Encapsulation of lipids as emulsion-alginate beads reduces food intake : a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over human trial in overweight adults
Corstens, Meinou N. ; Troost, Freddy J. ; Alleleyn, Annick M.E. ; Klaassen, Tim ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. ; Schroën, Karin ; Masclee, Ad A.M. - \ 2019
Nutrition Research 63 (2019). - ISSN 0271-5317 - p. 86 - 94.
Appetite - Encapsulated lipid - Human trial - Ileal brake - Weight management
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lipid emulsions encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads in reducing food intake and appetite sensations. These emulsion-alginate beads were ingested in a yogurt (active) and compared to an equienergetic yogurt containing nonencapsulated nutrients with comparable sensory properties (control) in a randomized placebo-controlled trial with crossover design. Thirty-three healthy overweight volunteers (mean age: 43 years; body mass index: 27.7 kg/m2; 14 male) received the 2 treatments. Test days started with a standardized small breakfast (t = 0) followed by an active or control yogurt (t = 90 minutes). Appetite sensations and gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored prior to and after consumption of the yogurt, and food intake was measured during ad libitum pasta meal consumption (t = 210 minutes). The hypothesis for this study was that delayed release of encapsulated lipids suppresses appetite sensations and reduces food intake. Food intake was significantly reduced with 51 ± 20 kcal (213 ± 84 kJ) (P =.016) after intake of the active yogurt (770 ± 38 kcal (3222 ± 159 kJ)) compared to the control (821 ± 40 kcal (3435 ± 167 kJ)). The approach that we chose is promising to reduce food intake and could contribute to the development of an easy-to-use product for weight management.
Food-grade Micro-encapsulation Systems that May Induce Satiety via Delayed Lipolysis: A Review
Corstens, M.N. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. ; Vries, R.J. de; Troost, F.J. ; Masclee, A.A.M. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. - \ 2017
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (2017)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 2218 - 2244.
In vitro digestion - Ileal brake - emulsion - Food - obesity
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity requires new, effective prevention and treatment strategies. One approach to reduce energy intake is by developing novel foods with increased satiating properties, which may be accomplished by slowing down lipolysis to deliver substrates to the ileum, thereby enhancing natural gut-brain signalling pathways of satiety that are normally induced by meal intake. To develop slow release food additives, their processing in the gastrointestinal tract has to be understood; therefore, we start from a general description of the digestive system and relate that to in vitro modelling, satiety and lipolytic mechanisms. The effects of physicochemical lipid composition, encapsulation matrix and interfacial structure on lipolysis are emphasized. We give an overview of techniques and materials used, and discuss partitioning, which may be a key factor for encapsulation performance. Targeted release capsules that delay lipolysis form a real challenge because of the high efficiency of the digestive system; hardly any proof was found that intact orally ingested lipids can be released in the ileum and thereby induce satiety. We expect that this challenge could be tackled with structured o/w-emulsion-based systems that have some protection against lipase, e.g., by hindering bile salt adsorption and/or delaying lipase diffusion.
Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans : A randomized cross over trial
Ripken, Dina ; Avesaat, Mark van; Troost, F.J. ; Masclee, A.A. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, Henk F. - \ 2017
Clinical Nutrition 36 (2017)1. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 143 - 149.
Amino acid absorption - Ileal brake - Protein
Background: Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. Objective: To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Design: A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m-2), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. Results: None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p <0.001), and most AAs were increased after infusion of LP (p <0.001). In total, 12.49 ± 1.73 and 3.18 ± 0.87 g AAs were found in plasma after intraileal infusion of HP and LP, corresponding to 93 ± 13% (HP) and 72 ± 20% (LP) of AAs infused as casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. Conclusions: A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01509469.