Enabling local public health adaptation to climate change
Austin, Stephanie E. ; Ford, James D. ; Berrang-Ford, Lea ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Ross, Nancy A. - \ 2019
Social Science and Medicine 220 (2019). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 236 - 244.
Adaptation - Adaptive capacity - Canada - Climate change - Germany - Health policy - Multi-level governance - Public health
Local public health authorities often lack the capacity to adapt to climate change, despite being on the ‘front lines’ of climate impacts. Upper-level governments are well positioned to create an enabling environment for adaptation and build local public health authorities' capacity, yet adaptation literature has not specified how upper-level governments can build local-level adaptive capacity. In this paper we examine how federal and regional governments can contribute to enabling and supporting public health adaptation to climate change at the local level in federal systems. We outline the local level's self-assessed adaptive capacity for public health adaptation in Canadian and German comparative case studies, in terms of funding, knowledge and skills, organizations, and prioritization, drawing upon 30 semi-structured interviews. Based on interviewees' recommendations and complemented by scientific literature, we develop a set of practical measures that could enable or support local-level public health adaptation. We find that adaptive capacity varies widely between local public health authorities, but most report having insufficient funding and staff for adaptation activities. We propose 10 specific measures upper-level governments can take to build local public health authorities' capacity for adaptation, under the interrelated target areas of: building financial capital; developing and disseminating usable knowledge; collaborating and coordinating for shared knowledge; and claiming leadership. Federal and regional governments have an important role to play in enabling local-level public health adaptation, and have many instruments available to them to fulfill that role. Selecting and implementing measures to enable local public health authorities' adaptive capacity will require tailoring to, and consideration, of the local context and needs.
Intergovernmental relations for public health adaptation to climate change in the federalist states of Canada and Germany
Austin, Stephanie E. ; Ford, James D. ; Berrang-Ford, Lea ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Tosun, Jale ; Ross, Nancy A. - \ 2018
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 52 (2018). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 226 - 237.
Canada - Climate change adaptation - Federalism - Germany - Intergovernmental relations - Public health
Climate change is a significant threat to public health, and governments at all scales will need to adapt to protect the health of their populations. The impacts of climate change are highly localized and thus federal systems theoretically have the inherent advantage of allowing for regional diversity and policy experimentation in adaptation. However, there are also higher levels of conflict and stalemates in federal systems than in unitary systems, complicating intergovernmental relations and coordination necessary for public health adaptation. We examine how intergovernmental dynamics are patterned across national, regional and local levels of government for public health adaptation to climate change, drawing upon semi-structured interviews (n = 28) in comparative embedded case studies of Canada and Germany. We find that coordination between levels of government specifically for climate change and health is rare, but climate change issues are occasionally discussed through working groups or through existing methods of public health coordination. These findings have implications for national and regional governments in federal systems seeking to enable sub-national public health adaptation to climate change and create synergies between levels of government.
Price and Volatility Transmission and Market Power in the German Fresh Pork Supply Chain
Assefa, Tsion Taye ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Gardebroek, Koos ; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural Economics 68 (2017)3. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 861 - 880.
Food supply chain - Germany - market power - price transmission - price volatility transmission
We investigate the relationship between the transmission of price volatility and market power in the German fresh pork supply chain. We use a theoretical model underpinning this relationship followed by an empirical application that uses monthly farm, slaughterhouse and retail pork price data for the period 2000–2011. We examine both the relationships of market power with price level transmission and price volatility transmission in the chain. We use a vector error correction model and least squares regressions to analyse price transmission and price volatility transmissions, respectively. Results show that retail market power limited both types of transmissions. Competition inducing policy measures coupled with measures that support price risk management initiatives of chain actors are suggested.
The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany
Punt, Maarten J. ; Venus, Thomas J. ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2017
AgBioForum 20 (2017)1. - ISSN 1522-936X - p. 24 - 36.
Coexistence - Ex-ante costs - Ex-post costs - Germany - GM maize - Regulation
In the European Union, freedom of choice between genetically modified (GM) and conventional or organic crops, for both producers and consumers, should be provided through coexistence measures. Coexistence measures at the farm level differ in costs and effectiveness and should not tip the balance for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when cultivation of Bt maize was allowed. We interviewed former Bt maize farmers and their neighbors concerning their experience with Bt maize cultivation and the costs of coexistence measures. The results show the clear differences in burden between the different measures. In addition, we show that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures.
Environmental inferences and chironomid-based temperature reconstructions from fragmentary records of the Weichselian Early Glacial and Pleniglacial periods in the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany)
Engels, S. ; Bohncke, S.J.P. ; Bos, J.A.A. ; Heiri, O. ; Vandenberghe, J. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2008
Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 260 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0031-0182 - p. 405 - 416.
Chironomids - Climate reconstruction - Floodplain - Germany - Lake sediments - Plant macrofossils - Pollen - Weichselian
We inferred past climate conditions from lacustrine sediments intercalated in Weichselian Early Glacial and Early Pleniglacial fluvial and aeolian sediments, exposed in two opencast lignite mines from the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany). A chronology was established using radiocarbon and luminescence dating methods. Both lithology and chironomid fauna indicate that the former shallow lakes were situated on a floodplain. Palaeotemperature estimates calculated from the fossil chironomid-assemblages of the Early Glacial lacustrine deposit indicate mean July air temperatures of ca. 15 °C, which is in line with results derived in earlier studies from the Niederlausitz area and from northwestern Europe. The Early Pleniglacial lacustrine deposits consist of an organic-rich gyttja, intercalated with sand and silt lenses. The chironomid-assemblages show that a shallow meso- to eutrophic lake was present at the study site, and chironomid-inferred palaeotemperature estimates indicate an abrupt decline in July air temperatures from 15-16 °C to ca. 13 °C. In combination with other proxies from the same record, this suggests a Dansgaard/Oeschger like climate event.
|Verslag van de bijeenkomst van de Sektion Waldernaehrung im Deutschen Verband Forstlicher Forschungsanstalten te Freiburg i. Br. (Baden - Wuerttemberg) 2 t/m 4 oktober 1990 : "Salzduengung oder Kalkung in geschaedigten Waldoekosystemen?"
Burg, J. van den - \ 1990
Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / De Dorschkamp Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 628) - 70
bosbouw - bomen - bosschade - bodemeigenschappen - achteruitgang, bossen - levensvatbaarheid - aluminium - atmosfeer - luchtverontreiniging - chemicaliën - calcium - Duitsland - Picea abies - bosopstanden - bemesting - forestry - trees - forest damage - soil properties - forest decline - viability - aluminium - atmosphere - air pollution - chemicals - calcium - Germany - Picea abies - forest stands - fertilizer application
|Duitse tijdschriften in de bibliotheek van het Ministerie van landbouw en visserij, Den Haag, op het gebied van de sierteelt
Anonymous, - \ 1972
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3433)
bibliografieën - catalogi - Duitsland - bibliotheken - sierplanten - Nederland - zuid-holland - bibliographies - catalogues - Germany - libraries - ornamental plants - Netherlands - zuid-holland
|Landbouwvoorlichting in Duitsland
Anonymous, - \ 1967
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 2818)
landbouw - producten - informatie - informatiediensten - adviescentra - Duitsland - bibliografieën - technische informatie - agriculture - products - information - information services - advisory centres - Germany - bibliographies - technical information
|periglaciaire prewurmien : colloque internationale tenu a l'universite de Liege du 9 au 12 juin 1959; Ueber alt - und mittelpleistozaene Solifluktionsablagerungen im Stromberggebiet in Wuerttemberg
Dijk, D.C. van; Edelman, C.H. - \ 1960
Liege : [s.n.] - 11
erosie - eolische afzettingen - Duitsland - erosion - aeolian deposits - Germany
Verslag van de excursie, gemaakt met de werkgroep "Grasmat op dijken" naar de westkust van Sleeswijk - Holstein van 13 tot 17 juni 1955
Vries, D.M. de - \ 1956
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Gestencilde mededelingen / Centraal instituut voor landbouwkundig onderzoek 1956, no. 21) - 8
constructie - dammen - dijken - Duitsland - onderhoud - construction - dams - dykes - Germany - maintenance