Commercial channels vs free distribution and screening of agricultural learning videos : A case study from Benin and Mali
Zoundji, Gérard C. ; Okry, Florent ; Vodouhê, Simplice D. ; Bentley, Jeffery W. ; Witteveen, Loes - \ 2020
Experimental Agriculture (2020). - ISSN 0014-4797
Agricultural learning video - Development intervention programs - Food security
Farmers' access to reliable information is crucial to improving rural livelihoods, food security, and national economies in West Africa. This paper discusses the dynamics of accessing and using agricultural learning videos from commercial channels, vs project and non-project channels in Benin and Mali. Using combinations of different models to assess the effectiveness of agricultural extension programs, the findings showed that farmers were motivated to pay for videos and watch them by themselves, without facilitation. Farmers who watched the videos through project support have also continued to watch on their own if the videos are of interest to them. Nevertheless, farmers were less motivated in the learning process when they received the Digital Video Disc (DVD) free and without support to watch them. We also found that the distribution of learning videos through commercial channels reaches more serious users and increases farmers' self-determination for learning, and farmers are more motivated to provide feedback than viewers who receive DVDs for free or via project support, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), or farmer organizations. Although buying a DVD is an individual action, they like to watch the videos in groups. After buying the DVD, about 43% of respondent borrowed DVD players and one person in five bought a DVD player to watch the videos. Efforts to promote improved technologies need to expand beyond the conventional focus on research and extension services. Support to agricultural technology dissemination must go beyond assistance to smallholder farmers and NGOs (practical implication). As the private sector has a role to play, both in making technologies available and in teaching farmers how to use them, their contribution would create space for innovation (theoretical implication). Our findings suggest that successful development intervention programs can be sell audiovisual material to farmers, who will use it proactively.
Imperfect food markets in times of crisis: economic consequences of supply chain disruptions and fragmentation for local market power and urban vulnerability
Ihle, R. ; Rubin, O.D. ; Bar-Nahum, Z. ; Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2020
Food Security (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517 - 8 p.
Covid-19 - Crisis - Food security - Food supply chains - Oligopolistic food markets - Market power - Resilience
As these lines were written, the Covid-19 pandemic crisis was continuing to threaten countries around the globe. The worldwide consensus that physical distancing is an effective instrument for mitigating the spread of the virus has led policymakers to temporarily limit the freedom of movement of people between and within countries, cities, and even neighborhoods. These public health-related restrictions on human mobility yielded an unprecedented fragmentation of international and national food distribution systems. Focusing on food retailing - usually being modestly oligopolistic - we take a micro-economic perspective as we analyze the potential consequences this disruption has for the physical as well as for the economic access of households to food at the local level. As the mobility constraints implemented substantially reduced competition, we argue that food retailers might have been tempted to take advantage of the implied fragmentation of economic activity by exploiting their temporarily raised market power at the expense of consumers and farmers. We illustrate our point by providing empirical evidences of rising wholesale-retail as well as farm-retail price margins observed during the Covid-19 crisis. Subsequently, we review existing empirical approaches that can be used to quantify and decompose the micro-economic effects of crises on food demand and supply as well as the size and structure of the market, costs of trade, and economic welfare. The employment of such approaches facilitates policymakers’ understanding of micro-economic effects of public health-induced mobility restrictions on economic activity.
Effects of proximity to markets on dairy farming intensity and market participation in Kenya and Ethiopia
Lee, Jan van der; Oosting, Simon ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Opinya, Felix ; Bebe, Bockline Omedo - \ 2020
Agricultural Systems 184 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
Commercialization - Crop-livestock interaction - Farming system design - Food security - Input supply - Sustainable intensification
The effect of proximity to markets on dairy farming intensity and market participation traditionally has been viewed as a market quality effect stemming from distance to end-markets with resultant travel time. This study departs from this by distinguishing three travel time components: travel time to local service center for inputs and services, to dairy delivery point, and to end-markets. Dairy farms in nine villages each in Ethiopia and Kenya were sampled and interviewed along a double proximity gradient. Effects on many production and marketing parameters were measured and compared using regression analysis, to test the hypothesis that intensity of dairy farming and degree of market participation increase with proximity to end-markets and with proximity to local service centers. Findings prove the hypothesis for proximity to local service center, which causes better market quality for inputs and outputs, smaller farms with less available labor, use of more purchased feeds and services, higher stocking rates, higher yields, and higher margins per hectare. Findings only partly prove the hypothesis for proximity to end-markets, mainly due to unexpected land scarcity in the most remote locations. Low productivity and low dairy farming intensity and market participation for remote farms in Ethiopia are attributed to limited and volatile market demand, a coarse milk-collection grid, and low quality of input and service markets, which are largely publicly organized. Implication of this study is that the common typology of dairy farms in ‘(peri-) urban’ and ‘rural’ farms needs adjustment by outlining local market access and connectivity. ‘Remote’ rural farms need to be connected to milk collection infrastructure, input shops and services to even have the choice to increase participation in dairy- or other markets.
Importance of insects as food in Africa
Huis, Arnold Van - \ 2020
In: African Edible Insects As Alternative Source of Food, Oil, Protein and Bioactive Components / Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030329518 - p. 1 - 17.
Edible insects - Farming insects - Food security - Harvesting insects - Insects as food - Nutrition - Sub-saharan africa
In Africa, about 470 insect species are recorded as edible, of which caterpillars are most consumed followed by grasshoppers, beetles, and termites. Most of those are collected from nature. There are several insect species, such as locusts and grasshoppers, that are pests of crops but which can be eaten at the same time. There are some edible insect species which are harvested in large number contributing to food security. Three of those species are discussed: the mopane caterpillar, the African bush cricket, and the shea caterpillar. However, when we would like to promote insects as food then harvesting from nature is not an option anymore, as overexploitation already occurs. Then we need to rear the insects. That can be done in semi-domesticated systems such as for the palm weevil or by farming insects as mini-livestock such as for crickets. We discuss the nutritional value of edible insects, and how they can contribute to food security. We also give examples of how insects can be processed and marketed. We conclude with the prospects of how edible insects can assure food security and improve the livelihood of the African people.
Agriculture green development : A model for China and the world
Shen, Jianbo ; Zhu, Qichao ; Jiao, Xiaoqiang ; Ying, Hao ; Wang, Hongliang ; Wen, Xin ; Xu, Wen ; Li, Tingyu ; Cong, Wenfeng ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hou, Yong ; Cui, Zhenling ; Oenema, Oene ; Davies, William J. ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2095-7505 - p. 5 - 13.
Agriculture green development - Food security - Interdisciplinary innovations - Resource use efficiency - Sustainable development - Sustainable intensification - Whole industry chain
Realizing sustainable development has become a global priority. This holds, in particular, for agriculture. Recently, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Nineteenth National People's Congress has delivered a national strategy for sustainable development in China-realizing green development. The overall objective of Agriculture Green Development (AGD) is to coordinate "green" with "development" to realize the transformation of current agriculture with high resource consumption and high environmental costs into a green agriculture and countryside with high productivity, high resource use efficiency and low environmental impact. This is a formidable task, requiring joint efforts of government, farmers, industry, educators and researchers. The innovative concept for AGD will focus on reconstructing the whole crop-animal production and food production-consumption system, with the emphasis on high thresholds for environmental standards and food quality as well as enhanced human well-being. This paper addresses the significance, challenges, framework, pathways and potential solutions for realizing AGD in China, and highlights the potential changes that will lead to a more sustainable agriculture in the future. Proposals include interdisciplinary innovations, whole food chain improvement and regional solutions. The implementation of AGD in China will provide important implications for the countries in developmental transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.
Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks
Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.
Modeling plant production at country level as affected by availability and productivity of land and water
Soltani, A. ; Alimagham, S.M. ; Nehbandani, A. ; Torabi, B. ; Zeinali, E. ; Zand, E. ; Ghassemi, S. ; Vadez, V. ; Sinclair, T.R. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2020
Agricultural Systems 183 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
Climate change - Crop model - Food security - Land - Simulation - Water
Assessing the food availability and food security of countries is a critical exercise in which crop simulation models are essential. Application of crop models has been limited often to estimate yield per unit area of one or a few important field crops, whereas what is really required is the total national production of diverse crops including forages, vegetables and fruit trees that compete for limited resources of land and water. In this study a simple crop model (SSM-iCrop2; Simple Simulation Models) was set up for an entire country using a bottom-up approach such that it provides representative estimates of potential yield and other crop properties at provincial level as influenced by climate, soil, management and cultivar. The information is then used to calculate total plant production at province and country levels, as influenced by available land and water resources and by the efficiency of utilizing the resources using the concepts relative yield gap and irrigation efficiency. Iran was used as a case study to develop the modeling framework and illustrative outputs. Development of the framework resulted in accumulation of large bodies of valuable geospatial information and statistics across disciplines that are critical for analysis of plant production at a country level. The framework allows different scenarios of national plant production to be evaluated. This includes assessing the possibility of increasing national plant production via intensification, optimizing water allocation across plant species at province and country levels by changing the cropping pattern, and assessing and prioritizing possible ways of adapting a country's agriculture to limited land and water resources and climate change.
Changes in food access by mestizo communities associated with deforestation and agrobiodiversity loss in Ucayali, Peruvian Amazon
Blundo-Canto, Genowefa ; Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S. ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Francesconi, Wendy ; Labarta, Ricardo ; Sanchez-Choy, Jose ; Perez-Marulanda, Lisset ; Paz-Garcia, Paula ; Quintero, Marcela - \ 2020
Food Security 12 (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 637 - 658.
Agrobiodiversity - Ecosystem services - Food security - Household dietary diversity score - Land use change
Few longitudinal studies link agricultural biodiversity, land use and food access in rural landscapes. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that, in a context of economic change, cash crop expansion is associated with deforestation, reduced agrobiodiversity and changes in food access. For this purpose, we analysed data collected from the same 53 upland and floodplain mestizo households in Ucayali, Peru, in 2000 and 2015. We found an emerging transition towards less diversified food access coupled with loss of forest cover and reduced agricultural biodiversity. In 2015, diets appeared to rely on fewer food groups, fewer food items, and on products increasingly purchased in the market compared to 2000. Wild fruits and plants were mentioned, but rarely consumed. Agricultural production systems became more specialised with a shift towards commercial crops. Peak deforestation years in the 15-year period appeared linked with incentives for agricultural expansion. Our results suggest an overall trend from diversified productive and “extractive” systems and more diverse food access, towards specialized productive systems, with less diverse food access and stronger market orientation (both in production and consumption). The assumption in the food and agricultural sciences that increased income and market-orientation is linked to improved food security, is challenged by our integrated analyses of food access, agrobiodiversity, land use and forest cover. Our results highlight the importance of longitudinal, multidimensional, systemic analyses, with major implications for land use, food and health policies. The potential risks of parallel homogenisation of diets and agricultural production systems require interdisciplinary research and policies that promote integrated landscape approaches for sustainable and inclusive food systems.
SSM-iCrop2 : A simple model for diverse crop species over large areas
Soltani, A. ; Alimagham, S.M. ; Nehbandani, A. ; Torabi, B. ; Zeinali, E. ; Dadrasi, A. ; Zand, E. ; Ghassemi, S. ; Pourshirazi, S. ; Alasti, O. ; Hosseini, R.S. ; Zahed, M. ; Arabameri, R. ; Mohammadzadeh, Z. ; Rahban, S. ; Kamari, H. ; Fayazi, H. ; Mohammadi, S. ; Keramat, S. ; Vadez, V. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Sinclair, T.R. - \ 2020
Agricultural Systems 182 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
Climate change - Crop model - Food security - Orchards - Perennial forages - Simulation
Crop models are essential in undertaking large scale estimation of crop production of diverse crop species, especially in assessing food availability and climate change impacts. In this study, an existing model (SSM, Simple Simulation Models) was adapted to simulate a large number of plant species including orchard species and perennial forages. Simplification of some methods employed in the original model was necessary to deal with limited data availability for some of the plant species to be simulated. The model requires limited, readily available input information. The simulations account for plant phenology, leaf area development and senescence, dry matter accumulation, yield formation, and soil water balance in a daily time step. Parameterization of the model for new crops/cultivars is easy and straight-forward. The resultant model (SSM-iCrop2) was parameterized and tested for more than 30 crop species of Iran using numerous field experiments. Tests showed the model was robust in the predictions of crop yield and water use. Root mean square of error as percentage of observed mean for yield was 18% for grain field crops, 14% for non-grain crops 14% for vegetables and 28% for fruit trees.
Food system perspective on fisheries and aquaculture development in Asia
Tezzo, Xavier ; Bush, S.R. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Belton, B. - \ 2020
Agriculture and Human Values (2020). - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 18 - 18.
Asia - Development policy - Food security - Food systems - Freshwater fish
This paper reviews development research and policies on freshwater fish in South and Southeast Asia. We conduct a systematic review of academic literature from three major science-based policy institutions to analyze development research and policies that have accompanied the ongoing transition from freshwater capture fisheries to aquaculture in the region.
Using a ‘food fish system’ framework allows for the identification and systematic comparison of assumptions underpinning dominant development policies. We analyze the interrelations between the production, provisioning, and consumption of wild and farmed fish and demonstrate a shift toward food fish systems thinking in the sampled literature. We discuss gaps and weaknesses in the literature, as identified through the application of the food fish systems framework and present an agenda for future research aimed at securing the potential of fish as food.
Sustainable intensification in Western Kenya : Who will benefit?
Jindo, Keiji ; Schut, Antonius G.T. ; Langeveld, Johannes W.A. - \ 2020
Agricultural Systems 182 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
Fertilizer use - Food security - Smallholder farmers - Sustainable intensification
Sustainable Intensification (SI) is essential for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to meet the food demand of the growing population under conditions of increasing land scarcity. However, access to artificial fertilizers is limited, and the current extension system is not effective in serving smallholder farmers. This paper studies farmers' response to improved fertilizer availability under field conditions. Data on farms and families were collected from 267 smallholder farms, while data on fertilizer use and crop response to fertilizer were collected on 127 farm plots. Fertilizer applications and maize yields were measured, and benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of fertilizer application was calculated and to assess its effect on food security. Farm household typologies were used to determine differences in farm endowment and food security classes. Fertilizer application did not significantly improve maize yields in 2017 due to unfavorable weather conditions and pest infestations, whereas significant yield responses were observed in 2018. Consequently, fertilizer application was economically beneficial (BCR >1) for only 45% of the farmers in 2017, compared to 94% in 2018 when 80% of the farmers passed the technology adaptation point (BCR > 2). Surprisingly, economic returns did not vary significantly between household types, implying that fertilizer application provides comparable benefits across all farm types. This is partly explained by the fact that soil fertility varied little between farm types (soil carbon content, for example, showed no correlation with farmer endowment). Still, large differences were observed in farmers' willingness to invest in larger fertilizer applications. Only a small proportion of farmers is expected to increase fertilizer applications as recommended. Our work demonstrates the need to address risks for smallholders and shows that socio-economic aspects are more important than biophysical constraints for policies promoting sustainable intensification.
Modelling alternative futures of global food security: Insights from FOODSECURE
Meijl, Hans van; Shutes, Lindsay ; Valin, Hugo ; Stehfest, Elke ; Dijk, Michiel van; Kuiper, Marijke ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Havlik, Petr - \ 2020
Global Food Security 25 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
Environment - Food security - Integrated assessment - Long run - Scenario analysis
Global economic models have been increasingly used to project food and agricultural developments for long term-time horizons, but food security aspects have often been limited to food availability projections. In this paper, we propose a broader framework to explore the future of food and nutrition security with a focus on food availability, food access, and a reasonable proxy for food utilisation. This framework is applied to a new set of stakeholder-designed scenarios of alternative future worlds that were developed for the FOODSECURE project and are structured around the two dimensions of inequality and sustainability. The framework is tested with two global models, MAGNET-IMAGE and GLOBIOM, and illustrated through an assessment of the possible trade-offs between food and nutrition security and sustainability in each of the worlds. Our results indicate that more equal worlds improve food security over a wider range of food security indicators and neglecting the sustainability dimension might revert food security gains over time. This paper concludes that there is a need for model-based scenario analysis to assess the complex and multi-dimensional characteristics of global food security.
Future food self-sufficiency in Iran: A model-based analysis
Soltani, A. ; Alimagham, S.M. ; Nehbandani, A. ; Torabi, B. ; Zeinali, E. ; Zand, E. ; Vadez, V. ; Loon, M.P. van; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2020
Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
Diet - Food security - Iran - Land - Loss and waste - Water - Yield gap
Iran, with its more than 80 million people, is located in a politically unstable region. The country's future food supply and sufficiency is at stake because of the over-exploitation of land and water resources. In this study, a modeling framework was used to estimate production of plant species as influenced by different scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios capture different agricultural water resources, improved irrigation efficiency and narrowing of crop yield gaps (i.e, difference between current farm yield and potential yield). Food demand, given a range of diets and loss and waste scenarios was also evaluated using the modeling framework. We found that limiting current agricultural water withdrawal to a safe level for the environment (from 86.0 to 38.5 billion m3 per year) until 2030, along with an increase in population (from 80 to 90 million people) during the same period led to a decline in self-sufficiency from of 83% to only 39%, assuming current production management, current diet and food loss and waste. Implementation of a highly-improved production scenario (narrowing relative yield gap from the current 60% to 40% and increasing irrigation efficiency from the current 38% to 53%) restored self-sufficiency to 61% using the current diet, loss and waste and to 69% using a medium-change demand scenario (a modified diet and 15% reduction in loss and waste). Avoiding water over-withdrawal by agriculture until 2030 won't be possible without sacrificing a degree of self-sufficiency. To achieve the highest self-sufficiency results, a combination of increased production and controlled demand are necessary.
Cropland acidification increases risk of yield losses and food insecurity in China
Zhu, Qichao ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hao, Tianxiang ; Zeng, Mufan ; Shen, Jianbo ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
Environmental Pollution 256 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
Acidification - Field management - Food security - Model - Yield loss
Distinct cropland acidification has been reported in China due to nitrogen (N) fertilizer overuse. However, the impacts on food production and thereby on food security are largely unknown. Yield losses in the period 1980–2050 were therefore assessed by simulating soil pH changes combined with derived pH-yield relationships for wheat, maize and rice. If the N fertilizer input continues to increase at 1% annually, the predicted average soil pH decline is about one unit and relative yield losses are expected to increase from approximately 4%–24% during 2010–2050. If the N fertilizer increase stops in 2020 (N2020), the expected losses are approximately 16% in 2050, which is comparable to a scenario of 100% crop residue return (100%RR). However, if 30% of the N fertilizer is replaced by manure N (30%MR), the losses reduce to near 5% in 2050. Soil acidification was predicted to reverse and expected losses are only 2.5% in 2050 in a combined scenario of N2020, 100%RR and 30%MR. Our results illustrate the potential food insecurity induced by cropland acidification and address the necessity of mitigation.
The Missing Middle: Connected action on agriculture and nutrition across global, national and local levels to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2
Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Giller, K.E. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2020
Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124 - 6 p.
SDG2 - Food systems - Sustainable agriculture - Food security - Pathways - Stakeholders
Sustainable development goal 2 (SDG 2) challenges the world to connect food production and consumption in a way that matches local contexts and enables everyone to enjoy a healthy diet that is produced sustainably and contributes to the other SDGs. We identify a Missing Middle between food production and consumption, and between globally defined goals and local implementation practices that may hinder progress towards SDG 2. Examples of this Missing Middle and how it can be bridged demonstrate that key challenges should be addressed in a more integrated manner for more effective action on SDG 2. We encourage actors in food provisioning to start addressing the Missing Middle by collaborating with relevant stakeholders in specified cases.
Life cycle assessment of food products
Fraval, Simon ; Middelaar, Corina E. van; Ridoutt, Brad G. ; Opio, Carolyn - \ 2019
In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability / Ferranti, P., Berry, E.M., Anderson, J.R., Elsevier - ISBN 9780128126875 - p. 488 - 496.
Acidification - Agriculture - Biodiversity - Crops - Eutrophication - Food security - Global warming - Impact assessment - Livestock - Packaging - Product environmental footprinting - Science communication - Sustainability - Water scarcity
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a rigorous framework to assess a product against a range of environmental impact categories from the ‘cradle to the grave’. LCA sets out a clear method for analysis, including goal and scope definition, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) development, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and interpretation. This article provides an overview of each of these LCA phases, with a specific focus on food and agriculture. We provide a summary of LCAs applied to food and agriculture, as well as insights into LCA’s function in providing a more food secure future.
Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence
Ansah, Isaac Gershon Kodwo ; Gardebroek, Cornelis ; Ihle, Rico - \ 2019
Food Security 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1187 - 1203.
Food security - Households - Measurement - Resilience
The way economic studies conceptualize and measure resilience is very heterogeneous. This does not only challenge scientific progress, but also raises the question of whether they measure one identical concept with different methods or whether they measure different understandings of resilience. This paper provides a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence on resilience from a food security perspective, focusing on socio-economic research. We perform a systematic literature search to identify recent publications that analyze resilience from the perspective of household food security. We examine the historical evolution of concepts and methods used for measuring resilience and synthesize the evidence. We find that conceptual and analytical models have evolved over time, with important technical adjustments. Studies initially focused on measuring resilience as an end in itself, but more recently resilience is understood as a means to an ultimate end, hence resilience capacity is measured instead. Also, resilience was initially measured as an indicator of food security. Currently it is measured distinctly from food security. Multivariate techniques are found to be frequently used to quantify resilience. The empirical evidence suggests that households with higher resilience capacity tend to have less child malnutrition and better food security. We find that causal pathways through which resilience capacity affects food security in a microeconomic framework are barely explicitly considered in empirical analyses. Therefore, we suggest a model which explicitly addresses these pathways.
Genetically modified and biofortified crops and food security in developing countries: A review
Adeyeye, Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan ; Idowu-Adebayo, Folake - \ 2019
Nutrition & Food Science 49 (2019)5. - ISSN 0034-6659
Biofortified crops - Developing countries - Food security - Genetically modified crops - Review
Purpose: In recent times, science and technology has taken a front seat in revolutionizing agricultural production and food processing globally with noticeable impact on food, nutrition and family health. This study was carried out to have a critical review of genetically modified (GM) foods and the use of GM and biofortified crops for food security in developing countries where foods are not adequately available and people are not food secured. Design/methodology/approach: A critical review of GM foods was undertaken and the use of GM and biofortified crops for food security in developing countries where foods are not adequately available and people are not food secured was carried out. Findings: Currently, there are no recent patents on GM and biofortified crops and this shows that there are more works to be done by policymakers, regulatory agencies, consumers and right organizations on environmental, health and biosafety of GM and biofortified crops. Advances in science and technology have changed our relationship with nature which enables crops to be modified and improved through selective breeding to obtain more stronger and productive crops. However, despite the benefits and improvements from GM and biofortified crops, controversy and arguments have continued to trail the consumption of GM and biofortified crops because of the perceived safety issues. Although genetic engineering has helped in developing fast-growing and pest-resistant crops, as well as reduction in use of pesticides, however, its impact on the environment and the consumers cannot be overemphasized. In conclusion, this study showed that the role of GM and biofortified crops for food security is the subject of public controversy; however, genetic engineering has the potential to improve world food production, increase food availability and influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food but the attendance potential risks related to food safety and avoidable environmental hazards should not be overlooked. There is need for comprehensive information on the impact of GM and biofortified crops on environment, human health and biosafety of the crops. Research limitations/implications: Few available literatures on the subject matter were critically reviewed. Practical implications: The paper helps in creating awareness for more in-depth research on GM and biofortified crops and their impacts on food security in developing countries where foods are not adequately available and people are not food secured. Originality/value: This research is of value to the researchers, policymakers and regulatory agencies in developing countries on food safety.
|Variable demand as a mean to sustainable first generation biofuels and biobased materials
Quist-Wessel, Foluke ; Gursel, Iris Vural ; Elbersen, Wolter ; Langeveld, Hans - \ 2019
In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Lisbon, Portugal : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - p. 1528 - 1535.
Agricultural productivity - Biobased chemicals - Biofuel policy - Biofuels - Food security - ILUC
This paper evaluates possible impacts of a variable biofuel demand (VBD) policy, i.e. a policy that adjusts biofuel production to changes in biomass availability as determined by variations in crop yield. The aim is to stimulate investments and enhancing efficiency in crop production while limiting competition with food in years of reduced crop availability.
Effect of market production on rural household food consumption: evidence from Uganda
Ntakyo, Proscovia Renzaho ; Berg, Marrit van den - \ 2019
Food Security 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1051 - 1070.
Food security - Market-oriented production - Propensity score matching - Uganda
Food access is an important element of food security that has since long been a major concern of rural households. One intervention to improve food access has been increased promotion of market production in the hope that households will get increased income and access to food through the market rather than through self-sufficiency characteristic of subsistence production. We examine the effect of market production on household food consumption using a case of rice in western Uganda, where rice is largely a cash crop. Our analysis is based on propensity score matching and instrumental variable approach using survey data collected from 1137 rural households. We find evidence of negative significant effects of market production on calorie consumption; More commercialized households are more likely to consume less than the required calories per adult equivalent per day. This implies that the substitution effects due to higher shadow prices of food outweigh the income effects of additional crop sales. On the contrary, we find positive significant effects on household dietary diversity. We suggest a mixed approach combining policies targeted at market production as well as production for own consumption, and nutrition sensitization.