A method to quantify the energy-saving performance of greenhouse screen materials
Hemming, S. ; Baeza Romero, E.J. ; Breugel, A.J. van; Mohammadkhani, V. - \ 2018
Acta Horticulturae 1227 (2018). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 221 - 229.
Air permeability - Dynamic greenhouse model - Emission - Energy saving - Greenhouse screens - Thermal infrared transmission - Water vapour permeability
Screens used in practice are made from various material compositions (woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, foils, open or closed structures, transparent, diffuse, aluminized, various colours) and for various purposes (energy saving, reduction in light sum, or diffuse light obscuration). An important goal of the use of screens in Dutch greenhouses is to save energy. Unfortunately, to date, there is no objective method to determine the energy-saving performance of a material under standardized conditions. Energy-saving rates are estimated by manufacturers using different methods. Growers have no way of comparing material performances independently in order to make a proper investment decision. In the current research, the goal was to develop a method to quantify the energy-saving performance of greenhouse screen materials under standardized conditions. The method is based on the scientific literature and expertise of different screen producers and growers. The research focused on the three main aspects that affect energy saving of a screen: 1) thermal radiation losses, determined by the emissivity and reflectivity for thermal infrared radiation; 2) air permeability, which determines heat convection losses, characterized at a wide range of air velocities to account for velocities by buoyancy through materials as well as for velocities by forced convection caused by internal fans; and 3) water vapour permeability, which determines latent heat losses, determined under temperature, humidity and air velocity conditions normally encountered in commercial greenhouses. For all aspects, different measurement methods were compared to choose the best method based on reproducibility, accuracy and practicability. Screen material properties were then fed into both steady-state and validated dynamic greenhouse climate models to calculate overall screen energy saving under well-defined conditions. In the current research, different screen materials from different producers were investigated. The paper describes the methodology developed and shows data on different screen materials.
Characterization of air velocities near greenhouse internal mobile screens using 3D sonic anemometry
Baeza Romero, E.J. ; Hemming, S. ; Breuge, A.J. van; Mohammadkhani, V. ; Jansen, H. ; Kempkes, F. - \ 2018
Acta Horticulturae 1227 (2018). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 159 - 164.
Air permeability - Fans - Greenhouse screens - Vents - Wind
In Dutch greenhouses, different screen types are used for different purposes (shading, energy saving, black-out, light emission, etc.). In order to quantify the energy and mass transfers through screens, characterization of air permeability through the screens is required. In the case of energy-saving screens, it is an essential parameter to estimate the energy saving of each screen. Air permeability can be measured under defined conditions in a laboratory. In order to select the appropriate equipment for air velocity measurements, the air velocity vector near screens in a practical situation in a greenhouse needs to be identified by measurements. Sonic anemometry techniques have been used extensively in different types of greenhouses: a) to study natural ventilation, with and without insect screens, and in different positions; b) to study airflow patterns in greenhouses with mechanical ventilation/pad and fan systems; c) to study airflow patterns induced by different types of heating systems, and d) for the estimation of crop evapotranspiration (i.e., eddy covariance). However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out to study the airflow near different types of screens in a greenhouse. Many Dutch growers are increasingly using various types of fans with different positions in the greenhouse for dehumidification and improved climate uniformity purposes. The effect of such fans on the air velocity near screens, and therefore the effect on energy and mass transfer, is unknown. For this purpose, air velocities near different types of screens in commercial greenhouses were measured using ultrasonic 3D anemometers. The results show that, in the absence of fans, air velocity near the screens is affected by vent opening. With vents closed, air velocities are hardly ever above 0.2 m s-1. Therefore, a simple air-suction device can be used to characterize permeability of screens at a very low Reynolds range.