- Kwame A. Darfour-Oduro (1)
- Martien A.M. Groenen (1)
- Lawrence B. Schook (1)
- Anton Bunschoten (2)
- Arjan C. Lankester (1)
- Diane E.T. Bastiaans (1)
- Anton F.J. Haan de (1)
- Michiel Flier van der (1)
- Gertrude G. Zeinstra (1)
- Aldrik H. Velders (2)
- Laura I. Immohr (1)
- Jaap Jan Boelens (1)
- Hendrik Jan Megens (1)
- Wiep Klaas Smits (1)
- David M. Burger (1)
- Mick M. Welling (2)
- Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch (1)
- Alfred Roca (1)
- Meta Roestenberg (2)
- Henk Scheper (1)
- Jeroen Spitzen (1)
- Riet Strik-Albers (1)
- Willem Takken (1)
- Albertus W. Hensbergen (2)
- Fijs W.B. Leeuwen van (2)
- Adilia Warris (1)
Fluorescent imaging of bacterial infections and recent advances made with multimodal radiopharmaceuticals
Welling, Mick M. ; Hensbergen, Albertus W. ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Scheper, Henk ; Smits, Wiep Klaas ; Roestenberg, Meta ; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Imaging 7 (2019)2. - ISSN 2281-5872 - p. 125 - 138.
Bacterial infection - Fluorescence imaging - Infectious diseases - Molecular imaging - Radioactivity
Background: Today, both radioactive SPECT and PET imaging radiopharmaceuticals are used for clinical diagnosis of bacterial infections. Due to the possible applications in image-guided surgery, fluorescent imaging of infections has gained interest. We here present the highlights and recent developments in the use of fluorescence imaging for bacterial infections. In this overview, we also include the latest developments in multimodal bacterial imaging strategies that combine radioactive and fluorescent imaging. Based on this literature, we present our future perspectives for the field including the translational potential. Methods: In the current review, we complement earlier reports with the most recent fluorescent and multimodal radiopharmaceuticals for bacterial infection imaging. Where possible, in this review, the chemical structure of the compounds and clinical images were shown. Results: A total of 35 out of 77 original articles on pre-clinical and clinical imaging of bacterial infections with fluorescent tracers and multimodality radiopharmaceuticals were included for reviewing. Conclusion: In our view, the highest translational potential lies with compounds that are based on targeting vectors that are specific for bacteria: e.g., fluorescently labelled UBI 29–41 , polymyxin B, vancomycin, ZnDPA and a M. tuberculosis-specific β-lactamase-cleavable linker CNIP800. Multimodal concepts using dually labelled UBI 29–41 , vancomycin, and ZnDPA help connect optical imaging to the more traditional use of radiopharmaceuticals in infectious diseases. Multimodal bacterial imaging is a promising strategy not only to diagnose bacterial infections but also to evaluate the effectivity of surgical treatment for infections.
An update on radiotracer development for molecular imaging of bacterial infections
Welling, Mick M. ; Hensbergen, Albertus W. ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Roestenberg, Meta ; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Imaging 7 (2019)2. - ISSN 2281-5872 - p. 105 - 124.
Infectious diseases - Molecular imaging - Nuclear medicine - Pathogens - Radiotracers
Background: Bacterial infections are still a major global healthcare problem. To combat the increasing antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis of bacterial infections—including the identification of bacterial species—is needed to improve antibiotic stewardship and to help reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. To aid successful targeted antibiotic treatment, specific detection and localisation of infectious organisms is warranted. Nuclear medicine imaging approaches have been successfully used to diagnose bacterial infections and to differentiate between pathogen induced infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Aim: In this comprehensive review we present an overview of recent developments in radiolabelled bacterial imaging tracers. Methods: The PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase (OvidSP) literature databases were systematically searched for publications on SPECT and PET on specific imaging of bacterial using specific guidelines with MeSH-terms, truncations, and completion using cross-references. Tracers in literature that was extensively reviewed before 2016 were not included in this update. Where possible, the chemical structure of the radiolabelled compounds and clinical images were shown. Results: In 219 original articles pre-clinical and clinical imaging of bacterial infection with new tracers were included. In our view, the highest translational potential lies with tracers that are specific to target the pathogens: e.g., 99m Tc- and 68 Ga-labelled UBI 29–41 , 99m Tc-vancomycin, m-[ 18 F]-fluoro-PABA, [methyl- 11 C]-D-methionine, [ 18 F]-FDS, [ 18 F]-maltohexaose and [ 18 F]-maltotriose. An encouraging note is that some of these tracers have already been successfully evaluated in clinical settings. Conclusion: This review summarises updates in tracer development for specific (pre-clinical and clinical) imaging of bacterial infections. We propsed some promising tracers that are likely to become innovative standards in the clinical setting in the near feature.
Keeping track of mosquitoes : A review of tools to track, record and analyse mosquito flight
Spitzen, Jeroen ; Takken, Willem - \ 2018
Parasites & Vectors 11 (2018)1. - ISSN 1756-3305
3D analysis - Automated tracking - Behavioural ecology - Flight behaviour - Infectious diseases - Malaria - Mosquito - Vector control
The health impact of mosquito-borne diseases causes a huge burden on human societies. Recent vector control campaigns have resulted in promising declines in incidence and prevalence of these diseases, notably malaria, but resistance to insecticides and drugs are on the rise, threatening to overturn these gains. Moreover, several vector-borne diseases have re-emerged, requiring prompt and effective response measures. To improve and properly implement vector control interventions, the behaviour of the vectors must be well understood with detailed examination of mosquito flight being an essential component. Current knowledge on mosquito behaviour across its life history is briefly presented, followed by an overview of recent developments in automated tracking techniques for detailed interpretation of mosquito behaviour. These techniques allow highly accurate recording and observation of mating, feeding and oviposition behaviour. Software programmes built with specific algorithms enable quantification of these behaviours. For example, the crucial role of heat on host landing and the multimodal integration of carbon dioxide (CO2) with other host cues, has been unravelled based on three-dimensional tracking of mosquito flight behaviour. Furthermore, the behavioural processes underlying house entry and subsequent host searching and finding can be better understood by analysis of detailed flight recordings. Further potential of these technologies to solve knowledge gaps is discussed. The use of tracking techniques can support or replace existing monitoring tools and provide insights on mosquito behaviour that can lead to innovative and more effective vector-control measures.
In vivo and in vitro palatability testing of a new paediatric formulation of valaciclovir
Bastiaans, Diane E.T. ; Immohr, Laura I. ; Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Strik-Albers, Riet ; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam ; Flier, Michiel van der; Haan, Anton F.J. de; Boelens, Jaap Jan ; Lankester, Arjan C. ; Burger, David M. ; Warris, Adilia - \ 2017
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 83 (2017)12. - ISSN 0306-5251 - p. 2789 - 2797.
Drug development - Infectious diseases - Paediatrics - Pharmacotherapy - Quality use of medicines
Aims: The palatability of a new paediatric formulation of valaciclovir was assessed in children and their parents: non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation (test formulation) compared to the reference formulation was investigated. Methods: In vivo palatability testing was performed in a randomized, two-period, multicentre, cross-over study. Children and their parents scored the liking of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation and the reference formulation on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). To support formulation development and palatability testing, electronic tongue measurements were applied. Results: The electronic tongue measurement indicated taste-masking capabilities for three different formulations in the developmental phase. A glycerol-based formulation was further tested and compared to the reference formulation prepared out of crushed and suspended tablets. The mean difference (95% CI) in VAS scores between both formulations, as indicated by the children (n = 20), was 2.4 (-8.5, 13) mm, in favour of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation. The mean (95% CI) difference in VAS scores indicated by the parents (n = 20) was -0.9 (-12, 9.8) mm. Conclusion: The palatability of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation was considered non-inferior to the reference formulation prepared out of crushed tablets. We were able to optimize the study design and number of children to be included in the palatability testing by using electronic tongue measurements.
Evidence for adaptation of porcine Toll-like receptors
Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A. ; Megens, Hendrik Jan ; Roca, Alfred ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Schook, Lawrence B. - \ 2016
Immunogenetics 68 (2016)3. - ISSN 0093-7711 - p. 179 - 189.
Immunity - Infectious diseases - Local adaptation - Porcine - TLR
Naturally endemic infectious diseases provide selective pressures for pig populations. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens and are likely to play a crucial adaptive role for pig populations. This study was done to determine whether wild and domestic pig populations representing diverse global environments demonstrate local TLR adaptation. The genomic sequence encoding the ectodomain, responsible for interacting with pathogen ligands of bacterial (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6) and viral (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8) receptors, was obtained. Mitochondrial D-loop region sequences were obtained and a phylogenetic analysis using these sequences revealed a clear separation of animals into Asian (n = 27) and European (n = 40) clades. The TLR sequences were then analyzed for population-specific positive selection signatures within wild boars and domesticated pig populations derived from Asian and European clades. Using within-population and between-population tests for positive selection, a TLR2-derived variant 376A (126Thr), estimated to have arisen in 163,000 years ago with a frequency of 83.33 % within European wild boars, 98.00 % within domestic pig breeds of European origin, 40.00 % within Asian wild boars, and 11.36 % within Asian domestic pigs, was identified to be under positive selection in pigs of European origin. The variant is located within the N terminal domain of the TLR2 protein 3D crystal structure and could affect ligand binding. This study suggests the TLR2 gene contributing to responses to bacterial pathogens has been crucial in adaptation of pigs to pathogens.