Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The governance challenge of implementing long-term sustainability objectives with present-day investment decisions
    Pot, Wieke D. - \ 2020
    Journal of Cleaner Production 280 (2020)2. - ISSN 0959-6526
    Causal mechanisms - Governance - Public–private partnerships - Sustainability objectives - Water infrastructure

    Grand sustainability challenges and international sustainability agreements require national and local governments to further incorporate sustainability as part of their present-day investments in infrastructure. To strengthen public procurement as a policy tool for enhancing sustainability, recent systematic literature reviews call for more research on the interactions between actors in tender processes. Therefore, this article combines a governance lens with a process tracing approach to explain why it is difficult for governments to reach sustainability objectives with their present-day investment decisions. The results derive from a longitudinal case study of the investment process in a Dutch water pumping station and are based on primary documents, interviews, and observations of the tender procedure between 2017 and 2019. The research reveals that risk avoidance, goal satisfaction, and budget compliance interfere with the implementation of national and international sustainability objectives at the local level. There is need for more attention on learning as part of procurement procedures, scale flexibility to realize sustainability objectives efficiently and effectively, and prioritization of conflicting long-term objectives to avoid implementation gaps.

    Assembling tuna traceability in Indonesia
    Djelantik, Sita K. ; Bush, S.R. - \ 2020
    Geoforum (2020). - ISSN 0016-7185 - 8 p.
    Traceability - Transparency - Assemblage - Tuna - Indonesia - Governance
    Traceability is broadly understood as a technical means of understanding, communicating and steering the relations of production and trade in the global food system. Using an assemblage lens, this paper challenges this technical understanding by analysing how traceability affects and is affected by the relations that constitute global value chains. Analysing the introduction of the ThisFish traceability system in a small-scale tuna fishery in Indonesia we show how an NGO, Masyarakat dan Perikanan Indonesia (MDPI), de-stabilised existing relations and expertise around landing and trading tuna and subsequently re-stabilised these relations in a different assemblage through the collection, collation and management of fisheries data. In doing so MDPI worked through rather than reconfigured the social relations of production and trade in the implementation of traceability, thereby becoming part of the assemblage the NGO sought to change. The results demonstrate how the implementation of traceability is, in contrast to its technical framing, more accurately understood as a process of 'active embedding' by 'boundary subjects' who re-assemble contingent interactions by enacting multiple roles simultaneously. Traceability is as such contingent on the performance of these boundary subjects rather than on market incentives or objective monitoring and control. However, we also conclude that because it also dependent on the negotiated identity and function of these boundary subjects, traceability (and similar market based forms of governance) risk reinforcing rather than transforming the relations of production and trade they engage.
    Food systems everywhere: Improving relevance in practice
    Brouwer, Inge D. ; McDermott, John ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 26 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
    Environment - Food system transformation - Governance - Nutrition - Systems analysis

    Food systems approaches are increasingly used to better understand transitions in diets, sustainable resource use and social inclusion. Moreover, food systems frameworks are also widely used in many recent policy and foresight studies. We assess 32 highly-cited international studies, identifying and comparing differences in the frameworks used for food systems analysis, and discrepancies in the procedures to identify strategies for and performances of food system transformation. We show that the relevance of existing food systems analysis for identifying critical trade-offs and understanding relevant policies and practices for achieving synergies remains limited. While many studies are largely descriptive, some offer more practical insights into and evidence of entry points for food system transformation as well as opportunities for improving multiple food system outcomes (i.e. nutrition and health, environmental sustainability and resilience, social inclusion). We distinguish four different pathways for food system transformation and outline their analytical underpinnings, their views on multi-stakeholder governance, and how they deal with critical trade-offs between multiple food system objectives. We conclude that food systems approaches must be useful to decision makers and performance can only be improved if decision makers have a better understanding of these underlying interactions and dynamics of food systems change.

    Endogenous regime change : Lessons from transition pathways in Dutch dairy farming
    Runhaar, Hens ; Fünfschilling, Lea ; Pol-Van Dasselaar, Agnes van den; Moors, Ellen H.M. ; Temmink, Rani ; Hekkert, Marko - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 36 (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 137 - 150.
    Governance - Grazing - Institutional logics - Productivist agriculture - The Netherlands - Transformation

    Sustainability transitions are commonly considered impossible without regime change. Theoretical work on regime change has mainly focused on niches and landscapes and less on change ‘from within’. Empirical analysis helps theorising endogenous regime change. Conceptualising regimes as semi-coherent entities composed of multiple ‘institutional logics’, we analyse the endogenous regime change in Dutch dairy farming. Practices in this sector have become more and more market-driven. This dominant logic however was increasingly challenged by institutional logics centring round cultural identity and sustainability. Tensions particularly centred round the increased indoor housing of cows. The contestation of this practice eventually led to a first ‘crack’ in the regime, as it weakened the dominance of the market logic and enabled opportunities for more sustainability. Our case study shows that the presence of alternative institutional logics is necessary to crack the regime, but opportunities to patch it back together are similarly crucial to enable sustainability transitions.

    A mechanisms-based explanation of nutrition policy (dis)integration processes in Uganda
    Namugumya, Brenda Shenute ; Candel, Jeroen J.L. ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. - \ 2020
    Food Policy 92 (2020). - ISSN 0306-9192
    Causal mechanisms - Governance - Integrated nutrition strategies - Malnutrition - Policy integration - Uganda

    Many African governments have recently invested in strengthened nutrition policy integration to address malnutrition; as a step towards realising the targets of the Sustainable Development Goal 2. Previous studies have identified various factors that enable or constrain how nutrition integration occurs across policy sectors. However, the explanatory value of these studies has remained relatively limited, as the causal processes through which independent variables affect policy outcomes remain unelucidated. This paper addresses this gap by applying a causal mechanisms approach to investigate the processes that explain observed patterns of nutrition policy (dis)integration in different ministries in Uganda. We employed a process-tracing research design to reconstruct the context-mechanism configurations that explain the observed patterns of nutrition integration in Uganda between 2000 and 2017. Data was collected from interviews with 34 respondents, various policy and programming documents, and a focus group discussion. Our analysis reveals that increased nutrition policy integration is explained by four causal mechanisms: (1) international policy promotion; (2) issue promotion by international actors; (3) issue promotion by domestic policy entrepreneurs; and (4) instrumental policy learning. Conversely, two mechanisms led to policy disintegration: (1) leadership contestation; and (2) turf wars. All mechanisms proved activated by configurations of contextual conditions that were time- and organisation-specific. This study showed how a mechanisms approach can provide a more refined understanding of policy successes and failures in nutrition governance. Whereas integration-fostering mechanisms cannot be automated, both government and international actors working to scale up investments in nutrition need to consider and invest in the contextual conditions that allow for sustained nutrition policy integration and, ultimately, a more effective delivery of nutrition services. These include developing leadership for nutrition at different governance levels, domestic ownership and integration-fostering capacity, and supporting policy-oriented learning.

    What makes internationally-financed climate change adaptation projects focus on local communities? A configurational analysis of 30 Adaptation Fund projects
    Manuamorn, Ornsaran Pomme ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cebotari, Victor - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 61 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Adaptation Fund - Climate change adaptation - Community - Governance - International adaptation finance - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)

    There is much scholarly and policy interest in the role that international finance could play in closing the financing gap for community adaptation initiatives. Despite the interest, the overall amount of international adaptation finance that has reached local recipients remains low. What makes internationally-financed climate change adaptation projects focus on investment at the community level is particularly poorly understood. This study systematically assesses conditions that influence the focus on vulnerable local communities in internationally-financed adaptation projects. Using the Adaptation Fund (AF) under the Kyoto Protocol as the case study, we apply fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to analyze 30 AF projects to identify specific configurations of conditions that lead to a stronger or weaker community focus in project design. We find that the absence of high exposure to projected future climate risks is a necessary condition for a weaker community focus in AF projects. Three configurations of sufficient conditions are identified that lead to a stronger community focus. They involve the contextual factors of projected future climate risks, civil society governance, and access modality to AF financing. In particular, AF projects with a stronger community focus are stimulated by the sole presence of higher exposure to projected future climate risks in a group of countries, and by the complementary roles of civil society governance and the access modality to the AF in others. These findings contribute new insights on how to enhance local inclusiveness of global climate finance.

    Towards concerted government efforts? Assessing nutrition policy integration in Uganda
    Namugumya, Brenda Shenute ; Candel, Jeroen J.L. ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. - \ 2020
    Food Security 12 (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 355 - 368.
    Governance - Integrated nutrition strategies - Nutrition - Policy integration - Uganda
    To tackle malnutrition more effectively, Sub-Saharan African governments have developed overarching, integrative policy strategies over the past decade. Despite their popularity, little is known about their follow-up and ultimately their success (or failure). Consequently, tracking the progress of such political commitment has gained global importance. Various studies provide insights into changes in nutrition-related policies. Nevertheless, it is generally acknowledged that we have limited understanding of how nutrition concerns are explicitly addressed in policies of different ministries. This study uses a novel policy integration perspective to investigate the extent to which eight ministries in Uganda integrated nutrition concerns across their policy outputs between 2001 and 2017. The approach used assumes nutrition policy integration is a dynamic process occurring in different policy dimensions. We performed a qualitative content analysis to assess 103 policy outputs for changes in subsystems involved, policy goals, and instruments used. Overall, we found a shift towards increased integrated government action on nutrition over time. The 2011–2015 analysis period was a critical juncture where increased integration of nutrition was observed in all policy integration dimensions across all ministries. However, considerable variations in actor networks, goals, and instruments exist across sectors and over time. The sustainability of nutrition integration efforts remains contentious, because of which continuous monitoring will be essential.
    Spatial planning and place branding: rethinking relations and synergies
    Assche, Kristof Van; Beunen, Raoul ; Oliveira, Eduardo - \ 2020
    European Planning Studies 28 (2020)7. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 1274 - 1290.
    assets - Governance - narratives - place branding - spatial planning - value creation

    Spatial planning and place branding are allies in the discovery and creation of place narratives and assets as well as in contributing to spatial transformation or the improvement of the socio-spatial and spatial-economic conditions of a place. However, the existing and potential linkages between spatial planning and place branding are yet to be explored by both scientists and policy-makers. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we reflect upon the central themes of this special issue by placing them in the context of larger debates on the position of place branding and spatial planning in society. Secondly, we show that this requires attention to the many ways in which planning and branding can cross-fertilize each other and to the embedding of both in evolving spatial governance structures. We then conclude with a typology expanding the understanding of this linkage between spatial planning and place branding.

    The role of local energy initiatives in co-producing sustainable places
    Soares da Silva, Diogo ; Horlings, Lummina G. - \ 2020
    Sustainability Science 15 (2020). - ISSN 1862-4065 - p. 363 - 377.
    Citizen initiatives - Co-production - Energy transition - Governance - Local energy initiatives - Sustainable place shaping

    During the first two decades of the twenty-first century, the introduction of policies that promote renewable energy in Western European countries facilitated a shift towards the production of cleaner energy and its decentralisation. Subsidies, incentive schemes, and declining installation costs—combined with rapid technology advances—made the investment in small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines more attractive for individuals and small businesses. Simultaneously, we observe the emergence of citizen initiatives which aim to provide public services across various sectors, including renewable energy generation and distribution. These initiatives, started by citizens, often involve the participation of local residents and prioritise social and environmental goals. In some areas, governments and engaged citizens work together to achieve common goals through citizen–government co-production. In this article, we address the question: how can the co-production of government(s) and citizens, through local energy initiatives, contribute to the shaping of more sustainable places? Using the PlaCI model—a conceptual model of citizen initiatives and their role in shaping sustainable places—we conduct an analysis of WindpowerNijmegen, a citizen-led renewable energy cooperative in the Netherlands. We assess who the relevant stakeholders are, what are the enabling conditions for fruitful collaboration, which new arrangements are established, and how they contribute to shaping more sustainable places. The results indicate that local energy initiatives are place based, conditioned by the characteristics of the physical space needed for the production of renewable energy, specific institutional arrangements, place-based assets and people’s capacities characteristic for the place, and past collaboration.

    Mechanisms for policy (dis)integration: explaining food policy and climate change adaptation policy in the Netherlands
    Biesbroek, Robbert ; Candel, Jeroen J.L. - \ 2020
    Policy Sciences 53 (2020). - ISSN 0032-2687 - p. 61 - 84.
    Climate change adaptation - Crosscutting problems - Food policy - Governance - Policy integration - Policy mechanism

    Recent years have witnessed increased political interest to the challenge of organizing policy integration to govern societal problems that crosscut the boundaries of traditional government sectors and levels, including climate change, food insecurity, terrorism, and the instability of financial markets. Public policy scholars have recently suggested to study such attempts by conceptualizing policy integration as a multi-dimensional process. Although such a processual perspective has helped to comparatively assess policy (dis)integration, the mechanisms of (dis)integration over time remain undertheorized. Past studies have reported a number of relevant factors, but these have remained rather functionalistic observations that lack explanatory value. To address this gap, we propose a mechanism-based approach that uncovers the political processes that underlie policy (dis)integration over time. Rooted in different strands of social science literature, the mechanistic approach offers a model of causation to assess the plausible chain of key processes that are triggered under particular contextual conditions. We illustrate the framework by empirically investigating the mechanisms that explain the policy (dis)integration of food and climate change adaptation policy in the Netherlands. We end the paper with discussing various implications of our findings for processual approaches to policy integration.

    Capable to govern landscape restoration? Exploring landscape governance capabilities, based on literature and stakeholder perceptions
    Oosten, Cora van; Runhaar, Hens ; Arts, Bas - \ 2019
    Land Use Policy (2019). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Balanced outcomes - Capabilities - Challenges - Governance - Landscape - Legitimacy - Restoration

    Scholars, planners and practitioners worldwide are increasingly recognising that landscape governance is a promising approach for restoring forested landscapes and simultaneously achieving ecological, economic and social objectives. Because of its integrative nature, landscape governance involves actors who restore landscapes while operating in different economic and policy sectors and at various scales. Consequently, the governance of landscape restoration is typically associated with multi-stakeholder dialogue and negotiation on the different types and forms of restoration, and what these mean in terms of necessary trade-offs. In this article we consider landscape governance to be an indispensable element of landscape restoration that deserves specific attention in the restoration debate. Despite the growing body of literature on the challenges faced in landscape restoration, literature on the role of landscape governance in overcoming these challenges is scarce. Scholars often refer to the importance of the capabilities of the landscape actors involved, but without specifying the capabilities required, which actors require them and why. This article aims to fill this knowledge gap by analysing landscape restoration from a governance perspective, focusing on the key challenges faced by landscape governance and the key capabilities required by landscape actors to overcome them. To define landscape governance capabilities, and to identify their dimensions and categorisations, we consult the literature on landscape governance and on capability. We complement this literature review with our empirical data on the landscape governance capabilities as perceived by landscape professionals engaged in landscape restoration projects and programmes. Based on both, we develop an analytical framework that specifies some of the typical capabilities required for addressing the challenges faced by landscape governance aiming to achieve well-balanced and long-lasting landscape restoration legitimately. The framework not only helps fill a knowledge gap but can also be used to structure the debate on landscape restoration by elucidating landscape governance in various contexts.

    Research methods as bridging devices: path and context mapping in governance
    Assche, Kristof Van; Beunen, Raoul ; Gruezmacher, Monica ; Duineveld, Martijn ; Deacon, Leith ; Summers, Robert ; Hallstrom, Lars ; Jones, Kevin - \ 2019
    Journal of Organizational Change Management (2019). - ISSN 0953-4814
    Analysis - Context mapping - Governance - Path mapping - Research method - Strategy

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential, both analytically and practically, of understanding research methods as bridging devices. Methods can bridge theory and empirics, but it is argued that they can perform several bridging functions: between theory and praxis, between analysis and strategy and between past and future. The focus is on those forms of bridging relevant for understanding and effectuating change in governance, at community level and at the scale of organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper develops a perspective on methods as bridging devices. It uses the newly minted methods of governance path and context mapping as a case study. These methods conceptually derive from evolutionary governance theory (EGT) and were developed and tested in Canadian empirical research. The case helps to develop insight in features, forms and limitations of methods as bridging devices in governance research and practice. The authors then use the case to further develop the initial concept of bridging more generally, emphasizing the shifting balance between methods as bridging and creating boundaries. Findings: Both the case study and the theoretical analysis underline the necessary imperfection of any method as bridging device. The authors affirm the potential of method to perform different bridging functions at the same time, while revealing clear tradeoffs in each role. Tradeoffs occur with adapted versions of the method producing new strengths and weaknesses in new contexts. In each of the forms of bridging involved neither side can be reduced to the other, so a gap always remains. It is demonstrated that the practice of bridging through method in governance is greatly helped when methods are flexibly deployed in ongoing processes of bricolage, nesting and modification. Governance enables the continuous production of new framing devices and other methods. Originality/value: The idea of methods as bridging devices is new, and can assist the development of a broader understanding of the various forms and functions of research methods. Moreover, it helps to discern roles of research methods in the functioning of governance. The context of governance helps to recognize the multi-functionality of research methods, and their transformation in a context of pressured decision-making. Moreover, this approach contributes to the understanding of governance as adumbrated by EGT.

    Enforcement mechanisms and governance structures to protect a region of origin lamb product
    Merwe, Melissa van der; Kirsten, Johann F. ; Trienekens, Jacques H. - \ 2019
    Supply Chain Management : an International Journal 24 (2019)5. - ISSN 1359-8546 - p. 561 - 573.
    Conjoint analysis - Conjoint experiment - Enforcement mechanisms - Governance - Governance structures - Karoo Lamb - Meat industry - Monitoring - South Africa - Supplier relationships - Supply chain disruptions - Transactional model

    Purpose: This paper aims to make an empirical contribution by investigating the enforcement mechanisms and governance structures required to protect and govern a regional food product when public certification fails. As one of the recent additions to South Africa’s repertoire of products with a designated origin, Karoo Lamb made for an interesting case study. Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis was conducted to elicit the farmers’ preferred enforcement mechanisms to protect the authenticity of the Karoo Lamb product. The investigation, furthermore, draws on survey data collected among 73 farmers, five abattoirs, two processors/packers and five retail outlets to evaluate the governance structures of the Karoo Lamb supply chain. Findings: The results indicate that due to failed public certification that is governed by market-like structures, Karoo Lamb is better off being governed by hierarchical structures. These structures are expected to allow for a stronger focus on stricter enforcement mechanisms. Practical implications: At the farm level, the Karoo Lamb supply chain requires better enforcement mechanisms to protect the unique attributes of origin and taste to ensure the authenticity of Karoo Lamb. This change towards stricter enforcement requires more hierarchical structures to allow for private or mutual enforcement mechanisms. Originality/value: This paper contributes empirically to the governance structure knowledge base by analysing the enforcement mechanisms and governance structures needed to enforce and protect, the quality and origin standards of a region of origin product, Karoo Lamb, in South Africa.

    Envisioning new horizons for the political economy of sustainable food systems
    Duncan, Jessica ; Levkoe, Charles Z. ; Moragues-Faus, Ana - \ 2019
    IDS Bulletin-Institute of Development Studies 50 (2019)2. - ISSN 0265-5012 - p. 37 - 56.
    Food sovereignty - Food studies - Food systems - Governance - Interdisciplinary - Political ecology - Political economy - Power - Sustainability

    This article considers how political economy can expand to contribute to the contemporary study of sustainable food systems, raising new questions for researchers, practitioners, and social movement actors engaged in collaborative efforts to transform dominant foodscapes. Our discussion and analysis draw on the outcomes of a workshop of the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food) and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) on the political economies of sustainable food systems in June 2018. The workshop participants identified five cross-cutting research issues and related methods worthy of focus: multiple forms of knowledge, technology and innovation, expansion or scaling sustainable innovations, the role of the private sector, and democratic governance. We conclude by positing ways forward that contribute to the evolving political economy of sustainable food systems.

    Drought and conflicts at the local level: Establishing a water sharing mechanism for the summer-autumn rice production in Central Vietnam
    Huynh, Chuong Van; Scheltinga, Catharien Terwisscha van; Pham, Ty Huu ; Duong, Non Quoc ; Tran, Phuong Thi ; Nguyen, Linh Hoang Khanh ; Pham, Tung Gia ; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ; Timmerman, Jos - \ 2019
    International Soil and Water Conservation Research 7 (2019)4. - ISSN 2095-6339 - p. 362 - 375.
    Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Governance - Rice production - Water sharing

    In recent years, water for agricultural production gradually became a significant challenge in the context of climate change in Vietnam. Sustainable solutions are required, which consider the use of resources for both human needs and ecology, and that account for the equitable distribution and the livelihood of the farmers now and in the future. In particular, the farmers in the province of Quang Nam facing water shortage in the cultivation of paddy in the summer-autumn season. Conflicts arise regarding the sharing of the water between the farmers, the drinking water company and the hydropower company. In the context of climate change, the water shortage is expected to increase in the future. The article presents the results of participatory action research (PAR) approach to develop a local level mechanism for water sharing, in which stakeholders actively participated. Water sharing mechanism was developed, envisioning a sustainable solution for inclusive water sharing. The mechanism was successfully implemented in two cases, one at commune level (Tho stream) and one at the district level (Mo stream). The participatory approach proved to be successful in setting up a broadly acceptable mechanism that will need to be further incorporated in the institutional set-up.

    A critical assessment of the wicked problem concept: relevance and usefulness for policy science and practice
    Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. ; Dewulf, Art ; Biesbroek, Robbert - \ 2019
    Policy and Society 38 (2019)2. - ISSN 1449-4035 - p. 167 - 179.
    decision-making - Governance - policy - wicked problems

    The concept of wicked problems has served as an inspiration for research in a variety of research fields but has also contributed to conceptual confusion through the various ways in which it has been defined and used. In this special issue, a number of ontological, theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. First, while its use as a buzzword has undermined precise conceptual definition, recent work goes beyond the wicked versus tame dichotomy and conceptualizes wickedness as a matter of degree, differentiates between dimensions of wickedness and emphasizes the relational character of problem definitions. Second, new and existing governance approaches have often been unproblematically proposed as ways to solve wicked problems, while only imperfect solutions, partial solutions or small wins are achievable in practice. Third, the concept of wicked problems has had little direct impact on policy theories, and while some argue that the analysis of wicked problems should be mainstreamed in public policy thinking, others propose to reject the concept and rely on existing policy theories. Fourth, as a concept used in policy practice, wicked problems tend to provoke either paralysis or an overestimation of what policy can do about wicked problems. Possible ways forward include (1) leaving the concept behind; (2) using the wicked problems literature as knowledge base to understand when and why policy and governance approaches fail; and (3) developing dimensions of wicked problems (i.e. conflict, complexity and uncertainty) into more analytically precise research tools and linking them with more closely with contemporary policy science developments.

    New directions in earth system governance research
    Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
    Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
    Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
    The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
    How to enhance the role of science in European Union policy making and implementation: The case of agricultural impacts on drinking water quality
    Glavan, Matjaž ; Železnikar, Špela ; Velthof, Gerard ; Boekhold, Sandra ; Langaas, Sindre ; Pintar, Marina - \ 2019
    Water 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Agriculture - Drinking water - EU policy - Governance - Integrated scientific support - Nitrates - Pesticides - Water quality

    Throughout the European Union (EU), high concentrations of nitrates and pesticides are among the major polluting components of drinking water and have potential long-term impacts on the environment and human health. Many research projects co-funded by the European Commission have been carried out, but the results often do not influence policy making and implementation to the extent that is duly justified. This paper assesses several issues and barriers that weaken the role of science in EU policy making and EU policy implementation in the case of agricultural impacts on drinking water quality. It then proposes improvements and solutions to strengthen the role of science in this process. The analysis is conceptual but supported empirically by a desk study, a workshop, and complementary individual interviews, mostly with representatives of organizations working at the EU level. The results indicate that perceived barriers are mostly observed on the national or regional level and are connected with a lack of political will, scarce instruction on the legislation implementation process, and a lack of funding opportunities for science to be included in policy making and further EU policy implementation. In response to that, we suggest translating scientific knowledge on technological, practical or environmental changes and using dissemination techniques for specific audiences and in local languages. Further, the relationship between data, information and decision making needs to change by implementing monitoring in real-time, which will allow for the quick adaptation of strategies. In addition, we suggest project clustering (science, policy, stakeholders, and citizens) to make science and research more connected to current policy challenges and stakeholder needs along with citizen involvement with an aim of establishing sustainable long-term relationships and communication flows.

    Emerging trends in aquaculture value chain research
    Bush, S.R. ; Belton, Ben ; Little, D.C. ; Islam, Saidul - \ 2019
    Aquaculture 498 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 428 - 434.
    Value chains - Development - Governance - Trade - Global South - Innovation - Sustainability
    This paper introduces a special issue of Aquaculture that brings together the largest collection of research on aquaculture value chains compiled to date, comprising 19 individual papers and this introductory review. The introduction identifies five themes emerging from research on aquaculture value chains in the special issue, namely: multi-polarity, diversity and scale, dynamics of transformation, performance and equity, and technical and institutional innovation. Contrary to much research to date, the papers addressing these themes show how the expansion of aquaculture has resulted highly diverse configurations of production for consumption in the global South. Collectively, the papers highlight the need for greater attention to neglected value chain segments and categories of actor, modes of production, regulation, and innovation, and patterns of access to benefits. The papers synthesized also affirm the need for more rigorous and diverse future value chain research to illuminate the aquaculture sector's ongoing development, and contribute to the sustainable expansion as an increasingly important component of the global food system.
    Household inclusion in the governance of housing retrofitting : Analysing Chinese and Dutch systems of energy retrofit provision
    Feijter, F.J. de; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Chen, Y. - \ 2019
    Energy Research & Social Science 53 (2019). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 10 - 22.
    Housing retrofitting - Governance - Energy consumption - Everyday life - Systems of provision - Household-provider interactions - China - The Netherlands
    One of the most important governance challenges in terms of energy saving is the physical upgrading of apartment buildings via housing retrofitting. In urban studies, little focus has been applied to the shape and character of the retrofit governance frameworks to realise inclusion of householders. Little is known about how these different frameworks, and the systems of provision they represent, impact on householders to achieve energy saving in their retrofitted houses. By recognising the importance of the relationship between provision and consumption, this study aims to analyse household inclusion in Chinese and Dutch systems of energy retrofit provision to suggest strategic improvements for intermediation. The empirical data is gathered in qualitative case studies of housing retrofitting in Amsterdam, Beijing and Mianyang (Sichuan province, China) by interviewing local retrofit providers, combined with site observations and reviews of policy documents. This paper shows how the formation of sustainable retrofit practices is co-constituted in shifting constellations of retrofit governance along the public-private-community divide. Public and private modes of housing retrofit provision seem to converge in Beijing, Mianyang and Amsterdam. The findings point to how regulations, processes and technical infrastructures should be adjusted to realise sustainable retrofit practices. The paper concludes that energy housing retrofitting in both Chinese and Dutch contexts requires co-management among householders and social intermediaries.
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