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Managing Eutrophication in a Tropical Brackish Water Lagoon : Testing Lanthanum-Modified Clay and Coagulant for Internal Load Reduction and Cyanobacteria Bloom Removal
Magalhães, Leonardo de; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Furtado, Luciana Lima ; Drummond, Erick ; Leite, Vivian Balthazar Gonçalves ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Lürling, Miquel ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2019
Estuaries and coasts 42 (2019)2. - ISSN 1559-2723 - p. 390 - 402.
Geo-engineering - Lake restoration - PAC - Phoslock - Phosphorus control - Sediment release
The release of phosphorus (P) stored in the sediment may cause long-term delay in the recovery of lakes, ponds, and lagoons from eutrophication. In this paper, we tested on a laboratory scale the efficacy of the flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and a strong P-binding agent (lanthanum-modified bentonite, LMB) on their ability to flocculate a cyanobacterial bloom and hamper P release from a hypertrophic, brackish lagoon sediment. In addition, critical P loading was estimated through PCLake. We showed that cyanobacteria could be effectively settled using a PAC dose of 2 mg Al L−1 combined with 400-mg L−1 LMB; PAC 8 mg Al L−1 alone could also remove cyanobacteria, although its performance was improved adding low concentrations of LMB. The efficacy of LMB to bind P released from the sediment was tested based on potentially available sediment P. A dose of 400 g LMB m−2 significantly reduced the P release from sediment to over-standing water (either deionized water or water from the lagoon with and without cyanobacteria). In sediment cores, LMB + PAC reduced sediment P flux from 9.9 (± 3.3) to − 4.6 (± 0.3) mg P m−2 day−1 for the experimental period of 3 months. The internal P load was 14 times higher than the estimated P critical load (0.7 mg P m−2 day−1), thus even if all the external P sources would be ceased, the water quality will not improve promptly. Hence, the combined LMB + PAC treatment seems a promising in-lake intervention to diminish internal P load bellow the critical load. Such intervention is able to speed up recovery in the brackish lagoon once external loading has been tackled and at a cost of less than 5% of the estimated dredging costs.
Effects of dredging and lanthanum-modified clay on water quality variables in an enclosure study in a hypertrophic pond
Lürling, Miquel ; Waajen, Guido ; Engels, Bart ; Oosterhout, Frank van - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)6. - ISSN 2073-4441 - 24 p.
cyanobacterial bloom - Eutrophication control - Lake management - Lake restoration - Mitigation - Principle response curve
An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB), dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total, 25 water quality variables were monitored. Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination LMB-treated and dredged enclosures deviated most from the pond (reference) and the controls, and showed the strongest eutrophication reduction. Overall, dredging significantly increased transparency, lowered turbidity, and improved the oxygen conditions in the enclosures compared to non-dredged ones. Nonetheless, one dredged enclosure deviated dramatically from the others, which might reflect methodological issues with dredging. The LMB treatment appeared to be less effective at mitigating eutrophication than dredging, and phosphate concentrations even increased during the experiment in the LMB-treated enclosures. Chemical equilibrium modeling suggested that humic substances could have formed complexes with lanthanum (La) from the LMB, rendering it unavailable for intercepting P over the course of the enclosure experiment. Residual lanthanum concentrations in combination dredging and LMB treatments exceeded the Dutch standard 10-fold. Total zooplankton abundance, and particularly Cladocera, increased in all enclosures over the course of the experiment. The limited effect of LMB in the enclosure experiment and the violation of the Dutch La standard when combined with dredging disqualify LMB as an intervention agent in the restoration of the pond.
Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna
Waajen, G. ; Pauwels, M. ; Lürling, M. - \ 2017
Water Research 122 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 183 - 193.
Cyanobacteria - Iron-III-chloride - Lake restoration - Macrofauna - Phoslock
A low dose flocculant (FeCl3), combined with lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) as phosphate-binding agent, has been applied for eutrophication management in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands). After the treatment, the state of the lake shifted from hypertrophic to mesotrophic. Although macroinvertebrate fauna is important for lake ecosystems, the knowledge of its response to this lake restoration method is fragmented and scarce. Because insight in the macroinvertebrate fauna response is important to assess future applications, pre and post application macroinvertebrate assemblages were identified in Lake De Kuil. The research was accompanied by a microcosm experiment in which the effects of LMB, FeCl3 and LMB + FeCl3 were studied on macroinvertebrate communities. Results show the reduction of macroinvertebrate numbers and taxa during the first month following the application. The number of Gastropoda was strikingly reduced one month after the application. One year after the application, the macroinvertebrate numbers and taxa exceeded the pre-application situation and Gastropoda and Oligochaeta prospered. The effects one month after the treatment are most likely due to the combination of physical impacts of the use of bentonite and chemical impacts of the use of FeCl3, while effects after one year are likely attributed to the shift in trophic state of the lake.
Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis
Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira ; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Guedes, Iamê Alves ; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2017
Water Research 118 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 121 - 130.
Cell lysis - Cell viability - Cyanobacterial blooms - Eutrophication - Lake restoration - Photosystem II efficiency
Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive. A 1.3 h exposure to a low dose of 0.5 mg l−1 chitosan already almost completely killed these cultures resulting in release of cell contents. After 24 h, reductions in PSII efficiencies of all cyanobacteria tested were observed. EC50 values varied from around 0.5 mg l−1 chitosan for the two sensitive strains, via about 5 mg l−1 chitosan for an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain, a toxic P. agardhii strain and two Anabaena cylindrica cultures, to more than 8 mg l−1 chitosan for a Microcystis aeruginosa strain and another A. flos-aquae strain. Differences in sensitivity to chitosan might be related to polymeric substances that surround cyanobacteria. Rapid lysis of toxic strains is likely and when chitosan flocking and sinking of cyanobacteria is considered in lake restoration, flocculation efficacy studies should be complemented with investigation on the effects of chitosan on the cyanobacteria assemblage being targeted.
Biomanipulation with quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to control harmful algal blooms in eutrophic urban ponds
Waajen, Guido W.A.M. ; Bruggen, Niek C.B. Van; Pires, Miguel Dionisio L. ; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Lurling, Miguel - \ 2016
Ecological Engineering 90 (2016). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 141 - 150.
Dreissenids - Grazing - Lake restoration - Microcystin - Toxic cyanobacteria
Many urban ponds in The Netherlands and other countries suffer from eutrophication, resulting in harmful algal blooms which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. A sufficient reduction of nutrients, as prerequisite to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms in urban ponds, is not always feasible. Water managers are in need for applicable alternatives to mitigate these cyanobacterial blooms. The quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) is a rapidly expanding bivalve species in many standing waters and rivers in The Netherlands. Because quagga mussels feed on algae, they could become a useful tool in controlling harmful algal blooms in urban ponds if provided with the appropriate substrate. We tested the hypothesis that quagga mussels can reduce phytoplankton biomass and induce a clear water state in a shallow hypertrophic urban pond. We executed an in situ enclosure experiment using eight enclosures (750 L) in an urban pond: four enclosures contained quagga mussels (0.3 g ww L-1), and four control enclosures were set up without mussels. We used artificial substrate for the breeding of mussels and the transfer from the breeding location to the experimental site. In contrast to the controls, the enclosures with mussels showed significantly lower concentrations of total chlorophyll-a (2.4 μg L-1 in mussel enclosures versus 84.1 μg L-1 in controls), cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a (1.0 μg L-1 versus 7.3 μg L-1) and total phosphorus (0.08 mg L-1 versus 0.17 mg L-1), and had higher transparency (>0.80 m in mussel enclosures versus 0.57 m in controls) and higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentration (0.03 mg L-1 versus -1). No effect of the mussels on microcystin concentrations was shown. The results show that quagga mussels are able to reduce the phytoplankton biomass in a hypertrophic urban pond, including cyanobacteria and induce a clear water state. We conclude that quagga mussels can be a promising tool in controlling algal blooms in urban ponds, in particular when a sufficient reduction of nutrients is not feasible. A preferred next step in the scaling up of the method is the determination of long-term effectiveness and side-effects in a controlled application in an urban pond. Because the quagga mussel is an invasive alien species, new introductions should be considered carefully and water purification using quagga mussels is preferably applied in water systems where the species is already present.
Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations and composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite
Dithmer, Line ; Nielsen, Ulla Gro ; Lurling, Miguel ; Spears, Bryan M. ; Yasseri, Said ; Lundberg, Daniel ; Moore, Alanna ; Jensen, Nicholai D. ; Reitzel, Kasper - \ 2016
Water Research 97 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 101 - 110.
31P NMR - Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) - EXAFS - Full scale - Lake restoration - Lanthanum - Lanthanum modified bentonite - P sequestration
A combined field and laboratory scale study of 10 European lakes treated between 2006 and 2013 with a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) to control sediment phosphorus (P) release was conducted. The study followed the responses in sediment characteristics including La and P fractions and binding forms, P adsorption capacity of discrete sediment layers, and pore water P concentrations. Lanthanum phosphate mineral phases were confirmed by solid state 31P MAS NMR and LIII EXAFS spectroscopy. Rhabdophane (LaPO4 · nH2O) was the major phase although indications of monazite (LaPO4) formation were also reported, in the earliest treated lake. Molar ratios between La and P in the sediments were generally above 1, demonstrating excess La relative to P. Lanthanum was vertically mixed in the sediment down to a depth of 10 cm for eight of the ten lakes, and recovery of La in excess of 100% of the theoretical aerial load indicated translocation of the LMB towards the deepest areas of the lakes. Lanthanum was generally recovered from bed sediment samples following sequential chemical extraction from the HCl fraction. Soluble reactive P (SRP) release experiments on intact sediment cores indicated conditions of P retention (with the exception of two lakes) by sediments, indicating effective control of sediment P release, i.e. between two and nine years after treatment.
Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effective flocculation and sedimentation with combined use of flocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay
Pessoa Noyma, Natalia ; Magalhaes, L. de; Furtado, L.L. ; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, M. ; Oosterhout, M. van; Huszar, V.L.M. ; Marinho, M.M. ; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. - \ 2016
Water Research 97 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 26 - 38.
Cyanobacteria bloom - Geo-engineering in lakes - Lake restoration - Local red soil - Phosphorus mitigation
Eutrophication often results in blooms of toxic cyanobacteria that hamper the use of lakes and reservoirs. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of a metal salt (poly-aluminium chloride, PAC) and chitosan, alone and combined with different doses of the lanthanum modified bentonite Phoslock® (LMB) or local red soil (LRS) to sediment positively buoyant cyanobacteria from Funil Reservoir, Brazil, (22°30’S, 44°45’W). We also tested the effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) on suspended and settled cyanobacterial photosystem efficiency, and evaluated the soluble reactive P (SRP) adsorbing capacity of both LMB and LRS under oxic and anoxic conditions. Our data showed that buoyant cyanobacteria could be flocked and effectively precipitated using a combination of PAC or chitosan with LMB or LRS. The SRP sorption capacity of LMB was higher than that of LRS. The maximum P adsorption was lowered under anoxic conditions especially for LRS ballast. CaO2 addition impaired photosystem efficiency at 1 mg L-1 or higher and killed precipitated cyanobacteria at 4 mg L-1 or higher. A drawback was that oxygen production from the peroxide gave positive buoyancy again to the settled flocs. Therefore, further experimentations with slow release pellets are recommended.
Evaluation of several end-of-pipe measures proposed to control cyanobacteria
Lurling, Miguel ; Waajen, Guido ; Senerpont Domis, Lisette N. de - \ 2016
Aquatic Ecology 50 (2016)3. - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 499 - 519.
Curative measures - Cyanobacteria suppression - Eutrophication control - Lake management - Lake restoration - Mitigation
While reduction in nutrient loading is a prerequisite for mitigation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in nutrient-enriched waters, in certain surface waters eutrophication control is not always feasible due to practical and economic constraints or might be effective only in the long run. Yet, the urgent need to control cyanobacteria in water for drinking, irrigation, aquaculture, industry and recreation has spurred the development of a plethora of alternative methods that claim to be fast acting. Here, we provide a critical overview of several of these end-of-pipe measures: effective microorganisms (EM®), golden algae (Ochromonas), plant/tree extracts, ultrasound and artificial mixing of non-stratifying waters. Most of the end-of the pipe measures claim to provide sustainable control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, while at best only targeting symptom relief rather than eutrophication relief. Support for “effective” microorganisms, golden algae, plant extracts, ultrasound and artificial mixing of non-stratifying waters to diminish eutrophication problems such that the resulting water quality meets societal and legislation demands is limited, and several proposed underlying mechanisms are doubtful. None of these curative measures seem the desired wide applicable solution to cyanobacterial nuisance; they should not be considered Columbus’s egg. A critical evaluation of end-of pipe measures is crucial for water authorities in their choice for mitigating measures.