Covalent modification of food proteins by plant-based ingredients (polyphenols and organosulphur compounds) : A commonplace reaction with novel utilization potential
Keppler, Julia K. ; Schwarz, Karin ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
Trends in Food Science and Technology 101 (2020). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 38 - 49.
Allergenicity - Antimicrobial activity - Covalent interaction - Emulsion - Food processing - Functional extracts - Gelling - Ingredient interaction - Isothiocyanate-protein interaction - Polyphenol-protein interaction - Posttranslational modification - Protein modification - Protein refining
Background: Many food ingredients such as polyphenols, phenolic acids (e.g. present in fruit and vegetables) and organosulphur compounds (e.g. present in mustard, garlic and chives) covalently interact with meat, egg, dairy and plant-based proteins. The results of those interactions are manifold and range from altered technological properties (in emulsions, foams, gels) to sensory changes (colour formation, altered taste and smell) and different biological activity (allergy, antimicrobial effects, hydrolysis). Scope and approach: The present review discusses both the positive and the negative side effects of such interactions and explores the potential to fine-tune protein functionality during processing not only in model solutions but also in more complex foods. Key findings and conclusions: Traditionally, studies have focused on the negative effects of interactions between protein and plant ingredients (e.g. discolouration and solubility changes), but more recent studies highlight positive effects (e.g. enhanced emulsifying capacity, reduced allergy and targeted production of protein pigments). By controlling food processing conditions (e.g. protein nativity) and the food matrix (e.g. presence of antioxidative compounds or thiol groups, pH value during storage), the observed effects can be prevented or induced. On the basis of the listed findings, future processes can be developed that take such interactions into account to enable targeted co-processing of plant compounds with proteins. A better understanding of these interactions opens up a wealth of novel utilization potential.
Sustainable food processing: A production planning and scheduling perspective
Akkerman, Renzo - \ 2019
In: Sustainable Food Supply Chains Elsevier - ISBN 9780128134115 - p. 105 - 114.
Sustainability - Food processing - Efficiency - Changeover - Cleaning Utilities - Scheduling
In food-processing industries, agricultural raw materials are processed into consumer products or food ingredients. Within this context, efficiency and sustainability are mainly impacted by losses of valuable food products that already caused significant monetary and environmental impacts, as well as by the inefficient use of utilities such as energy, water, and cleaning agents. In turn, these factors are mostly driven by product changeovers and cleaning of production and storage equipment. Efforts to improve the efficiency and sustainability of food processing, therefore, emphasize managerial and technological solutions to decrease the number and impact of changeovers. This chapter first distinguishes technological and managerial perspectives on product losses and utility consumption. Elaborating on the managerial perspective, we subsequently provide an overview of cyclic production planning and scheduling approaches that can be used to improve efficiency and sustainability. The intuitive nature of cyclic planning frameworks also provides a lean perspective on planning that facilitates implementation processes.
Impact of processing on enzymatic browning and texturization of yellow mealworms
Tonneijck-Srpová, L. ; Venturini, E. ; Humblet-Hua, K.N.P. ; Bruins, M.E. - \ 2019
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 5 (2019)4. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 267 - 277.
Edible insects - Enzymatic browning - Food application - Food processing - Texture
The potential of Tenebrio molitor as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by using several conventional (blanching and freeze drying) and non-conventional (high pressure) processing techniques. Some of the challenges in product development are the browning effect of minced mealworms and the texturizing capacity after mincing. Both blanching and high pressure processing at 400 and 500 MPa proved to be effective in inactivating enzymes responsible for browning. However, the inactivation process was accompanied by a significant decrease in texturizing properties of the minced mealworms, especially when blanching was applied. Also when applying pressure, the texture changed from stronger (samples treated at lower pressures) to weaker (samples treated at higher pressures). Minced fresh or freeze dried mealworms provided textures with a reasonable strength and elasticity, but browning still occurred. Nevertheless, this browning could be slowed down by applying air tight packaging to prevent oxidation.
Comparing structuring potential of pea and soy protein with gluten for meat analogue preparation
Schreuders, Floor K.G. ; Dekkers, Birgit L. ; Bodnár, Igor ; Erni, Philipp ; Boom, Remko M. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
Journal of Food Engineering 261 (2019). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 32 - 39.
Fibrous structures - Food processing - Plant protein - Shear cell processing - Shear-induced structuring
Pea protein isolate can be combined with wheat gluten into materials with a fibrous morphology using shear induced structuring combined with heating. Results are partly in-line with soy protein isolate-wheat gluten blends, but the latter yields anisotropic materials in a much broader temperature range. Both blends also have the ability to include air. Air bubbles were aligned and deformed at process conditions that gave the most pronounce fibrous products. Mechanically, the pea protein-gluten materials processed at 140 °C had a similar strength as soy protein blends. At 110 and 120 °C, the pea protein blends had a strength that was comparable to a chicken meat reference (50–100 kPa) but weaker than their counterparts with soy (220–300 kPa). Blends of pea protein-gluten show potential for preparing structured plant protein materials, but the application area might be different compared with potential applications of soy protein-gluten blends.
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of volatiles as a new tool for understanding aroma and flavour chemistry in processed food products
Diez-Simon, Carmen ; Mumm, Roland ; Hall, Robert D. - \ 2019
Metabolomics 15 (2019)3. - ISSN 1573-3882
Flavour chemistry - Food processing - Gas chromatography - Maillard reaction - Mass spectrometry - Process flavours - Volatiles
Background: When foods are processed or cooked, many chemical reactions occur involving a wide range of metabolites including sugars, amino acids and lipids. These chemical processes often lead to the formation of volatile aroma compounds that can make food tastier or may introduce off-flavours. Metabolomics tools are only now being used to study the formation of these flavour compounds in order to understand better the beneficial and less beneficial aspects of food processing. Aim of review: To provide a critical overview of the diverse MS-based studies carried out in recent years in food metabolomics and to review some biochemical properties and flavour characteristics of the different groups of aroma-related metabolites. A description of volatiles from processed foods, and their relevant chemical and sensorial characteristics is provided. In addition, this review also summarizes the formation of the flavour compounds from their precursors, and the interconnections between Maillard reactions and the amino acid, lipid, and carbohydrate degradation pathways. Key scientific concepts of review: This review provides new insights into processed ingredients and describes how metabolomics will help to enable us to produce, preserve, design and distribute higher-quality foods for health promotion and better flavour.
Food processing and breeding strategies for coeliac-safe and healthy wheat products
Jouanin, Aurélie ; Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. ; Boyd, Lesley A. ; Cockram, James ; Leigh, Fiona J. ; Wallington, Emma J. ; Broeck, Hetty C. van den; Meer, Ingrid M. van der; Schaart, Jan G. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Smulders, Rene - \ 2018
Food Research International 110 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 11 - 21.
Coeliac disease - Food processing - Genome editing - Gliadin - Gluten - Mutation breeding - Plant breeding - T cell epitope
A strict gluten-free diet is currently the only treatment for the 1-2% of the world population who suffer from coeliac disease (CD). However, due to the presence of wheat and wheat derivatives in many food products, avoiding gluten consumption is difficult. Gluten-free products, made without wheat, barley or rye, typically require the inclusion of numerous additives, resulting in products that are often less healthy than gluten-based equivalents. Here, we present and discuss two broad approaches to decrease wheat gluten immunogenicity for CD patients. The first approach is based on food processing strategies, which aim to remove gliadins or all gluten from edible products. We find that several of the candidate food processing techniques to produce low gluten-immunogenic products from wheat already exist. The second approach focuses on wheat breeding strategies to remove immunogenic epitopes from the gluten proteins, while maintaining their food-processing properties. A combination of breeding strategies, including mutation breeding and possibly genome editing, will be necessary to produce coeliac-safe wheat. Individuals suffering from CD and people genetically susceptible who may develop CD after prolonged gluten consumption would benefit from reduced CD-immunogenic wheat. Although the production of healthy and less CD-toxic wheat varieties and food products will be challenging, increasing global demand may require these issues to be addressed in the near future by food processing and cereal breeding companies.
Zinc absorption from milk is affected by dilution but not by thermal processing, and milk enhances absorption of Zinc from high-phytate rice in young dutch women
Talsma, Elise F. ; Moretti, Diego ; Ly, Sou Chheng ; Dekkers, Renske ; Heuvel, Ellen G.H.M. van den; Fitri, Aditia ; Boelsma, Esther ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Zeder, Christophe ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida - \ 2017
The Journal of Nutrition 147 (2017)6. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1086 - 1093.
Absorption - Food processing - Human - Isotope dilution - Milk - Phytate - Rice - Thermal processing - Zinc
Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 20-25]: 1) a milk study (n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with 67Zn, and 2) a rice study (n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically 67Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or fullfat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]. The fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured with the double-isotope tracer ratio method. In vitro, we assessed zinc extraction from rice blended into water, UM, or HTM with or without phytate. Results: FAZ from HTM was 25.5% (95% CI: 21.6%, 29.4%) and was not different from UM (27.8%; 95% CI: 24.2%, 31.4%). FAZ from water was higher (72.3%; 95% CI: 68.7%, 75.9%), whereas FAZ fromMWwas lower (19.7%; 95% CI: 17.5%, 21.9%) than HTM and UM (both P < 0.01). FAZ from RM (20.7%; 95% CI: 18.8%, 22.7%) was significantly higher than from RW (12.8%; 95% CI: 10.8%, 14.6%; P < 0.01). In vitro, HTM and UM showed several orders of magnitude higher extraction of zinc from rice with HTM than from rice with water at various phytate concentrations. Conclusions: Milk enhanced human FAZ from high-phytate rice by 62% compared with water. Diluting milk with water decreases its absorption-enhancing proprieties, whereas UHT processing does not.
Impact of Pathogen Population Heterogeneity and Stress-Resistant Variants on Food Safety
Abee, T. ; Koomen, J. ; Metselaar, K.I. ; Zwietering, M.H. ; Besten, H.M.W. Den - \ 2016
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 7 (2016). - ISSN 1941-1413 - p. 439 - 456.
Food processing - Growth kinetics - Listeria monocytogenes - Systems biology
This review elucidates the state-of-the-art knowledge about pathogen population heterogeneity and describes the genotypic and phenotypic analyses of persister subpopulations and stress-resistant variants. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of persister phenotypes and genetic variants are identified. Zooming in on Listeria monocytogenes, a comparative whole-genome sequence analysis of wild types and variants that enabled the identification of mutations in variants obtained after a single exposure to lethal food-relevant stresses is described. Genotypic and phenotypic features are compared to those for persistent strains isolated from food processing environments. Inactivation kinetics, models used for fitting, and the concept of kinetic modeling-based schemes for detection of variants are presented. Furthermore, robustness and fitness parameters of L. monocytogenes wild type and variants are used to model their performance in food chains. Finally, the impact of stress-resistant variants and persistence in food processing environments on food safety is discussed.
Influence of processing and in vitro digestion on the allergic cross-reactivity of three mealworm species
Broekhoven, Sarah Van; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Jong, N.W. De; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 196 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1075 - 1083.
Crustaceans - Food allergy - Food processing - House dust mite - Ige cross-reactivity - In vitro digestion - Mealworms
Edible insects are currently being evaluated as an alternative and more sustainable protein source for humans. The introduction of new food sources can lead to development of novel allergies. Because in the Western world, insects are unlikely to be consumed raw, it is important to know how processing and in vitro digestion might influence their allergenicity. Three edible mealworm species (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas atratus and Alphitobius diaperinus) subjected to processing and in vitro digestion were analysed for IgE cross-reactivity. Immunoblot and MALDI-MS/MS analyses revealed that IgE from crustaceans or House dust mite (HDM) allergic patients showed cross-reactivity to mealworm tropomyosin or α-amylase, hexamerin 1B precursor and muscle myosin, respectively. Heat processing as well as in vitro digestion did diminish, but not eliminate, HDM or tropomyosin IgE cross-reactivity. Results show that individuals allergic to HDM or crustaceans might be at risk when consuming mealworms, even after heat processing.
Micro- and Nanoengineering : Relevance in Food Processing
Schroen, C.G.P.H. - \ 2015
In: Reference Module in Food Sciences / Smithers, Geoffrey, Elsevier - ISBN 9780081005965 - 8 p.
Controlled release - Emulsification - Emulsion - Encapsulation - Food processing - Food production - Microfluids - Microtechnology - Nanotechnology - Packaging - Process design - Sensors
There are two overall themes, micro- and nanotechnology, which are capable of changing the future of food considerably. In microtechnology, production of foods and food ingredients is investigated at small scale; the results are thus that larger scale production is considered through operating many microfluidic devices in parallel. In the nanotechnology field, the development of packaging materials with improved barrier and antimicrobial function, and the use of sensors for early detection are important. Besides, encapsulates for controlled release of specific components are in the focus of attention. Various examples from the micro- and nanotechnology field will be discussed in this article.
Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems
Akkerman, Renzo ; Donk, Dirk Pieter Van; Gaalman, Gerard - \ 2007
International Journal of Production Research 45 (2007)13. - ISSN 0020-7543 - p. 2955 - 2973.
Capacity constraints - Food processing - Simulation - Storage tanks - Time constraints
In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage is dictated by the storage time constraint.
Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage
Akkerman, Renzo ; Donk, Dirk Pieter van - \ 2007
International Journal of Production Economics 108 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0925-5273 - p. 43 - 53.
Dedicated storage - Food processing - Intermediate storage - Product prioritization - Two-stage production
In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show the performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products.