Towards ecosystem-based management : identifying operational food-web indicators for marine ecosystems
Tam, Jamie C. ; Link, Jason S. ; Rossberg, Axel G. ; Rogers, Stuart I. ; Levin, Philip S. ; Rochet, Marie-Joelle ; Bundy, Alida ; Belgrano, Andrea ; Libralato, Simone ; Tomczak, Maciej ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Pranovi, Fabio ; Gorokhova, Elena ; Large, Scott I. ; Niquil, Nathalie ; Greenstreet, Simon P.R. ; Druon, Jean-Noel ; Lesutiene, Jurate ; Johansen, Marie ; Preciado, Izaskun ; Patricio, Joana ; Palialexis, Andreas ; Tett, Paul ; Johansen, Geir O. ; Houle, Jennifer ; Rindorf, Anna - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)7. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2040 - 2052.
ecoystem-based management - Good environmental status - Indicator selection - integrated ecosystem assessment - marine strategy framework directive
Modern approaches to Ecosystem-Based Management and sustainable use of marine resources must account for the myriad of pressures (interspecies, human and environmental) affecting marine ecosystems. The network of feeding interactions between co-existing species and populations (food webs) are an important aspect of all marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Here we describe and discuss a process to evaluate the selection of operational food-web indicators for use in evaluating marine ecosystem status. This process brought together experts in food-web ecology, marine ecology, and resource management, to identify available indicators that can be used to inform marine management. Standard evaluation criteria (availability and quality of data, conceptual basis, communicability, relevancy to management) were implemented
to identify practical food-web indicators ready for operational use and indicators that hold promise for future use in policy and management. The major attributes of the final suite of operational food-web indicators were structure and functioning. Indicators that represent resilience of the marine ecosystem were less developed. Over 60 potential food-web indicators were evaluated and the final selection of operational food-web indicators includes: the primary production required to sustain a fishery, the productivity of seabirds (or charismatic megafauna), zooplankton indicators, primary productivity, integrated trophic indicators, and the biomass of trophic guilds. More efforts
should be made to develop thresholds-based reference points for achieving Good Environmental Status. There is also a need for international
collaborations to develop indicators that will facilitate management in marine ecosystems used by multiple countries.
Mapping underwater sound in the dutch part of the North Sea
Özkan Sertlek, H. ; Aarts, Geert ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Slabbekoorn, Hans ; Cate, Carel ten; Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M. von; Ainslie, Michael A. - \ 2016
In: The effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II / Popper, A.N., Hawkins, A., Springer Science + Business Media (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 1001 - 1006.
Good environmental status - Shipping noise
The European Union requires member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status for their marine territorial waters and explicitly mentions potentially adverse effects of underwater sound. In this study, we focused on producing maps of underwater sound from various natural and anthropogenic origins in the Dutch North Sea. The source properties and sound propagation are simulated by mathematical methods. These maps could be used to assess and predict largescale effects on behavior and distribution of underwater marine life and therefore become a valuable tool in assessing and managing the impact of underwater sound on marine life.
Towards a framework for the quantitative assessment of trawling impact on the seabed and benthic ecoystem
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bastardie, F. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Bolam, S.G. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Hamon, K.G. ; Piet, G.J. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)S1. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. i127 - i138.
benthos - biological traits - Good environmental status - Indicators - Method
A framework to assess the impact of mobile fishing gear on the seabed and benthic ecosystem is presented. The framework that can be used at regional and local scales provides indicators for both trawling pressure and ecological impact. It builds on high-resolution maps of trawling intensity and considers the physical effects of trawl gears on the seabed, on marine taxa, and on the functioning of the benthic ecosystem. Within the framework, a reductionist approach is applied that breaks down a fishing gear into its components, and a number of biological traits are chosen to determine either the vulnerability of the benthos to the impact of that gear component, or to provide a proxy for their ecological role. The approach considers gear elements, such as otter boards, twin trawl clump, and groundrope, and sweeps that herd the fish. The physical impact of these elements on the seabed, comprising scraping of the seabed, sediment mobilization, and penetration, is a function of the mass, size, and speed of the individual component. The impact of the elements on the benthic community is quantified using a biological-trait approach that considers the vulnerability of the benthic community to trawl impact (e.g. sediment position, morphology), the recovery rate (e.g. longevity, maturation age, reproductive characteristics, dispersal), and their ecological role. The framework is explored to compare the indicators for pressure and ecological impact of bottom trawling in three main seabed habitat types in the North Sea. Preliminary results show that the Sublittoral mud (EUNIS A5.3) is affected the most due to the combined effect of intensive fishing and large proportions of long-lived taxa