Dynamics of the bacterial gut microbiota in preterm and term infants after intravenous amoxicillin/ceftazidime treatment
Zwittink, Romy D. ; Zoeren-Grobben, Diny van; Renes, Ingrid B. ; Lingen, Richard A. van; Norbruis, Obbe F. ; Martin, Rocio ; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J. ; Knol, Jan ; Belzer, Clara - \ 2020
BMC Pediatrics 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 10 p.
Antibiotics - Gut microbiota - Infant - Next generation sequencing - Preterm
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the consequences of pre-emptive antibiotic treatment in neonates, as disturbances in microbiota development during this key developmental time window might affect early and later life health outcomes. Despite increasing knowledge regarding the detrimental effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiota, limited research focussed on antibiotic treatment duration. We determined the effect of short and long amoxicillin/ceftazidime administration on gut microbiota development during the immediate postnatal life of preterm and term infants. METHODS: Faeces was collected from 63 (pre) term infants at postnatal weeks one, two, three, four and six. Infants received either no (control), short-term (ST) or long-term (LT) postpartum amoxicillin/ceftazidime treatment. RESULTS: Compared to control infants, ST and LT infants' microbiota contained significantly higher abundance of Enterococcus during the first two postnatal weeks at the expense of Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus. Short and long antibiotic treatment both allowed for microbiota restoration within the first six postnatal weeks. However, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium abundances were affected in fewer ST than LT infants. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous amoxicillin/ceftazidime administration affects intestinal microbiota composition by decreasing the relative abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus, while increasing the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Lactobacillus species during the first two postnatal weeks. Thriving of enterococci at the expense of bifidobacteria and streptococci should be considered as aspect of the cost-benefit determination for antibiotic prescription.
Baby's first bites: a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of vegetable-exposure and sensitive feeding on vegetable acceptance, eating behavior and weight gain in infants and toddlers
Veek, S.M.C. van der; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Jager, G. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. ; Weenen, H. ; Winden, N. van; Vliet, M.S. van; Schultink, J.M. ; Wild, V.W.T. de; Janssen, S. ; Mesman, J. - \ 2019
BMC Pediatrics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 1 p.
Complementary feeding - Infant - Responsive feeding - Self-regulation of energy intake - Toddler - Vegetable exposure - Vegetables
BACKGROUND: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. METHODS: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. DISCUSSION: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.
Immunological effects of human milk oligosaccharides
Triantis, Vassilis ; Bode, Lars ; Neerven, Joost R.J. van - \ 2018
Frontiers in Pediatrics 6 (2018). - ISSN 2296-2360
Allergy - Benefit - Health - HMO - Human milk oligosaccharides - Immunity - Infant - Infection
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) comprise a group of structurally complex, unconjugated glycans that are highly abundant in human milk. HMOs are minimally digested in the gastrointestinal tract and reach the colon intact, where they shape the microbiota. A small fraction of HMOs is absorbed, reaches the systemic circulation, and is excreted in urine. HMOs can bind to cell surface receptors expressed on epithelial cells and cells of the immune system and thus modulate neonatal immunity in the infant gut, and possibly also sites throughout the body. In addition, they have been shown to act as soluble decoy receptors to block the attachment of various microbial pathogens to cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects HMOs can have on infections, allergies, auto-immune diseases and inflammation, and will focus on the role of HMOs in altering immune responses through binding to immune-related receptors.
Maternal circulating vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition in healthy lactating women—A systematic approach
Vries, Jasmijn Y. de; Pundir, Shikha ; McKenzie, Elizabeth ; Keijer, Jaap ; Kussmann, Martin - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
Colostrum - Human milk - Infant - Plasma - Vitamins
Colostrum is the first ingested sole nutritional source for the newborn infant. The vitamin profile of colostrum depends on the maternal vitamin status, which in turn is influenced by diet and lifestyle. Yet, the relationship between maternal vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition has not been systematically reviewed. This review was conducted with the aim to generate a comprehensive overview on the relationship between maternal serum (plasma) vitamin concentration and corresponding colostrum composition. Three electronic databases, Embase (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and Cochrane, were systematically searched based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, a total of 11 eligible publications were included that examined the vitamins A, C, D, E, and K in both biological fluids. Maternal vitamin A, D, E, and K blood levels were unrelated to colostrum content of the respective vitamins, and serum vitamin A was inversely correlated with colostrum vitamin E. Colostrum versus maternal serum vitamins were higher for vitamins A, C, and K, lower for vitamin D, and divergent results were reported for vitamin E levels. Colostrum appears typically enriched in vitamin A, C, and K compared to maternal serum, possibly indicative of active mammary gland transport mechanisms. Inter-individual and inter-study high variability in colostrum’s vitamin content endorses its sensitivity to external factors.
Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs
Kayode, Gbenga A. ; Grobbee, Diederick E. ; Koduah, Augustina ; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary ; Agyepong, Irene A. ; Ansah, Evelyn ; Dijk, Han van; Klipstein-grobusch, Kerstin - \ 2016
Global Health Action 9 (2016). - ISSN 1654-9716
neonatal - Infant - under-five mortality - Ghana
Background: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented.
Design: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008) were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges.
Results: Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively.
Conclusion: Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality. Implementing neonatal-specific interventions and improving existing programs will be essential to attain SDG 3.2 in Ghana and beyond.
Synbiotics-supplemented amino acid-based formula supports adequate growth in cow's milk allergic infants
Burks, A.W. ; Harthoorn, L.F. ; Ampting, M.T.J. Van; Oude Nijhuis, M.M. ; Langford, J.E. ; Wopereis, Harm ; Goldberg, S.B. ; Ong, P.Y. ; Essink, B.J. ; Scott, R.B. ; Harvey, B.M. - \ 2015
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 26 (2015)4. - ISSN 0905-6157 - p. 316 - 322.
Amino acid-based formula - Cow's milk allergy - Growth - Infant - Prebiotics - Probiotics - Randomized double-blind controlled trial - Safety
Background: Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) are at risk for inadequate nutritional intake and growth. Dietary management of CMA, therefore, requires diets that are not only hypoallergenic but also support adequate growth in this population. This study assessed growth of CMA infants when using a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) with prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) and evaluated its safety in the intended population. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, full-term infants with diagnosed CMA received either an AAF (control; n = 56) or AAF with synbiotics (oligofructose, long-chain inulin, acidic oligosaccharides, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) (test; n = 54) for 16 wk. Primary outcome was growth, measured as weight, length and head circumference. Secondary outcomes included allergic symptoms and stool characteristics. Results: Average age (±SD) of infants at inclusion was 4.5 ± 2.4 months. Both formulas equally supported growth according to WHO 2006 growth charts and resulted in similar increases of weight, length and head circumference. At week 16, differences (90% CI) in Z-scores (test-control) were as follows: weight 0.147 (-0.10; 0.39, p = 0.32), length -0.299 (-0.69; 0.09, p = 0.21) and head circumference 0.152 (-0.15; 0.45, p = 0.40). Weight-for-age and length-for-age Z-scores were not significantly different between the test and control groups. Both formulas were well tolerated and reduced allergic symptoms; the number of adverse events was not different between the groups. Conclusions: This is the first study that shows that an AAF with a specific synbiotic blend, suitable for CMA infants, supports normal growth and growth similar to the AAF without synbiotics. This clinical trial is registered as NCT00664768.