applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the European Union (EU). These applications include novel foods, food contact materials, feed and food additives, food supplements, and plant protection products. In general, the EU legislation requires a market authorization of nanomaterial applications in foods on the basis of a safety assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of the potential health risks, which may be associated with nanomaterials in foods. EFSA is an integral part of the EU's food safety system to ensure the safety of foods and to protect the health of consumers, animals, and the environment from food-related risks. Among others, EFSA evaluates and assesses the risk of nanomaterials and develops scientific methodologies and guidance needed for identifying emerging risks to food safety. In addition to EFSA, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission provides technical and scientific support to the policies on nanomaterials in foods.

    Dietary advanced glycation endproducts induce an inflammatory response in human macrophages in vitro
    Lugt, Timme van der; Weseler, Antje R. ; Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Vrolijk, Misha F. ; Opperhuizen, Antoon ; Bast, Aalt - \ 2018
    Nutrients 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Advanced glycation endproducts - Food - Inflammation - Macrophages - Maillard reaction

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can be found in protein-and sugar-rich food products processed at high temperatures, which make up a vast amount of the Western diet. The effect of AGE-rich food products on human health is not yet clear and controversy still exists due to possible contamination of samples with endotoxin and the use of endogenous formed AGEs. AGEs occur in food products, both as protein-bound and individual molecules. Which form exactly induces a pro-inflammatory effect is also unknown. In this study, we exposed human macrophage-like cells to dietary AGEs, both in a protein matrix and individual AGEs. It was ensured that all samples did not contain endotoxin concentrations > 0.06 EU/mL. The dietary AGEs induced TNF-alpha secretion of human macrophage-like cells. This effect was decreased by the addition of N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML)-antibodies or a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) antagonist. None of the individual AGEs induce any TNF-alpha, indicating that AGEs should be bound to proteins to exert an inflammatory reaction. These findings show that dietary AGEs directly stimulate the inflammatory response of human innate immune cells and help us define the risk of regular consumption of AGE-rich food products on human health.

    Seeing the forest, missing the field : Forests and agriculture in global climate change policy
    Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Arts, Bas ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid - \ 2018
    Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 627 - 640.
    Agenda setting - Agriculture - Climate change - Food - Framing - REDD+

    As the climate change problem becomes more eminent, there is more pressure to increase efforts in all sectors and countries. The land-use sector is seen as an option to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and key in achieving a balance in GHG emissions and removals by sinks by 2050, as envisioned in the Paris Agreement. This article presents two comparative case studies within the climate change arena and aims to understand how and why: 1) tropical deforestation and forest degradation have secured a prominent place on the international climate change agenda, while 2) agriculture has not secured a prominent place. We use the agenda-setting multi-stream approach (MSA), while adding a framing layer. Based on primary data (including an international workshop with forest and agriculture experts, interviews, and participation in key international meetings), and secondary data, this article concludes that REDD + is an example of how a condition was framed as a problem, a viable proposal was developed, and political will and receptivity was shown, all of which placed REDD + high on the agenda, and generated its legal and methodological framework over the course of ten years. In these efforts, the role of policy entrepreneurs was key. Agriculture, on the other hand, is a more complex sector with multiple interests and millions of stakeholders. The consideration of agriculture, in particular its mitigation component, is therefore a highly contentious issue. The fear of new binding commitments and the potential threat to food security and production, and the lack of a convincing proposal that addresses the multiple values of agriculture has impeded substantive progress. Also, the absence of a committed policy entrepreneur limits the place of agriculture in the climate change agenda under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    Potato Starch
    Semeijn, Cindy ; Buwalda, Pieter L. - \ 2018
    In: Starch in Food / Sjöö, Malin, Nilsson, Lars, Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780081008683 - p. 353 - 372.
    Amylopectin - Amylose - Food - Gelatinization - Granule - Modification - Potato starch - Texture - Waxy

    Potato starch and its derivatives are of major commercial importance because they govern the texture and hence the liking of food stuffs. The mode of actions of starches is governed by the granular and molecular architecture of the starch and the interaction with the food processing. In this chapter an overview is given of the starch characteristics of normal and waxy potato starch in comparison to other starches. Furthermore an overview of derivatizations is presented and their impact on the processibility during food production. The chapter ends with an outlook on future trends in starch-altering methods.

    Updated procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food
    Cohen, Samuel M. ; Eisenbrand, Gerhard ; Fukushima, Shoji ; Gooderham, Nigel J. ; Guengerich, F.P. ; Hecht, Stephen S. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Davidsen, Jeanne M. ; Harman, Christie L. ; Taylor, Sean V. - \ 2018
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 113 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 171 - 178.
    Botanicals - Complex mixtures - Flavoring - Food - GRAS - Threshold of toxicological concern - Toxicology

    An effective and thorough approach for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes (NFCs) was published in 2005 by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). An updated procedure is provided here, which maintains the essential concepts of the use of the congeneric group approach and the reliance on the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept. The updated procedure emphasizes more rigorous considerations of unidentified constituents and the genotoxic potential of constituents. The update of the previously established procedure is the first step in a multi-year project to conduct safety re-evaluations for more than 250 NFCs that have uses that are currently considered Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the FEMA Expert Panel. In addition, this procedure can be more generally employed in the safety evaluation of NFCs.

    Micronutrient powders to combat anaemia in young children : Do they work?
    Verhoef, Hans ; Teshome, Emily ; Prentice, Andrew M. - \ 2018
    BMC Medicine 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 1741-7015
    Anaemia - Child - Fe(III)-EDTA - Food - Fortified - Iron - Iron deficiency - Meta-analysis - Preschool
    In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended point-of-use fortification of complementary foods with iron-containing micronutrient powders to improve iron status and reduce anaemia in children at risk of anaemia. This recommendation continues to be debated. In a recent trial among Kenyan children aged 12-36 months, we found no evidence that daily point-of-use fortification was efficacious in improving haemoglobin concentration or plasma iron markers. An updated meta-analysis indicated that, on average, in an arbitrarily selected setting and with adherence as obtained under trial conditions, one may expect a small increase in haemoglobin concentration in preschool children, with the upper limit of the 95% CI virtually excluding an effect beyond 5.5 g/L. In the present paper, we elaborate on the interpretation of these findings and the meta-analyses that formed the basis for the WHO guidelines. In particular, we draw attention to the phenomenon that small group differences in the distribution of continuous outcomes (haemoglobin concentration, ferritin concentrations) can give a false impression of relatively large effects on the prevalence of the dichotomised outcomes (anaemia, iron deficiency). Please see related articles: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0839-z , https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0867-8
    Measuring young consumers’ sustainable consumption behavior : development and validation of the YCSCB scale
    Fischer, Daniel ; Böhme, Tina ; Geiger, Sonja Maria - \ 2017
    Young Consumers 18 (2017)3. - ISSN 1747-3616 - p. 312 - 326.
    Clothing - Consumer behaviour - Food - Measure - Sustainable consumption - Teenagers

    Purpose: Promoting sustainable consumption among young consumers has become a key priority on the research agenda in such different fields as education for sustainable development, environmental psychology and consumer policy. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of sophisticated research instruments capable of measuring consumption behaviors that are relevant both in terms of their sustainability impacts and their suitability for teenagers. This study aims to address this research gap and presents a scale for young consumers’ sustainable consumption behaviors (YCSCB) in the areas of food and clothing. Design/methodology/approach: The scale was developed in a two-step, mixed-methods approach. In an initial qualitative interview study, the actual behaviors of theoretically selected young consumers (n = 8) were identified with regard to acquiring, using and disposing of consumer goods in the areas of food and clothing. The YCSCB scale was constructed using the findings of this qualitative study and then validated in a subsequent quantitative study (n = 155). Findings: The YCSCB scale is a valid and reliable scale to measure young consumers’ sustainable consumption behavior in the areas of food (n = 14 items) and clothing (n = 13 items). Originality/value: The findings of this research provide a twofold contribution to advancing research on YCSCB. Firstly, it presents a consolidated scale that is explicitly constructed for teenagers and their consumption contexts. Secondly, it proposes a heuristic for developing more sophisticated measurements of SCB among young consumers that would allow a comparison between studies, is focused on behaviors (instead of confounding behaviors with intentions, attitudes or values) and is impact-oriented in terms of sustainability relevance.

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