Calcium effect on microbial activity and biomass aggregation during anaerobic digestion at high salinity
Gagliano, Maria Cristina ; Sudmalis, Dainis ; Temmink, Hardy ; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2020
New Biotechnology 56 (2020). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 114 - 122.
Anaerobic digestion - Anaerobic granules - Ca - High salinity - Methanosaeta - Microbial aggregation
The potential effect of different Ca2+ additions (150, 300, 450, 600 and 1000 mg/L) on microbial activity and aggregation, during anaerobic digestion at moderate (8 g/L Na+) and high salinity (20 g/L Na+) has been investigated. Batch tests were carried out in duplicate serum bottles and operated for 30 days at 37 °C. At 8 g/L Na+, methanogenic activity and protein degradation were comparable from 150 to 450 mg/L Ca2+, and a significant inhibition was only observed at a Ca2+concentration of 1000 mg/L. In contrast, at 20 g/L Na+, 150 to 300 mg/L were the only Ca2+ concentrations to maintain chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, protein hydrolysis and methane production. Overall, increasing Ca2+ concentrations had a larger impact on acetotrophic methanogenesis at 20 g/L than at 8 g/L Na+. Increasing Ca2+ had a negative effect on the aggregation behaviour of the dominant methanogen Methanosaeta when working at 8 g/L Na+. At 20 g/L Na+ the aggregation of Methanosaeta was less affected by addition of Ca2+ than at 8 g/L Na+. The negative effect appeared to be connected with Ca2+ precipitation and its impact on cell-to cell communication. The results highlight the importance of ionic balance for microbial aggregation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the effect on Methanosaeta cells, known to be important to obtain anaerobic granules.
EPS glycoconjugate profiles shift as adaptive response in anaerobic microbial granulation at high salinity
Gagliano, Maria C. ; Neu, Thomas R. ; Kuhlicke, Ute ; Sudmalis, Dainis ; Temmink, Hardy ; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-302X
Anaerobic digestion - Biofilm - EPS - Granular sludge - High salinity - Lectin staining - Methanosaeta
Anaerobic granulation at elevated salinities has been discussed in several analytical and engineering based studies. They report either enhanced or decreased efficiencies in relation to different Na+ levels. To evaluate this discrepancy, we focused on the microbial and structural dynamics of granules formed in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic wastewater at low (5 g/L Na+) and high (20 g/L Na+) salinity conditions. Granules were successfully formed in both conditions, but at high salinity, the start-up inoculum quickly formed larger granules having a thicker gel layer in comparison to granules developed at low salinity. Granules retained high concentrations of sodium without any negative effect on biomass activity and structure. 16S rRNA gene analysis and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) identified the acetotrophic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the dominant microorganism at both salinities. Fluorescence lectin bar coding (FLBC) screening highlighted a significant shift in the glycoconjugate pattern between granules grown at 5 and 20 g/L of Na+, and the presence of different extracellular domains. The excretion of a Mannose-rich cloud-like glycoconjugate matrix, which seems to form a protective layer for some methanogenic cells clusters, was found to be the main distinctive feature of the microbial community grown at high salinity conditions.
Fast anaerobic sludge granulation at elevated salinity
Sudmalis, D. ; Gagliano, M.C. ; Pei, R. ; Grolle, K. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, H. - \ 2018
Water Research 128 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 293 - 303.
Anaerobic sludge granulation - High salinity - Methanosaeta - UASB
It is commonly accepted that high salt concentrations negatively affect microbial activity in biological wastewater treatment reactors such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Microbial aggregation in such reactors is equally important. It is well documented that anaerobic granules, when exposed to high salinity become weak and disintegrate, causing wash-out, operational problems and decreasing process performance. In this research, the possibility of microbial granule formation from dispersed biomass was investigated at salinity levels of 5 and 20 g Na+/L. High removal efficiencies of soluble influent organics were achieved at both salinity levels and this was accompanied by fast and robust formation of microbial granules. The process was found to be stable for the entire operational period of 217 days. As far as we know this is the first time it has been demonstrated that stable granule formation is possible at a salinity level as high as 20 g Na+/L. Methanosaeta was identified as the dominant methanogen at both salinity levels. Streptococcus spp. and bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae were identified as the dominant microbial population at 5 and 20 and g Na+/L, respectively.
Biofilm formation and granule properties in anaerobic digestion at high salinity
Gagliano, M.C. ; Ismail, S.B. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Temmink, H. ; Lier, J.B. Van - \ 2017
Water Research 121 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 61 - 71.
Anaerobic digestion - Anaerobic granules - Biofilm - High salinity - Methanosaeta - UASB
For the anaerobic biological treatment of saline wastewater, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is currently a possibility, even though elevated salt concentrations can be a major obstacle. Anaerobic consortia and especially methanogenic archaea are very sensitive to fluctuations in salinity. When working with Upflow Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) technology, in which the microorganisms are aggregated and retained in the system as a granular biofilm, high sodium concentration negatively affects aggregation and consequently process performances. In this research, we analysed the structure of the biofilm and granules formed during the anaerobic treatment of high salinity (at 10 and 20 g/L of sodium) synthetic wastewater at lab scale. The acclimated inoculum was able to accomplish high rates of organics removal at all the salinity levels tested. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses identified the acetoclastic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the key player involved acetate degradation and microbial attachment/granulation. When additional calcium (1 g/L) was added to overcome the negative effect of sodium on microbial aggregation, during the biofilm formation process microbial attachment and acetate degradation decreased. The same result was observed on granules formation: while calcium had a positive effect on granules strength when added to UASB reactors, Methanosaeta filaments were not present and the degradation of the partially acidified substrate was negatively influenced. This research demonstrated the possibility to get granulation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the importance of a selection towards Methanosaeta cells growing in filamentous form to obtain strong and healthy granules.
Multiple PLDs required for high salinity and water deficit tolerance in plants
Bargmann, Bastiaan O.R. ; Laxalt, Ana M. ; Riet, Bas Ter ; Schooten, Bas Van; Merquiol, Emmanuelle ; Testerink, Christa ; Haring, Michel A. ; Bartels, Dorothea ; Munnik, Teun - \ 2009
Plant and Cell Physiology 50 (2009)1. - ISSN 0032-0781 - p. 78 - 89.
Arabidopsis - Drought - High salinity - Phosphatidic acid - Phospholipase D - Tomato
High salinity and drought have received much attention because they severely affect crop production worldwide. Analysis and comprehension of the plant's response to excessive salt and dehydration will aid in the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties. Signal transduction lies at the basis of the response to these stresses, and numerous signaling pathways have been implicated. Here, we provide further evidence for the involvement of phospholipase D (PLD) in the plant's response to high salinity and dehydration. A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) α-class PLD, LePLDα1, is transcriptionally up-regulated and activated in cell suspension cultures treated with salt. Gene silencing revealed that this PLD is indeed involved in the salt-induced phosphatidic acid production, but not exclusively. Genetically modified tomato plants with reduced LePLDα1 protein levels did not reveal altered salt tolerance. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), both AtPLDα1 and AtPLDδ were found to be activated in response to salt stress. Moreover, pldα1 and pldδ single and double knock-out mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to high salinity stress in a plate assay. Furthermore, we show that both PLDs are activated upon dehydration and the knock-out mutants are hypersensitive to hyperosmotic stress, displaying strongly reduced growth.