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- M.C. Nielsen (1)
- M. Olstedt (1)
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The impact of dispersal, plant genotype and nematodes on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization
Rasmussen, Pil U. ; Chareesri, Anupol ; Neilson, Roy ; Bennett, Alison E. ; Tack, Ayco J.M. - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 132 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 28 - 35.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Colonization ability - Dispersal - Genotype - Nematodes - Plantago lanceolata
While the majority of parasitic and mutualistic microbes have the potential for long-range dispersal, the high turnover in community composition among nearby hosts has often been interpreted to reflect dispersal constraints. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we need further insights into the relative importance of dispersal limitation, host genotype and the biotic environment on the colonization process. We focused on the important root symbionts, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We studied AM fungal colonization ability in a controlled mesocosm setting, where we placed Plantago lanceolata plants belonging to four different genotypes in sterile soil at 10, 30 and 70 cm from a central AM fungal inoculated P. lanceolata plant. In part of the mesocosms, we also inoculated the source plants with nematodes. AM fungi colonized receiver plants <1 m away over the course of ten weeks, with a strong effect of distance from source plant on AM fungal colonization. Plant genotype influenced AM fungal colonization during the early stages of colonization, while nematode inoculation had no effect on AM fungal colonization. Overall, the effect of both dispersal limitation and plant genetic variation may underlie the small-scale heterogeneity found in natural AM fungal communities.
Feather pecking genotype and phenotype affect behavioural responses of laying hens
Eijk, Jerine A.J. van der; Lammers, Aart ; Li, Peiyun ; Kjaer, Joergen B. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 205 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 141 - 150.
Activity - Coping style - Fearfulness - Feather pecking - Genotype - Phenotype
Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare and economic issue in the egg production industry. Behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness, have been related to FP. However, it is unknown how divergent selection on FP affects fearfulness in comparison to no selection on FP. Therefore, we compared responses of birds selected on low (LFP) and high feather pecking (HFP) with birds from an unselected control line (CON) to several behavioural tests (i.e. novel object (NO), novel environment (NE), open field (OF) and tonic immobility (TI)) at young and adult ages. Furthermore, the relation between actual FP behaviour (i.e. FP phenotypes) and fearfulness is not well understood. Therefore, we compared responses of birds with differing FP phenotypes. Feather pecking phenotypes of individual birds were identified via FP observations at several ages. The number of severe feather pecks given and received was used to categorize birds as feather peckers, feather pecker-victims, victims or neutrals. Here we show that HFP birds repeatedly had more active responses (i.e. they approached a NO sooner, vocalized sooner and more, showed more flight attempts and had shorter TI durations), which could indicate lower fearfulness, compared to CON and LFP birds at both young and adult ages. Within the HFP line, feather peckers had more active responses (i.e. they tended to show more flight attempts compared to victims and tended to walk more compared to neutrals), suggesting lower fearfulness, compared to victims and neutrals. Thus, in this study high FP seems to be related to low fearfulness, which is opposite to what previously has been found in other experimental and commercial lines. This stresses the need for further research into the genetic and phenotypic correlations between FP and fearfulness in various populations of chickens, especially in commercial lines. Findings from experimental lines should be used with caution when developing control and/or prevention methods that are to be applied in commercial settings. Furthermore, activity and/or coping style might overrule fearfulness within the HFP line, as HFP birds and feather peckers within the HFP line had more active responses. This might indicate a complex interplay between fearfulness, activity and coping style that could play a role in the development of FP.
Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam
Amid, C. ; Olstedt, M. ; Gunnarsson, J.S. ; Lan, H. Le; Tran Thi Minh, H. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Hellström, M. ; Tedengren, M. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)14. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 13360 - 13372.
Adaptation - Chlorophyll - Climate change - Coral bleaching - Digital image analysis - Genotype - Global warming - Pesticides - Tolerance - Zooxanthellae
The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 °C) and at 3 °C elevated water temperatures (31 °C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts. All corals from the MPA started to bleach in the laboratory before they were exposed to the treatments, indicating that they were very sensitive, as opposed to the corals collected from the more polluted site, which were more tolerant and showed no bleaching response to temperature increase or herbicide alone. However, the combined exposure to the stressors resulted in significant loss of color, proportional to loss in chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae. The difference in sensitivity of the corals collected from the polluted site versus the MPA site could be explained by different symbiont types: the resilient type C3u and the stress-sensitive types C21 and C23, respectively. The additive effect of elevated temperatures and herbicides adds further weight to the notion that the bleaching of coral reefs is accelerated in the presence of multiple stressors. These results suggest that the corals in Nha Trang bay have adapted to the ongoing pollution to become more tolerant to anthropogenic stressors, and that multiple stressors hamper this resilience. The loss of color and decrease of chlorophyll a suggest that bleaching is related to concentration of chloro-pigments. The colorimetric method could be further fine-tuned and used as a precise, non-intrusive tool for monitoring coral bleaching in situ.
Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands
Ito, Takafumi ; Kurita, Jun ; Haenen, Olga L.M. - \ 2017
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 126 (2017). - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 51 - 62.
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 - Disease spread - Genotype - Goldfish - International trade - Ornamental fish - Risk factor
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of the causative virus to other areas, investigation of the risk factors of spread of this virus is important. In this study, 8 batches of goldfish imported into the Netherlands by airfreight from Asia and the Middle East were investigated for the presence of the virus. CyHV- 2 DNA was detected by PCR in the pooled kidneys of 4 of the 8 imported goldfish batches, of which 1 was from a CyHV-2 disease case at a Dutch importer's quarantine facility. Sequence analysis of the CyHV-2 strains from this study and from previous reports showed that there were at least 6 different lengths in the mA region, resulting in tentatively at least 4 genotypes. Virus isolation was positive for only 1 (Amsterdam Schiphol-1 [AMS-1]) of the 8 samples. It was shown that the AMS-1 isolate was highly virulent to Ryukin goldfish after 100.3 TCID50 fish-1 intraperitoneal injection. The viral titre of the AMS-1 isolate for goldfish fin cells at several temperatures was similar to that of a Japanese CyHV-2 isolate. Our results prove that one of the routes of spread of various CyHV-2 strains is through the global trade of apparently healthy infected goldfish.
Barley seed aging : Genetics behind the dry elevated pressure of oxygen aging and moist controlled deterioration
Nagel, Manuela ; Kodde, Jan ; Pistrick, Sibylle ; Mascher, Martin ; Börner, Andreas ; Groot, Steven P.C. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016). - ISSN 1664-462X
Caryopsis - Genotype - Germination - Linkage mapping - Seed conservation - Seed storage
Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.
Olfactory responses of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) populations to a non-pheromone lure
Nielsen, M.C. ; Worner, S.P. ; Rostás, M. ; Chapman, R.B. ; Butler, R.C. ; Kogel, W.J. de; Teulon, D.A.J. - \ 2015
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 156 (2015)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 254 - 262.
Attractant - Feeding history - Genotype - Host plant - Kairomone - Methyl isonicotinate - Rearing conditions - Semiochemicals - Thripidae - Thysanoptera - Y-tube olfactometer
Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of horticultural crops worldwide. The search for alternative pest management techniques has resulted in increasing interest in the use of kairomones and other behaviour-modifying chemicals to mitigate the impact of this pest. In this study, we determined whether the origin of populations, feeding history, and/or genotype influence the response of WFT to the thrips kairomone lure methyl isonicotinate (MI) in a Y-tube olfactometer study. Four New Zealand thrips populations were tested: (1) from a commercial glasshouse capsicum crop, (2) from a long-established laboratory colony (>222 generations) kept on chrysanthemums, (3) from a laboratory colony (6-9 generations) kept on French dwarf beans, and (4) thought to be a separate cryptic non-pest species from outdoor yellow tree lupins, Lupinus arboreus Sims (Fabaceae). In the laboratory tests, significantly more WFT from all four populations chose the MI-laden arm of a Y-tube olfactometer when it contained 1 μl methyl isonicotinate (61.3-73.2%) compared with the blank no-odour arm. No differences in response to MI were found between the two laboratory and the one glasshouse WFT populations. Both laboratory populations and the greenhouse population belonged to the 'glasshouse pest' genotype of WFT. However, the cryptic non-pest WFT genotype responded more strongly to MI than any of the other populations, although the response was only significantly stronger than that of the long-established laboratory population. Significant differences were also found among populations in the average time taken for thrips to make a choice to enter either arm of the Y-tube olfactometer, with the cryptic non-pest lupin genotype taking the shortest time, followed by thrips from the capsicum glasshouse. The results are discussed with respect to the variability in olfactory perception and olfactory behaviour within a species and the relevance to the use of such a kairomone lure in pest management programmes.