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Knowledge, attitudes and practices of cervical cancer prevention among Zambian women and men
Nyambe, Anayawa ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Baboo, Stridutt K. ; Hal, Guido Van - \ 2019
BMC Public Health 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Attitude - Cervical cancer - Knowledge - Practices - Screening - Social ecological model - Theory of triadic influence - Vaccination - Zambia
Background: In Zambia, cervical cancer screening was started in 2006 and the human papillomavirus vaccine was piloted in 2013. Nevertheless, cervical cancer remains the leading cancer. It is assumed that knowledge, social interaction, health behaviors and religion are factors that can influence screening and vaccination practices. This study addresses the question, what is the relationship between knowledge about cervical cancer, attitudes, self-reported behavior, and immediate support system, towards screening and vaccination of cervical cancer of Zambian women and men. The results of this study serve as a basis for future research, an input for improvement and adjustment of the existing prevention program and build on documented health behavior frameworks. Methods: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted from February to May 2016. Two separate questionnaires were used to collect data from women (N = 300) and men (N = 300) residing in Chilenje and Kanyama (two townships in the capital city Lusaka). Respondent's knowledge of cervical cancer was operationalized by grading their ability to correctly identify causes and protective factors if they were aware of cervical cancer. Besides providing descriptive statistics of all study variables, we tested four research hypotheses concerning the link between knowledge, attitudes and practices suggested by the literature, by applying appropriate statistical tests (chi square test, analysis of variance, logistic regression). Results: Less than half of the respondents (36.8%) had heard of cervical cancer, 20.7% of women had attended screening and 6.7% of the total sample had vaccinated their daughter. Knowledge of causes and prevention was very low. There was a strong association between having awareness of cervical cancer and practicing screening (odds ratio = 20.5, 95% confidence interval = [9.214, 45.516]) and vaccination (odds ratio = 5.1, 95% confidence interval = [2.473, 10.423]). Social interactions were also found to greatly influence screening and vaccination behaviors. Conclusions: The low level of knowledge of causes and prevention of cervical cancer suggests a need to increase knowledge and awareness among both women and men. Interpersonal interactions have great impact on practicing prevention behaviors, for instance, vaccination of daughters.
The politics of research on farmer-managed irrigation systems in Asia : Some reflections for Africa
Liebrand, Janwillem - \ 2019
Water Alternatives 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 129 - 145.
Farmer-led irrigation development - Farmer-managed irrigation systems - Irrigation - Knowledge - Policy - Politics of research
This article presents a reconstruction of the 1980s' research-policy debate on farmer-managed irrigation systems (FMIS) in Asia. Such a reconstruction yields important lessons for the role of academic researchers in the current research-policy debate on African farmer-led irrigation development (FLID). Two interrelated insights stand out: (1) academic irrigation research was (and is) produced in an institutional context that is infused with the politics of the professional tradition in irrigation, and more specifically, (2) academic knowledge on the institutional heterogeneity of farmer-organized irrigation was (and is) incompatible with how things really work in the institution of the irrigation tradition. These insights raise critical questions on the politics of academic research on FLID, whose research agenda is really pursued, what roles do academic researchers want to play, and how to make irrigation research in development more democratic?.
Using Film to Disseminate Information on Cervical Cancer Prevention in Lusaka: Results from a Small Intervention Study
Nyambe, Anayawa ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Baboo, Stridutt K. ; Hal, Guido Van - \ 2019
Journal of Cancer Education 34 (2019)5. - ISSN 0885-8195 - p. 854 - 859.
Cervical cancer - Film - Intervention - Knowledge - Zambia
In order to prevent the spread of cervical cancer, people must be aware and knowledgeable about the available preventive practices such as screening and vaccination. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that film is effective in disseminating information on cervical cancer and its prevention to women and men in Lusaka. A pilot intervention study was carried out at churches in Lusaka city from August to September 2017. A sample size of 38 women and 43 men filled in both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. A knowledge grade (range, 1–10 points) which linked causes to risk factors for cervical cancer was used to assess the knowledge of a respondent. Significant results (p < 0.01) were obtained at follow-up for watching the film and having awareness and knowledge. The main finding is that a short informational film can be an effective means of disseminating information on cervical cancer and its prevention to women and men.
Drivers of vegetable consumption in urban Nigeria : Food choice motives, knowledge, and self-efficacy
Raaijmakers, Ireen ; Snoek, Harriette ; Maziya-Dixon, Busie ; Achterbosch, Thom - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Food choice motives - Food environment - Knowledge - Nigeria - Self-efficacy - Socio-economic classes - Vegetable consumption
Objective: This study aimed to provide insights into vegetable consumption behavior of urban Nigerian consumers across different Socio-Economic Classes (SEC), their main food choice motives, and the associations of these motives and other drivers with vegetable consumption. Methods: An online survey was conducted in which 1220 women from Lagos (N = 808) and Ibadan (N = 412) metropolis from different SEC participated. Results: On average, respondents reported to consume 2.6 portions of vegetables per day. Most vegetables were bought at open and traditional markets, were bought fresh rather than processed, and were consumed cooked. Respondents from the second richest and upper middle SEC consumed most vegetables () and higher SEC consumed a larger variety of vegetables compared to those from lower classes. Respondents who reported to have a higher knowledge of vegetable consumption, had a higher belief in one's own ability to prepare vegetables (self-efficacy), and those that valued the food motive Mood and Health more, reported a higher vegetable intake. Conclusions: Vegetable consumption in the studied cities in Nigeria was below recommendations. Increasing knowledge and self-efficacy might be a way to increase consumption, especially in combination with interventions in the food environment and product design focused on the motives Health and Mood, and considering the importance of differences between SEC.
Scientific knowledge use and addressing uncertainties about climate change and ecosystem functioning in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt estuaries
Veraart, J.A. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Slobbe, E.J.J. van; Kabat, P. - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 90 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 148 - 160.
Adaptation - Climate change - Freshwater - Knowledge - Problem framing - Uncertainties
This paper analyses how scientists, policy makers and water users engage with scientific knowledge and uncertainties during a lengthy and complex decision-making process (2000–2014) about water quality, freshwater resources and climate adaptation in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt estuaries. The research zooms in on lake Volkerak-Zoom. Interviews confirm that ‘negotiated knowledge’ shaped by the agricultural sector, NGO's and water managers can lead to strategies to improve water quality problems. One such a strategy, based on negotiated knowledge, is to create an inlet to allow limited tides and inflow of saline waters in Lake Volkerak-Zoom. Meanwhile, during negotiations, monitoring showed an autonomous decline in the annually returning algal blooms, leading to new uncertainties and disrupting the negotiations. At another negotiation arena, water users and policy makers repeatedly disputed scientific assessments about costs and benefits regarding additional freshwater supply for agriculture and the knowledge underlying proposed decisions was still considered uncertain in 2014. Several strategies have been observed to deal with uncertainties in decision making, such as deconstruction of certainties, creation of deadlines for decisions and selection of preferred solutions based upon the ‘No-regret principle’. The risk of a lengthy decision making process can be reduced when the responsible authorities recognize, acknowledge and give an equal role to these behavioural strategies to address uncertainties. Tailor-made strategies are needed to make knowledge use more efficient, for example, joint-fact-finding (in case of disputed knowledge and ambiguity), additional research and monitoring (in case of epistemic uncertainty) or commissioning research whereby temporarily a protected environment is created to allow research without political interference (in case of ontic/structural uncertainty).
Vegetable farmers’ behaviour and knowledge related to pesticide use and related health problems : A case study from Bangladesh
Akter, Mousumi ; Fan, Liangxin ; Rahman, M.M. ; Geissen, Violette ; Ritsema, Coen J. - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 200 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 122 - 133.
Attitude - Knowledge - Pesticide practice - Protective behaviour
Proper pesticide use is crucial to farmers’ health and environmental protection. However, the factors affecting a farmer's behaviour with regards to pesticide use remain largely unknown in Bangladesh, particularly for vegetable farmers. Hence, we investigated the use of pesticides by vegetable growers amongst 101 households in an intensive vegetable growing area of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh. Each farmer's background, knowledge, attitude, health problems, experience, protective behaviour, and pesticide use were collected in order to examine the behavioural activities of farmers in relation to their pesticide use and to identify the related factors effecting use. The majority of vegetable growers have long term experience with pesticide use and are involved in full-time vegetable growing. However, even with this long term experience, these growers continue to suffer with toxicity symptoms during pesticide application. Vomiting and headaches are the most frequent symptoms. Amongst eight possible protective behaviours (PBs) reported to be known by the farmers, only three were frequently adopted. The low educational level, the lack of knowledge, insufficient training and the pursuit of high profits were found to be the main reasons for the inadequate use of PBs. The PBs of the vegetable growers were highly affected by their knowledge and past experiences of toxicity. The PBs were also weakly affected by the farmers’ attitude towards pesticide use. Community-based participatory training and education programmes for farmers need to cover both content and process dimensions as well as focus on both on-season and off-season training, specifically targeting woman and elder farmers. Focus group discussions, learn-by-experience examples, photographs and experience sharing can be employed in training and education programmes for improving the farmers’ PBs.
Learning in an agile setting : A multilevel research study on the evolution of organizational routines
Annosi, Maria Carmela ; Martini, Antonella ; Brunetta, Federica ; Marchegiani, Lucia - \ 2018
Journal of Business Research (2018). - ISSN 0148-2963
Agile - Knowledge - Multiple case studies - Organizational learning - Routine evolution - Self-managing team
Recognizing a serious lack of research on routinized individual actions and organizational adaptation in the stability-change paradox, we intend to provide an in-depth explanation of the way in which agile methods affect organizational learning in self-managed, team-based organizations, taking a multi-level evolutionary approach. We explore learning in agile organizations by breaking the analysis of organizational routines down into different levels – individual, team and organization – and describing the process of variation, selection and retention of routines at each level. Leveraging on multiple case studies, we discuss how team members learn and gain knowledge, from both direct and indirect experience, and analyze how teams develop conceptual frameworks and interpret those experiences. Finally, we discuss how organizational memory develops and how teams in agile organizations adapt simultaneously within an ecological structure that also comprises the changing environment. Our findings reveal substantial flaws in the capacity of agile methods to foster organizational learning.
Genomics? That is probably GM! The impact a name can have on the interpretation of a technology
Boersma, Reginald ; Gremmen, Bart - \ 2018
Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 2195-7819
Expert–lay communication - Knowledge - Prejudice - Public understanding - Science and technology communication
We investigate how people form attitudes and make decisions without having extensive knowledge about a technology. We argue that it is impossible for people to carefully study all technologies they encounter and that they are forced to use inferences to make decisions. When people are confronted with an intangible abstract technology, the only visible attribute is the name. This name can determine which inferences a person will use. Considering these inferences is important: first, a name will reach consumers before detailed information, if any, will. Second, if detailed information reaches consumers, the hard-to-comprehend information is processed using pre-activated attitudes and beliefs. Using the available literature, we explore the impact a name can have on the interpretation of a technology. We argue that science communication can benefit from trying to develop a name for a technology that activates proper beliefs to guide non-experts to a more meaningful understanding of it.
Critical upscaling. How citizens’ initiatives can contribute to a transition in governance and quality of urban greenspace
Aalbers, Carmen B.E.M. ; Sehested, Karina - \ 2018
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 29 (2018). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 261 - 275.
Citizen initiative - Governance - Knowledge - Transition - Urban greenspace
Studies show that municipalities often develop a type of urban greenspace that is rather uniform in its shape and use. Citizens’ initiatives develop different types of greenspace. This article uses concepts from transition studies and identifies what happens during a citizens’ initiative in urban greenspace in the Netherlands in terms of transition of municipal management and development and how these initiatives can lead to a change of practices of the municipality. A single, qualitative study of Diepenheim Inside-Out-Forest in the Netherlands as a critical case is presented, based on 8 semi-open interviews. The study gives insight in how the municipality has changed in relation to this one case, and how such transition of ‘regime’ takes place. The study explains how the different benefits that arise in a greenspace development and management initiative relate to the ‘critical knowledge’ and ‘situated knowledge’ of the actors involved and that the quality of urban greenspace is very much the result of that knowledge. ‘Fit and conform’ and ‘stretch and transform’ are usable strategies for the empowerment of such initiatives through sharing of resources, and policy advocacy by ‘critical niche’ innovators. ‘Regime’ is not uniquely a feature of the local state but also of market parties and citizens themselves with their own values and routines. A change among all parties seems needed if greenspace is to be developed, managed and used differently.
Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia : The role of unequal endowments and knowledge asymmetries
Alemu, Sintayehu Hailu ; Kempen, Luuk van; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2017
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics 118 (2017)1. - ISSN 1612-9830 - p. 31 - 43.
Apple fruits - Apple seedlings - Elasticity - Knowledge - Performance - Quality - Returns to scale
This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital) production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings production, respectively. Endowments in land, apple plantation and manure are important production factors for both fruits and seedlings, while labour is significant only for seedlings production. We could not reject constant returns to scale, neither for apple fruits nor for seedlings. Apart from capital and labour endowments, producer knowledge on apple cultivation is a positive and significant determinant of the level of output, product quality, and income generated from apples. The insignificance of the education variable for fruits and seedlings production suggests that what matters in the apple business is specific knowledge of apple-growing technology rather than formal education, at least beyond primary education.
Evaluation of Socio-Economic Factors that Determine Adoption of Climate Compatible Freshwater Supply Measures at Farm Level : a Case Study in the Southwest Netherlands
Veraart, Jeroen A. ; Duinen, Rianne van; Vreke, Jan - \ 2017
Water Resources Management 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 587 - 608.
Adaptation - Adoption - Agriculture - Climate - Freshwater supply - Knowledge - water supply - fresh water - climate adaptation - drought - watervoorziening - zoet water - landbouw - klimaatadaptatie - droogte
The availability of freshwater resources in soil and groundwater bodies in the southwestern part of The Netherlands is expected to decrease during the agricultural growing season because of an expected increase of freshwater demands and a changing climate. This expected shortage of fresh water might negatively affect agricultural production. To cope with this problem, three pilots were initiated aimed at increasing freshwater supply at farm-level. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the socio-economic factors that determine the wider use of the measures investigated in these pilots. Therefore, the results of a feasibility study and a survey about drought risks were compared. The survey indicates that respondents do not make distinction between a dry and extremely dry year in their estimation of the return period. The results of a feasibility study illustrate that confidence and the level of common understanding regarding the reliability of these innovative measures has increased amongst project participants since 2012. The survey respondents were less optimistic about the wider implementation of the investigated technologies. A reliable freshwater supply and supportive legislation are the most decisive socio-economic factors for a future investment in additional freshwater supply for farmers in this region. Both studies illustrate that the impact of additional freshwater supply on farm economics strongly depends on farm type and crop cultivation plan. These insights may support the wider use of these innovations and may help to improve agro-hydrological models.
Social learning research in ecological economics : A survey
Siebenhüner, Bernd ; Rodela, Romina ; Ecker, Franz - \ 2016
Environmental Science & Policy 55 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 116 - 126.
Ecological economics - Knowledge - Learning - Social change - Social learning - Transdisciplinary studies
Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding of human behaviour in contrast to the limited focus on incentive-driven behaviour. Our study analyses the emergence and thematic foci of social learning studies within ecological economics over the past 15 years. We selected and analysed 54 articles published after peer review in established journals adhering to the epistemological tradition of ecological economics. This study is guided by the interest in how social learning is conceptualised, how this research is positioned in terms of process dynamics, causal factors and outcomes of learning. Results show, that the number of related papers grew substantially in recent years. Also the role of formal or informal institutions has been found to be a strong causal factor for social learning and change processes vis-à-vis technological, economic or political factors. In addition, there is a growing awareness of social learning processes in various environmental policy fields such as biodiversity governance, water and land management, fisheries, and climate adaptation. We conclude that these insights can give new impulses to research on socio-ecological transition and to the related debate on societal change and transformation processes as core topics for ecological economics.
Ways of knowing the wastewaterscape : Urban political ecology and the politics of wastewater in Delhi, India
Karpouzoglou, Timothy ; Zimmer, Anna - \ 2016
Habitat International (2016). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 150 - 160.
Delhi - India - Knowledge - Urban political ecology - Wastewaterscape
The notion of waterscape has been proposed by urban political ecology (UPE) scholars as a conceptual lens for understanding urban hydro-social flows. So far, however, there has been little attention by UPE scholars to the importance of wastewater in urban waterscapes. This study demonstrates how wastewater is embedded in an arena of social relations of power, defined in this article as the wastewaterscape. Drawing on research conducted in Delhi, the aim of the study is to examine re-occurring problems of wastewater disposal and mismanagement through the lens of knowledge; and the different ways of knowing about wastewater which exist amongst inhabitants of an informal settlement, scientific experts and municipal workers in Delhi. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that the systemic exposure of poorer urban citizens to untreated wastewater cannot be attributed to the shortcomings of service delivery alone, but is more fundamentally associated with how legitimacy is awarded to competing systems of knowledge about wastewater in the urban sphere.
Global environmental change research : Empowering developing countries
Nobre, Carlos A. ; Lahsen, Myanna ; Ometto, Jean P.H.B. - \ 2008
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 80 (2008)3. - ISSN 0001-3765 - p. 523 - 529.
Development - Ecosystem services - Knowledge - Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Sustainability
This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology- and policy-development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.