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Wind erosion as a driver for transport of light density microplastics
Rezaei, Mahrooz ; Riksen, Michel J.P.M. ; Sirjani, Elham ; Sameni, Abdolmajid ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 669 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 273 - 281.
Human health - LDMP - Microplastic pollution - Soil Erosion
Microplastic pollution in the environment is a growing concern in today's world. Wind-eroded sediment, as an environmental transport pathway of microplastics, can result in environmental and human exposure far beyond its sources. For the first time, this study investigates the presence of microplastics in wind-eroded sediments from different land uses in the Fars Province, Iran. Eleven test plots were selected based on land use and wind erosion risk. On each plot, wind erosion was simulated using a portable wind tunnel and the eroded sediment was collected for further analysis aimed at measuring light density microplastics (LDMP). The LDMPs were extracted in both soil and wind-eroded sediment using a floatation method and then further examined using microscopy. Annual LDMP transport by wind erosion was estimated using wind data from the study areas. LDMPs were detected in six study areas in the Fars Province which are highly prone to wind erosion. Although LDMPs were found mostly in agricultural land, it was also detected in the soils and sediments from two natural areas. The total concentrations of LDMPs in polluted areas were 6.91 and 20.27 mg kg−1 of microplastics in soil and wind-eroded sediments, respectively. The enrichment ratio for LDMP ranged from 2.83 to 7.63 in different areas. The erosion rate of LDMP ranged from 0.08 to 1.48 mg m−2 min−1. The results of this study confirmed the key role of wind erosion in the spread of microplastics in terrestrial environments which could form an exposure risk to humans via direct inhalation of the particles transported with the dust.
Microplastics in freshwaters and drinking water: Critical review and assessment of data quality
Koelmans, Albert A. ; Mohamed Nor, Nur Hazimah ; Hermsen, Enya ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja M. ; France, Jennifer De - \ 2019
Water Research 155 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 410 - 422.
Drinking water - Human health - Microplastics - Surface water - Waste water
Microplastics have recently been detected in drinking water as well as in drinking water sources. This presence has triggered discussions on possible implications for human health. However, there have been questions regarding the quality of these occurrence studies since there are no standard sampling, extraction and identification methods for microplastics. Accordingly, we assessed the quality of fifty studies researching microplastics in drinking water and in its major freshwater sources. This includes an assessment of microplastic occurrence data from river and lake water, groundwater, tap water and bottled drinking water. Studies of occurrence in wastewater were also reviewed. We review and propose best practices to sample, extract and detect microplastics and provide a quantitative quality assessment of studies reporting microplastic concentrations. Further, we summarize the findings related to microplastic concentrations, polymer types and particle shapes. Microplastics are frequently present in freshwaters and drinking water, and number concentrations spanned ten orders of magnitude (1 × 10−2to 108#/m3) across individual samples and water types. However, only four out of 50 studies received positive scores for all proposed quality criteria, implying there is a significant need to improve quality assurance of microplastic sampling and analysis in water samples. The order in globally detected polymers in these studies is PE ≈ PP > PS > PVC > PET, which probably reflects the global plastic demand and a higher tendency for PVC and PET to settle as a result of their higher densities. Fragments, fibres, film, foam and pellets were the most frequently reported shapes. We conclude that more high quality data is needed on the occurrence of microplastics in drinking water, to better understand potential exposure and to inform human health risk assessments.
Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers
Bindraban, Prem S. ; Dimkpa, Christian O. ; Angle, Scott ; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 273 - 285.
Food loss - Human health - Innovative fertilizers - Micronutrients - Plant health - Resilience - Sector transformation
Fertilizers produce over half of the world’s food and permit less encroachment into pristine lands. Yet, the low uptake efficiency by crop plants causes nutrient losses that drive global change. Mitigating measures have been insufficient to address the problems, and policy interventions, NGO involvement, and R&D investments have been too insignificant to transform the fertilizer sector. Here, we discuss the contribution of balanced mineral fertilizers to increasing the nutritional value of crop produce to improve human nutrition and health; healthier plants to reduce biocide use; plant robustness to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses; and increased metabolite production to improve taste and shelf-life. We reflect on raising awareness about these multiple fertilizer-based public good services for realizing several Sustainable Development Goals which can be achieved through a comprehensive nutrient assessment to catalyze transformation in research, policy and industry.
Exploring the framing of animal farming and meat consumption : On the diversity of topics used and qualitative patterns in selected demographic contexts
Nijland, Hanneke J. ; Aarts, Noelle ; Woerkum, Cees M.J. Van - \ 2018
Animals 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2076-2615
Animal farming - Animal welfare - Complexity - Contextual influence - Environmental impact - Framing - Human health - Meat consumption - Taste - Topics
In various contexts, people talk about animal farming andmeat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: The Netherlands and Turkey. We describe themethodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts, people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics, symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation withmultiple interdependent contextual features.
Marine biotoxins and associated outbreaks following seafood consumption : Prevention and surveillance in the 21st century
Nicolas, Jonathan ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Hendriksen, Peter J.M. ; Bodero Baeza, Marcia ; Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Gerssen, Arjen - \ 2017
Global Food Security 15 (2017). - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 11 - 21.
Food safety - Human health - Marine biotoxins - Outbreaks - Seafood monitoring
Marine biotoxins are mostly produced by phytoplankton. Proliferation of algae producing marine biotoxins, also known as harmful algal bloom (HAB), occurs worldwide. Such event depends on environmental conditions, including temperature, water pH/salinity, current patterns and anthropogenic nutrient input. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in seafood products and as such present a threat to consumers.This paper reviews and compiles up-to-date literature on reported human intoxications following exposure to marine biotoxins through seafood consumption. The review includes a discussion about prevention of such outbreaks and surveillance programs to identify possible limitations and approaches for limiting the impact of HABs on human health. It is concluded that marine biotoxins represent a threat to human health as thousands of poisonings following consumption of seafood contaminated with marine biotoxins were reported in the 21st century, emphasizing the need for carrying on/developing surveillance programs to detect the presence of HABs, and for development, validation and implementation of sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting these biotoxins in seafood to protect consumers. Regarding the possible presence of unknown toxins and general lack of standards for many known toxins, in vitro effect-based bioassays may play an important role in the monitoring for biotoxins.
Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China
Sun, Ming ; Chang, Zhiqiang ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Li, Jian ; Zhao, Fazhen ; Rico, Andreu - \ 2016
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23 (2016)15. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 15689 - 15702.
Antimicrobial resistance - Aquaculture - Ecological risk assessment - Environmental modelling - Human health - Shrimps
This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies.
Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency : The case of Europe
Withers, P.J.A. ; Dijk, K.C. van; Neset, T.S.S. ; Nesme, Thomas ; Oenema, Oene ; Rubæk, G.H. ; Schoumans, O.F. ; Smit, Bert ; Pellerin, Sylvain - \ 2015
Ambio 44 (2015)2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 193 - 206.
Europe - Eutrophication - Human health - Inefficiency - Phosphorus - Resources - Sustainability
The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.