- Michiel Korthals (1)
- Mathijs Leeuwen Van (1)
- Cees M.J. Woerkum Van (1)
- Tamara Metze (2)
- Andries Richter (1)
- Cinthia Soto Golcher (1)
- Elisabeth Thuestad Isaksen (1)
- Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers (1)
Positive framing does not solve the tragedy of the commons
Isaksen, Elisabeth Thuestad ; Brekke, Kjell Arne ; Richter, Andries - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 95 (2019). - ISSN 0095-0696 - p. 45 - 56.
Common pool experiment - Externality - Framing - Public goods experiment - Rivalry - Strategic complements - Strategic substitutes
We investigate whether positive framing increases cooperation in three social dilemmas with slightly different properties: a linear public goods (PG) game, a non-linear PG game, and a common pool resource (CPR) game. Results from our laboratory experiments show that contributions to a linear PG are higher if the externality is framed positively, rather than negatively, corroborating earlier findings by Andreoni (1995). By contrast, we find no such framing effects in the non-linear PG game or the CPR game. In these games, the best response in the material payoffs is to contribute less if others contribute more, counteracting effects of pro-social preferences. Positive framing therefore does not help to solve the tragedy of the commons.
Fuel to the fire : Risk governance and framing of shale gas in the Netherlands
Metze, Tamara - \ 2018
The Extractive Industries and Society 5 (2018)4. - ISSN 2214-790X - p. 663 - 672.
Energy controversy - Framing - Hydraulic fracturing - Shale gas - the Netherlands
Public resistance to shale gas in the Netherlands came as a surprise to governing actors. The Netherlands was a ‘gas land’ and shale gas extraction had been successfully framed as ‘business as usual’. However, in the eyes of the general public it turned into a ‘risky business’ and national government had to adjust their risk governance strategies. This study of the dynamics between national government's risk governance strategies, framing, and societal responses, shows that this wicked problem could not be managed by authoritative risk governance strategies, nor by collaborative risk governance strategies. Rather, these strategies added fuel to the fire, and resistance increased. The results indicate that all sorts of risk governance strategies, but especially collaborative risk governance strategies, should better take into account the normative dimensions of a conflict, and reflect on who is the legitimate actor to govern the issue. This ‘controversy governance’ includes the possibility to discuss the desirability and necessity of mining activities, and a reflection on who is a legitimate decision maker on a wicked problem.
Seeing the forest, missing the field : Forests and agriculture in global climate change policy
Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Arts, Bas ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 627 - 640.
Agenda setting - Agriculture - Climate change - Food - Framing - REDD+
As the climate change problem becomes more eminent, there is more pressure to increase efforts in all sectors and countries. The land-use sector is seen as an option to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and key in achieving a balance in GHG emissions and removals by sinks by 2050, as envisioned in the Paris Agreement. This article presents two comparative case studies within the climate change arena and aims to understand how and why: 1) tropical deforestation and forest degradation have secured a prominent place on the international climate change agenda, while 2) agriculture has not secured a prominent place. We use the agenda-setting multi-stream approach (MSA), while adding a framing layer. Based on primary data (including an international workshop with forest and agriculture experts, interviews, and participation in key international meetings), and secondary data, this article concludes that REDD + is an example of how a condition was framed as a problem, a viable proposal was developed, and political will and receptivity was shown, all of which placed REDD + high on the agenda, and generated its legal and methodological framework over the course of ten years. In these efforts, the role of policy entrepreneurs was key. Agriculture, on the other hand, is a more complex sector with multiple interests and millions of stakeholders. The consideration of agriculture, in particular its mitigation component, is therefore a highly contentious issue. The fear of new binding commitments and the potential threat to food security and production, and the lack of a convincing proposal that addresses the multiple values of agriculture has impeded substantive progress. Also, the absence of a committed policy entrepreneur limits the place of agriculture in the climate change agenda under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Exploring the framing of animal farming and meat consumption : On the diversity of topics used and qualitative patterns in selected demographic contexts
Nijland, Hanneke J. ; Aarts, Noelle ; Woerkum, Cees M.J. Van - \ 2018
Animals 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2076-2615
Animal farming - Animal welfare - Complexity - Contextual influence - Environmental impact - Framing - Human health - Meat consumption - Taste - Topics
In various contexts, people talk about animal farming andmeat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: The Netherlands and Turkey. We describe themethodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts, people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics, symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation withmultiple interdependent contextual features.
Framing the future of fracking : Discursive lock-in or energy degrowth in the Netherlands?
Metze, Tamara - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 197 (2018)2. - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1737 - 1745.
Degrowth - Framing - Hydraulic fracturing - Shale gas - Socio-technological futures - Technology
Hydraulic fracturing is a technology developed to improve and increase the production of natural gas. In many countries, including the Netherlands, it has caused environmental controversies. In these controversies, 'futurity framing' may open up debates for alternative paradigms such as 'degrowth,' which is the pursuing of collective and deliberative, downscaled production of (natural) resources and less consumption for convivial living. Based on a frame analysis, it is demonstrated that opponents and proponents of fracking have envisaged pessimistic energy futures either to promote or devaluate fracking technology. In addition, the results show that dominant technological enthusiasm has enabled the introduction of 'degrowth technology,' which are downscaled, decentralized and renewable energy technologies. Degrowth-technology framing may provide a means of access for more radical degrowth thinking in the energy debates. This empirical finding also indicates that the degrowth paradigm could include controversies as entry points for creating support for degrowth thinking.
Ethics of Dietary Guidelines : Nutrients, Processes and Meals
Korthals, Michiel - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (2017)3. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 413 - 421.
Dietary guidelines - Experts - Food capabilities - Framing - Meals - Nutrients - Power
Dietary guidelines are mostly issued by agrifood departments or agencies of governments, and are the result of power play between interest groups and values. They have considerable influence over food preferences and purchases of consumers. Ethical problems are at stake not only with respect to power strategies and their influence on consumers. In this paper I will consider three different types of guidelines: a nutrient oriented type (like the Dutch or American ones), a process oriented type (Scrinis in Nutritionism: the science and politics of dietary advice, Columbia University Press, New York, 2013) and a meal oriented type (like the Brazilian one). In the nutrient oriented guidelines healthy nutrients and food stuffs are mentioned that excel in containing one or more ‘healthy’ nutrients. Bio- and nutrition scientists and the producers of nutrients, like the sugar, dairy and animal industry, have a lot of influence in this variant. The nutrient oriented framing of food is focussed on individual health. Individuals are implicitly addressed to take responsibility for their own long term health; they have to acquire surveillance and cognitive skills in interpreting their bio data. They don’t need to acquire skills to cook. In the process oriented type, foods and ingredients are categorized according to minimal, refined and reconstituted production processes. Nutrition scientists have the last say here. Consumers do need some food skills to handle fresh products. In the meal oriented guidelines, politicians, social scientists and fresh food producers have prominent responsibilities with respect to the formulation of the guidelines and their application. Buying fresh products, preparing and eating together are the main themes. Food is framed in terms of cooking, and eating and sharing meals. Consumers have to spend time in buying fresh ingredients and cooking; they have to develop food capabilities. The formulation of dietary guidelines is not a neutral operation, but determined by controversies about framings of food and health, responsibilities and also by integrity and self-confidence of experts. It is striking that biological and nutrition scientists often proclaim to possess the final truth on the healthiness of nutrients, and heap scorn on diet gurus. They don’t care that their often incoherent recommendations cause a lot of confusion with consumers and sometimes even lack of trust. I discuss these themes in the paper and will also give some arguments why in the current situation the meal oriented type is ethically more acceptable.
Theorizing the Land-Violent Conflict Nexus
Leeuwen, Mathijs Van; Haar, G. Van Der - \ 2016
World Development 78 (2016). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 94 - 104.
Alliance - Conflict studies - Framing - Land conflict - Legal anthropology - Political ecology
While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict that are centered on scarcity and institutional failure. While underlining the contribution of these critical approaches, we argue that questions about what is actually at stake in so-called "land-conflicts", and in particular how localized land disputes and large-scale violence get connected, are not yet adequately addressed. To further theorizing on this point the paper proposes to take on board advances made in the wider field of conflict studies, notably the notions of war as a "social project" and "warscapes". We emphasize the importance of "alliances" between local disputes and broader cleavages, and of processes of "framing". The added value of such a perspective is then illustrated by case-studies based on original fieldwork in Burundi and Chiapas (Mexico), that bring out how sense-making of social actors at different levels, including development interveners, interlocks through alliances and framing. We suggest that academic research should analyze how particular land-related conflicts are performed, stimulated, interpreted, and used. Our argument also implies that policy makers and development practitioners should be aware that their work is not neutral, and should be more attentive to how their programs feed into processes of sense-making and mobilization. More generally, the paper de-naturalizes the link between land and conflict and draws land conflict analysis into the realm of social practice.