Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Environmentality, green grabbing, and neoliberal conservation : The ambiguous role of ecotourism in the Green Life privatised nature reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia
    Wieckardt, Chantal Elizabeth ; Koot, Stasja ; Karimasari, Nadya - \ 2020
    Journal of Sustainable Tourism (2020). - ISSN 0966-9582
    environmentality - green grabbing - Indonesia - neoliberal conservation - Privatisation - volunteer ecotourism

    Against the background of neoliberal conservation and green grabbing, this paper investigates an ecotourism initiative through the notion of ‘multiple environmentalities’ (neoliberal, disciplinary, sovereign and truth), which concerns the governance of people for environmental causes. We apply this to the inhabitants of Batu Katak, Sumatra, Indonesia, where the Green Life Project has been established next to Gunung Leuser National Park as a Private Protected Area. An important governance strategy for Green Life is the establishment of volunteer ecotourism to generate funds and to include the local community. We argue that ecotourism can play a crucial role in legitimising the activities and increasing the power of nature conservation organisations, which, in the case of Green Life, is visible in the growth of coercive means to secure protected areas. If ecotourism is the kernel of neoliberal environmentality at Green Life, the core issue is the prevalence of truth environmentality, in which nature is often valued higher than people. This valuation led to the strengthening of disciplinary and sovereign environmentality. Arguably, ecotourism at Green Life will not establish the intended sustainable relations with the community, and this paper functions as an important lesson for practitioners to scrutinise the consequences of their governance strategies.

    Assembling tuna traceability in Indonesia
    Djelantik, Sita K. ; Bush, S.R. - \ 2020
    Geoforum (2020). - ISSN 0016-7185 - 8 p.
    Traceability - Transparency - Assemblage - Tuna - Indonesia - Governance
    Traceability is broadly understood as a technical means of understanding, communicating and steering the relations of production and trade in the global food system. Using an assemblage lens, this paper challenges this technical understanding by analysing how traceability affects and is affected by the relations that constitute global value chains. Analysing the introduction of the ThisFish traceability system in a small-scale tuna fishery in Indonesia we show how an NGO, Masyarakat dan Perikanan Indonesia (MDPI), de-stabilised existing relations and expertise around landing and trading tuna and subsequently re-stabilised these relations in a different assemblage through the collection, collation and management of fisheries data. In doing so MDPI worked through rather than reconfigured the social relations of production and trade in the implementation of traceability, thereby becoming part of the assemblage the NGO sought to change. The results demonstrate how the implementation of traceability is, in contrast to its technical framing, more accurately understood as a process of 'active embedding' by 'boundary subjects' who re-assemble contingent interactions by enacting multiple roles simultaneously. Traceability is as such contingent on the performance of these boundary subjects rather than on market incentives or objective monitoring and control. However, we also conclude that because it also dependent on the negotiated identity and function of these boundary subjects, traceability (and similar market based forms of governance) risk reinforcing rather than transforming the relations of production and trade they engage.
    Quantitative simulation of the water-energy-food (WEF) security nexus in a local planning context in indonesia
    Purwanto, Aries ; Sušnik, Janez ; Suryadi, F.X. ; Fraiture, Charlotte de - \ 2020
    Sustainable Production and Consumption 25 (2020). - ISSN 2352-5509 - p. 198 - 216.
    Evaluation and planning - Indonesia - Karawang - Nexus modelling - Policy analysis - System dynamics - Water-Energy-Food (WEF) security

    The process of planning and evaluation for local development, especially in the critical sectors of water, energy and food (WEF) should be conducted using a holistic, integrated approach in an attempt to bring the improvement in water, energy and food security in a region. System dynamics models are one of the tools for simulation and assessment of the system-wide impacts caused by local interventions. This research develops a stock-flow diagram (SFD) of WEF security in a local context to be used in analysing the impacts of implementing three planned policy interventions in Karawang Regency, Indonesia. STELLA Professional software is employed to build the SFD and conduct simulation of the WEF security nexus, and is based on a previously developed qualitative causal loop model of the same system (the Karawang WEF security (K-WEFS) model). In the quantitative SFD, four scenarios are developed and assessed in this study; (i) population growth changes; (ii) agricultural land conversion rate changes; (iii) changes in the development of artificial ponds and solar energy; and (iv) per-capita resource consumption changes. The results show several interesting findings related to the WEF security nexus, available resources per person (APP) and self-sufficiency levels (SSL) of resources in business as usual conditions and under planned interventions. Potentially unanticipated detrimental indirect impacts of policy interventions are highlighted. This dynamic support tool could be applied in other local regions to improve the evaluation and planning process of water, energy and food sectors in a holistic manner.

    Globalisation, Inequality and Institutions in West Sumatra and West Java, 1800–1940
    Zwart, Pim de - \ 2020
    Journal of Contemporary Asia (2020). - ISSN 0047-2336 - 27 p.
    colonialism - Indonesia - inequality - living standards - property rights - trade

    How did globalisation affect living standards and inequality in colonies relying on exports? This question is investigated through a comparison of social and economic developments in two regions of the Dutch East Indies (colonial Indonesia): Minangkabau in West Sumatra and Priangan in West Java, looking at the period between 1800 and 1940. These two regions were remarkably similar in terms of export crops grown and factor endowments and the Dutch colonial government implemented a comparable system of forced coffee cultivation in both these areas in the nineteenth century. Outcomes in terms of levels of income and economic inequality in these areas differed markedly, mainly as a result of different indigenous property rights regarding land and the power of local elites. This article highlights the interaction between indigenous and colonial institutions and the importance of this interaction for social and economic development in an age of rising global trade.

    Effects of peer pressure in agro-clusters of West Java
    Wardhana, D. ; Ihle, R. - \ 2020
    Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies (2020). - ISSN 0007-4918 - 35 p.
    agro-cluster - farmer behaviour - peer pressure - Indonesia
    Agglomerations of agricultural activity yield a number of institutional and infrastructural benefits for farmers. However, these regional concentrations also increase competition between farmers. We quantify to what extent competitive pressure affects farmers’ behaviour in agro-clusters analysing a survey of 1,250 farmers in West Java. This assessment is derived from a conceptual model based on the theory of planned behaviour and the behavioural interaction model. We also derive several hypotheses which are econometrically tested. We find that the specific competitive environments farmers are exposed to for specific aspects of agricultural production matter most. In high density agglomeration environments, lower degrees of peer pressure foster cooperative behaviour. Food insecurity is found to enlarge self-interest, more intense cooperation is associated with lower income levels and appears to be regionally heterogeneous. Policies intended to facilitate cooperation could therefore be tailored to specific aspects of agricultural production and the specific region of interest.
    Towards better use of Indonesian peatlands with paludiculture and low-drainage food crops
    Uda, Saritha Kittie ; Hein, Lars ; Adventa, Alma - \ 2020
    Wetlands Ecology and Management 28 (2020)3. - ISSN 0923-4861 - p. 509 - 526.
    Crops - Indonesia - Kalimantan - Markets - Paludiculture - Peatland

    The current drainage-based peatland management systems in Indonesia result in high fire risks, soil subsidence and CO2 emissions. This study aims to assess different alternatives of peatland crops in order to help prevent further degradation of peatlands in Indonesia. We focus on tropical peatland crops that provide food and that are of particular interest to smallholders. We compare various peatland food crops that are commonly grown with no drainage (paludiculture) or drainage below 50 cm in our study area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia in terms of sustainability, profitability, scalability of the market and acceptability to farmers. Our results show that sago (Metroxylon sagu), banana (Musa paradisiaca) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) followed by water spinach/kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), kelakai/edible fern (Stenochlaena palustris), illipe nut/tengkawang (Shorea spp.), dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and sweet melon/melon (Cucumis melo) are the best options based on the aggregated scores for these criteria (but precaution should be taken when planting crops that require low drainage). Sago palm and illipe nut have the highest scores for both sustainability and scalability of market, whereas banana, pineapple and sweet melon have the highest scores in term of the scalability of market and acceptability to farmers. We also address key opportunities and bottlenecks for the development of paludiculture food crops and present recommendations for the implementation of paludiculture in Indonesian peatlands.

    Fisher and Trader Responses to Traceability Interventions in Indonesia
    Doddema, Mandy ; Spaargaren, Gert ; Wiryawan, Budy ; Bush, Simon R. - \ 2020
    Society & Natural Resources 33 (2020)10. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1232 - 1251.
    EU IUU regulation - Fair Trade USA certification - Indonesia - middlemen - Practice theory - tuna

    Calls for increased traceability of seafood have been frustrated by a poor understanding of the social dynamics shaping the flow of fish and information in global value chains. Contrasting with utilitarian and regulatory approaches, this article proposes a social practices intervention framework to understand the effect of traceability interventions ensuing from the EU IUU regulation and Fair Trade USA seafood certification program on fishers and traders operating in remote tuna landing sites in Indonesia. The framework demonstrates how the success or failure of traceability interventions depends on both alignments with (1) the performance of “targeted” and (2) “non-targeted” value chain practices as well as (3) “non-targeted” practices adjacent to the value chain. We conclude that the social practices intervention framework can provide improved insight and guidance on the uptake of traceability and other market-based governance approaches across a range of locally embedded fisheries landing sites.

    How Do Configuration Shifts in Fragmented Energy Governance Affect Policy Output? A Case Study of Changing Biogas Regimes in Indonesia
    Budiman, Ibnu ; Smits, M. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 23 p.
    biogas - fragmentation - governance - Indonesia - regime complex - policy output
    Biogas technology to support rural livelihoods and low-carbon development has been developed in different projects and programs in the Global South over the last few decades. However, the existence of multiple projects, actors and designs involved may lead to so-called fragmentation in governance. This research addresses the fragmented governance amongst the biogas programmes in
    Indonesia to study their impact on the implementation; the numbers of biodigesters disseminated and knowledge transferred. Drawing on concepts of fragmentation, regime effectiveness, and policy output, the research uses data from interviews with relevant actors, supplemented with documents review. Findings show that the governance architecture of biogas regime in Indonesia consists of different types of biogas programmes championed by different types of actors pursuing different objectives. There had been patterns and periodical shifts of configuration within the Indonesian biogas regime, i.e., from administrative fragmentation (2007–2009), to conflictive fragmentation (2010–2012), to cooperative fragmentation (2013–2016), and reduced fragmentation (2017). Shifting
    from administrative to cooperative fragmentation resonates with the increase of the number of biodigesters dissemination more than fourfold in ten years, from 800 in 2007, to 37,999 in 2016. The distribution of power within the governance architecture among government bodies, NGOs, and the private sector influenced the speed of implementation and innovation of the biogas programs.
    This suggests that a higher degree of distribution of power and cooperation within a governance architecture contribute to increasing policy output of the regime complex of renewable energy.
    New endemic Fusarium species hitch-hiking with pathogenic Fusarium strains causing Panama disease in small-holder banana plots in Indonesia
    Maryani, N. ; Sandoval-Denis, M. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2019
    Persoonia 43 (2019). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 48 - 69.
    Indonesia - new species - non-pathogenic - phylogeny - species complex

    Fusarium species are well known for their abundance, diversity and cosmopolitan life style. Many members of the genus Fusarium are associated with plant hosts, either as plant pathogens, secondary invaders, saprotrophs, and/or endophytes. We previously studied the diversity of Fusarium species in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) associated with Fusarium wilt of banana in Indonesia. In that study, several Fusarium species not belonging to the FOSC were found to be associated with Fusarium wilt of banana. These Fusarium isolates belonged to three Fusarium species complexes, which included the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC), Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) and the Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSSC). Using a multi-gene phylogeny that included partial fragments of the beta-tubulin (tub), calmodulin (cmdA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA (ITS), the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU), plus the RNA polymerase II large subunit (rpb1) and second largest subunit (rpb2) genes, we were able to identify and characterise several of these as new Fusarium species in the respective species complexes identified in this study.

    How REDD+ and FLEGT-VPA Processes are Contributing Towards SFM in Indonesia-The Specialists' Viewpoint
    Neupane, P.R. ; Wiati, C.B. ; Angi, E.M. ; Köhl, M. ; Butarbutar, T. ; Reonaldus, ; Gauli, A. - \ 2019
    International Forestry Review 21 (2019)4. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 460 - 485.
    FLEGT-VPA - Indonesia - REDD+ - specialists' viewpoint - sustainable forest management

    In an effort to reverse the trend of deforestation and forest degradation, several international initiatives have been attempted. Though promoted in different political arenas, Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT)-Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA), and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) share overlapping objectives of conservation of tropical forests. We explore specialists' viewpoint on FLEGT-VPA and REDD+ processes in Indonesia with reference to their contribution towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). The study shows that FLEGT-VPA and REDD+ regimes contribute towards SFM. While FLEGT-VPA improves enabling condition for SFM through governance reform, improved harvesting practices, and timber legality assurance system, REDD+ supports SFM through institutional strengthening, reforming policies and frameworks, mobilizing new and additional financial resources and increasing social and ecological resilience. We identified opportunities to achieve synergies between REDD+ and FLEGT-VPA by harmonizing their processes, tools, methodologies, technical assistance, capacity-building and funding mechanisms.

    Eating behaviour of young female workers with low socioeconomic status in Malang City, East Java: A qualitative study
    Habibie, Intan Yusuf ; Brouwer, Inge ; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty - \ 2019
    Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 25 (2019). - ISSN 1394-035X - p. S75 - S86.
    Eating behaviour - Indonesia - Low socioeconomic status - Qualitative study - Young female workers

    Introduction: Eating behaviour is one of the important factors affecting nutritional status that has been widely investigated. However, there are few studies on the eating behaviour of young female workers in Indonesia. This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting eating behaviour of young female workers of low socioeconomic status in Malang, East Java province, Indonesia. Methods: Participants were recruited using purposive sampling from low-income families living in Malang City. The eligibility criteria were based on demographic information, including monthly household income and expenses. The participants recruited comprised 21 women aged 18-22 years who were employed outside their homes, unmarried and living with their parents. A qualitative methodology was used to understand the meaning and context of the eating behaviour of these women. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used as the primary data collection methods. Results: Two primary themes emerged as the main influences of the participants' eating behaviour: individual attributes (food preferences, healthy eating knowledge and self-efficacy), and socio-environmental factors (peer influence, mother's role and food availability). In general, the participants had some knowledge about healthy eating behaviour; however, they lacked self-efficacy to practise such behaviour. Conclusion: Individual motivations and socio-environmental factors were found to mediate the eating behaviour of young working women from poor households. These factors should be considered when designing nutrition programmes for achieving healthier eating behaviour among young working women.

    Flow and Suspended Sediment Division at Two Highly Asymmetric Bifurcations in a River Delta: Implications for Channel Stability
    Kästner, K. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. - \ 2019
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 124 (2019)10. - ISSN 2169-9003 - p. 2358 - 2380.
    ADCP - Indonesia - river bifurcation - river delta - sediment transport - tidal hydrodynamics

    The division of sediment at river bifurcations results from the complex interaction between three-dimensional flow, planform, and channel bed morphology, as well as the heterogeneity of the bed material. Sediment division processes cannot be incorporated in their full complexity in scale experiments and are difficult to reproduce with numerical models. Field measurements are thus necessary to advance our understanding of those processes in river deltas. However, such measurements are rare. We present measurements of the flow and sediment division at two tidally influenced bifurcations of the Kapuas River, a large sand-bedded suspended load-dominated river in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At both bifurcations, a smaller channel branches off from the side of the main river, which makes the planform strongly asymmetric. The planform of both bifurcations has been stable at least since the end of the nineteenth century when the region was mapped for the first time. Based on our measurements, we explore possible factors that stabilize the bifurcations. We measure the flow velocities with a boat-mounted acoustic velocity profiler and determine the sediment concentration from acoustic backscatter, calibrated against water samples. The side branch of the first bifurcation receives a proportionally lower fraction of sediment than water. In contrast, the side branch at the second bifurcation receives a proportionally higher fraction of sediment than water. A comparison of flow velocity and suspended sand concentration indicates that the bed material sorting strongly influences the division of sediment, in particular at one of the bifurcations, which is situated in a meander bend.

    Eating behaviour of adolescent schoolgirls in Malang, East Java: A qualitative study
    Sondari, Mulia ; Brouwer, Inge ; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty - \ 2019
    Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 25 (2019). - ISSN 1394-035X - p. S87 - S96.
    Adolescent schoolgirls - Eating behaviour - Indonesia - Malang

    Introduction: Poor eating behaviour is known to lead to nutritional deficiency among adolescents. At the same time, poor eating behaviour characterised by dietary excesses could lead to overweight and obesity. The present study aimed to explore the eating behaviour of adolescent schoolgirls in Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia, and to determine the factors that influenced their eating behaviour. Methods: This was a qualitative study, guided by the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), which focused on individual and environmental influences to better understand health-related behaviours, such as eating behaviour. Triangulation was applied to the study subjects (adolescent girls, their mothers, and school staff). The methods used included individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data analyses were performed using Atlas.ti 7. Results: Most participants showed poor eating behaviour that was characterised by skipping breakfast, frequent consumption of fast foods and the consumption of local food with low nutrient content. Their eating behaviour was influenced by individual factors including personal preferences, the price of the food, and by environmental factors, such as the family, school and neighbourhood. Conclusion: Our findings showed that adolescent girls in Malang appeared to be aware of healthy eating but they showed unsatisfactory eating practices. Interventions are suggested to improve the poor eating behaviour of the adolescents toward avoiding malnutrition consequences.

    Assessing the health impacts of peatland fires: a case study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Uda, Saritha Kittie ; Hein, Lars ; Atmoko, Dwi - \ 2019
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26 (2019)30. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 31315 - 31327.
    Human health impacts - Indonesia - PM concentration - Smoke dispersion - Tropical peatland fires

    The conversion of Indonesian tropical peatlands has been associated with the recurring problems of peatland fires and smoke affecting humans and the environment. Yet, the local government and public in the affected areas have paid little attention to the impacts and costs of the poor air quality on human health. This study aims to analyse the long-term health impacts of the peat smoke exposure to the local populations. We applied the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the smoke dispersion and the associated PM2.5 concentrations of the resulted plumes from the fire hotspots in the deep and shallow peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, that occurred during a 5-year period (2011–2015). We subsequently quantified the long-term health impacts of PM2.5 on the local people down to the village level based on the human health risk assessment approach. Our study shows that the average increase in the annual mean PM2.5 concentration due to peatland fires in Central Kalimantan was 26 μg/m3 which is more than twice the recommended value of the World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. This increase in PM2.5 leads to increased occurrence of a range of air pollution–related diseases and premature mortality. The number of premature mortality cases can be estimated at 648 cases per year (26 mortality cases per 100,000 population) among others due to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular and lung cancer. Our results shed further light on the long-term health impacts of peatland fires in Indonesia and the importance of sustainable peatland management.

    Evaluating competence-based vocational education in Indonesia
    Misbah, Zainun ; Gulikers, Judith ; Dharma, Surya ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
    Journal of Vocational Education and Training (2019). - ISSN 1363-6820
    agricultural schools - Competence-based education - Indonesia - vocational education

    This paper investigates the realisation of competence-based education (CBE) in vocational education in Indonesia. It examines the extent to which CBE design principles of the Comprehensive Competence-Based Education Framework developed in a Western context exist in Indonesian policy documents and school practices. This study reviews educational policy documents and collects cross-sectional survey data from 41 school principals, 453 teachers, and 2219 students from 41 agricultural vocational schools in five provinces of Java, Indonesia. Results showed that the ten CCBE principles listed in the framework exist to large extent in Indonesian policy documents. School principals, teachers, and students noticed the realisation of CCBE principles in the study programme to differing degrees, except for the principle of flexibility that was largely absent. The level of CBE implementation varied, from the level of starting competence-based to that of largely competence-based education. The findings contribute to the discussion of CCBE design principles and lesson learned of CBE implementation in a non-western perspective.

    Ethnic Group Differences in Dietary Diversity of School-Aged Children in Indonesia: The Roles of Gender and Household SES
    Kunto, Yohanes Sondang ; Bras, Hilde - \ 2019
    Food and Nutrition Bulletin 40 (2019)2. - ISSN 0379-5721 - p. 182 - 201.
    children - dietary diversity - ethnicity - gender - Indonesia - socioeconomic status

    Background: Despite the importance of dietary diversity for nutritional status, studies on issues surrounding ethnicity and dietary diversity in developing countries are limited. Objective: We analyzed cross-ethnic differences in dietary diversity and examined the roles of gender and household socioeconomic status (SES) in 3 Indonesian ethnic groups with different kinship systems: Javanese (bilateral), Batak (patrilineal), and Minangkabau (matrilineal). Methods: Data were from the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2000-2015 that consisted of 6478 school-aged children (7-12 years of age) born to 3878 mothers. The children’s dietary diversity was measured using a Berry-Index. We used cluster-robust multivariate linear regression models. Results: Gendered dietary diversity occurred for ethnic groups with unilineal kinship but was less evident for ethnic with bilateral kinship. Batak and Minangkabau girls, rather than boys, had higher dietary diversity because boys from these 2 ethnic groups consumed low-status foods (eg, tubers and vegetables) less often. Household SES influenced ethnic-related dietary diversity differently, perhaps because of food culture. Batak children from lower SES households consumed fruits and dairy products less often, most likely to enable them to consume the pricier but culturally preferable animal-source foods. This lowered their dietary diversity. Conclusion: The overall results indicate gendered and household SES-related effects of ethnicity on dietary diversity. Nutrition interventions targeting boys should be on policy-makers’ agendas. Boys should be advised to consume healthy low-status foods more often to improve their dietary diversity. The Batak case shows that children from lower SES backgrounds should depend less on the pricier foods to enable them varying their diet better.

    Do wealthy farmers implement better agricultural practices? An assessment of implementation of Good Agricultural Practices among different types of independent oil palm smallholders in Riau, Indonesia
    Jelsma, Idsert ; Woittiez, Lotte S. ; Ollivier, Jean ; Dharmawan, Arya Hadi - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 170 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 63 - 76.
    Farmer typology - Indonesia - Intensification - Land use - Oil palm - Smallholders

    Palm oil has become a leading vegetable oil over the past 30 years and smallholder farmers in Indonesia, with more than 12 million hectare the world's largest producer of palm oil, have massively engaged in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation. In Sumatra, where more than 60% of Indonesian palm oil is cultivated, smallholders currently cover roughly 50% of the oil palm area. The rapid expansion of palm oil however did not happen without controversy. In current efforts by the Indonesian government, NGO's and private sector to improve sector performance, smallholders are often characterized as the Achilles heel of the oil palm sector due to poor practices and low yields compared to companies. However, ‘oil palm smallholders’ is a container concept and there has been only limited research into smallholder diversity beyond the organised versus independent farmer dichotomy. This research delves into the implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among seven types of independent smallholders in Rokan Hulu regency, Riau province. The research area consisted of a relative established agricultural area on mineral soils and a relative frontier, mostly on peat. Smallholder types ranged from small local farmers to large farmers who usually reside in urban areas far from their plantation and regard oil palm cultivation as an investment opportunity. The underlying hypothesis is that larger farmers have more capital and therefore implement better agricultural practices than small farmers, who are usually more cash constrained. A wide range of methods was applied, including farmer and farm surveys, remote sensing, tissue analysis and photo interpretation by experts. These methods provided data on fertilizer use, nutrient conditions in oil palms, planting material, planting patterns, and other management practices in the plantations. Results show that yields are poor, implementation of GAP are limited and there is much room for improvement among all farmer types. Poor planting materials, square planting patterns, and limited nutrient applications were particularly prevalent. This implies that farmers across different typologies opt for a low-input low-output system for a myriad of reasons and that under current conditions, initiatives such as improving access to finance or availability of good planting material alone are unlikely to significantly improve the productivity and sustainability of the smallholder oil palm sector.

    Inequality regimes in Indonesian dairy cooperatives : understanding institutional barriers to gender equality
    Wijers, Gea D.M. - \ 2019
    Agriculture and Human Values 36 (2019)2. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 167 - 181.
    Dairy cooperatives - Development - Gender - Indonesia - Inequality regimes - Institutional analysis

    Women are important actors in smallholder farmer milk production. Therefore, female input in the dairy cooperatives is essential to dairy development in emerging economies. Within dairy value chains, however, their contributions are often not formally acknowledged or rewarded. This article contributes to filling this gap by adopting a multileveled institutional perspective to explore the case of dairy development in the Pangalengan mixed-sex dairy cooperative on West Java, Indonesia. The objective is to add evidence from the dairy development practice in Indonesia to the current agenda for gender and development as well as identify pathways for future research on dairy development that will help it do better in practice. Central to the exploration is a discussion of formal and informal institutions as part of the dynamics of the inequality regimes in dairy cooperatives. Evidence from dairy development practices in the Pangalengan cooperative shows, among others, distinct differences between the participation of male and female target groups in dairy development extension, as well as farm size- and resource-related trends in ‘masculinization’ and ‘feminization’ of the smallholder farmer household. The conclusions contribute to debates on more resilient, thus sustainable working relations in food chains, women’s empowerment, gender equality and social justice in agriculture as well as cooperative studies.

    Competence and knowledge development in competence-based vocational education in Indonesia
    Misbah, Zainun ; Gulikers, Judith ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
    Learning Environments Research 22 (2019)2. - ISSN 1387-1579 - p. 253 - 274.
    Agriculture vocational education - Competence development - Competence-based education - Indonesia - Knowledge development

    Theory and research in the field of competence-based vocational education (CBVE) have advanced enormously during the last decades, although empirical research on CBVE lags far behind. CBVE researchers have complained about the lack of evidence that CBVE results in better competence development, the decreasing attention for knowledge development in CBVE practice, and the cross-sectional nature of much CBVE research. This study addresses these issues by reviewing a worldwide competence-based education literature and comparing competence and knowledge development of students in vocational schools in Indonesia that have implemented principles of CBVE to a higher or lesser degree. The study involved 506 students majoring in food processing and technology and 32 teachers from 11 agricultural secondary vocational schools. Teachers and students rated student competence levels. Student knowledge was assessed with a multiple-choice test. Longitudinal data were collected during one school year at three points of time. Student competence development in high-CBVE was higher than in low-CBVE, suggesting that the implementation of CBVE was successful and had a motivating effect of both students and teachers in Indonesian vocational schools. However, knowledge development was indeed lower in high-CBVE than in low-CBVE, which needs further attention.

    The implications of ignoring smallholder agriculture in climate-financed forestry projects: empirical evidence from two REDD+ pilot projects
    Duker, A.E.C. ; Tadesse, T.M. ; Soentoro, T. ; Fraiture, C. de; Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S. - \ 2019
    Climate Policy 19 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. S36 - S46.
    deforestation - Ethiopia - Indonesia - livelihoods - REDD+ - smallholder agriculture

    Changes in agricultural practices can play a pivotal role in climate change mitigation by reducing the need for land use change as one of the biggest sources of GHG emissions, and by enabling carbon sequestration in farmers’ fields. Expansion of smallholder and commercial agriculture is often one of the main driving forces behind deforestation and forest degradation. However, mitigation programmes such as REDD+ are geared towards conservation efforts in the forestry sector without prominently taking into account smallholder agricultural interests in project design and implementation. REDD+ projects often build on existing re- and afforestation projects without major changes in their principles, interests and assumptions. Informed by case study research and interviews with national and international experts, we illustrate with examples from Ethiopia and Indonesia how REDD+ projects are implemented, how they fail to adequately incorporate the demands of smallholder farmers and how this leads to a loss of livelihoods and diminishing interest in participating in REDD+ by local farming communities. The study shows how the conservation-based benefits and insecure funding base in REDD+ projects do not compensate for the contraction in livelihoods from agriculture. Combined with exclusive benefit-sharing mechanisms, this results in an increased pressure on forest resources, diverging from the principal objective of REDD+. We note a gap between the REDD+ narratives at international level (i.e. coupling development with a climate agenda) and the livelihood interests of farming communities on the ground. We argue that without incorporating agricultural interests and a review of financial incentives in the design of future climate finance mechanisms, objectives of both livelihood improvements and GHG emission reductions will be missed. Key policy insights REDD+ is positioned as a promising tool to meet climate, conservation and development targets. However, these expectations are not being met in practice as the interests of smallholder farmers are poorly addressed. REDD+ policy developers and implementers need more focus on understanding the interests and dynamics of smallholder agriculturalists to enable inclusive, realistic and long-lasting projects. For REDD+ to succeed, funders need to consider how to better ensure long-term livelihood security for farming communities.

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