Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing : Liking and Just-About-Right ratings in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
Zandstra, E.H. ; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Vennik, E. ; Wijk, R.A. De - \ 2020
Food Quality and Preference 84 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
Context - Engagement - Immersive technology - Just-About-Right ratings - Liking
Initial research indicates that the use of immersive technologies may improve the predictive validity and reliability of liking scores in consumer testing. However, how immersive technologies impact Just-About-Right ratings is hardly known. Forty-five participants took part in three tasting sessions, each in a different context: 1) laboratory, 2) immersive context simulating a café using audiovisual cues, and 3) real café. Each session, participants tasted four tomato soups varying in salt content preceded by a warm-up sample. Liking, optimal levels of sensory attributes (JAR) and engagement were measured. Results showed that there were no differences in liking or JAR ratings on sensory attributes of the soups across the three contexts. Nevertheless, participants felt more engaged in the real café and simulated café than in the laboratory. These results contribute to a better understanding of how sensory differences as assessed in a laboratory or immersive context relate to sensory differences that consumers would notice when they use the products in real-life.
Grab to eat! Eating motivation dynamics measured by effort exertion depend on hunger state
Pirc, Matjaž ; Čad, E.M. ; Jager, G. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Desire to eat - Eating motivation - Effort - Hand-grip force exertion - Liking - Wanting
A crucial challenge in investigating motivated human eating behaviour is to go beyond subjective measures, by developing reliable methods capable of objectively quantifying the dynamic aspects of appetitive motivation. We developed and tested a novel effort-based task (Grab-to-Eat Task (GET)), utilising handgrip force as a motivational measure, to capture eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption. Sixty normal-weight young adults were allocated to one of two hunger state conditions (hungry or satiated) and performed a continuous reinforcement-based task, during which sips of chocolate milk were self-administered with a handgrip force transducer. Motivation was covertly assessed by the magnitude of effort exertion towards each sip. Cumulatively, hungry subjects exerted more effort and consequently consumed more chocolate milk than satiated ones. Effort exertion declined throughout consumption in both groups, with the rate of decline being two-fold greater in hungry subjects. Furthermore, effort exerted in the initial stages of consumption predicted subsequent intake. Present results fit in the theoretical framework of reward-related motivation and suggest that the developed paradigm is sensitive to eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption and to differences in eating motivation related to hunger state. Further validation, ideally involving functional neuroimaging, would be imperative. In the future, this paradigm could be used to investigate eating motivation dynamics in various populations, conditions and food products.
Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking
Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.
Drivers of Preference and Perception of Freshness in Roasted Peanuts (Arachis spp.) for European Consumers
Lykomitros, Dimitrios ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Capuano, Edoardo - \ 2018
Journal of Food Science 83 (2018)4. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. 1103 - 1115.
Consumer preference - Freshness - Liking - Peanut - Volatiles
Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were produced from peanuts of different types, cultivars, origins, and with different process technologies (including baking, frying, and maceration). The peanut samples were subjected to sensory (expert panel, SpectrumTM) and instrumental analysis (color, headspace volatiles, sugar profile, large deformation compression tests, and graded by size) and were hedonically rated by consumers in The Netherlands, Spain, and Turkey (n > 200 each). Preference Mapping (PREFMAP) on mean liking models revealed that the drivers of liking are similar across the three countries. Sweet taste, roasted peanut, dark roast, and sweet aromas and the color b* value were related to increased liking, and raw bean aroma and bitter taste with decreased liking. Further partial least square regression (PLSR) modeling of liking and perceived freshness against instrumental attributes showed that the color coordinates in combination with sucrose content and a select few headspace volatiles were strong predictors of both preference and perceived freshness. Finally, additional PLSR models focusing on the headspace volatiles only showed that liking and ''fresh'' attributes were correlated with the presence of several pyrroles in the volatile fraction, and inversely related to ''stale'' and to hexanal and 2-heptanone. Practical Application: This study provides insight into which flavor, taste, and appearance attributes drive liking and disliking of roasted peanuts for European consumers. The drivers are linked back to analytical attributes that can be measured instrumentally, thereby reducing the reliance on costly sensory panels. Particular emphasis is placed on color as a predictor of preference, because of the low cost of the measuring equipment, it is available to even smaller producers. In addition to preference, the study also examines whether product attributes that drive perceived freshness exist. The results can be used to design products with high acceptability across several countries within Europe.
Measuring temporal liking simultaneously to Temporal Dominance of Sensations in several intakes. An application to Gouda cheeses in 6 Europeans countries
Thomas, A. ; Chambault, M. ; Dreyfuss, L. ; Gilbert, C.C. ; Hegyi, A. ; Henneberg, S. ; Knippertz, A. ; Kostyra, E. ; Kremer, S. ; Silva, A.P. ; Schlich, P. - \ 2017
Food Research International 99 (2017)1. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 426 - 434.
Gouda cheese - Liking - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) - Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL)
The idea of having untrained consumers performing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking in the same session was recently introduced (Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, & Schlich, 2016). In the present study, a variation of the data acquisition protocol was done, aiming to record TDS and liking simultaneously on the same screen in a single session during multiple product intakes. This method, called Simultaneous Temporal Drivers of Liking (S-TDL), was used to describe samples of Gouda cheese in an international experiment.To test this idea, consumers from six European countries (n = 667) assessed 4 Gouda cheeses with different ages and fat contents during one sensory evaluation session. Ten sensory attributes and a 9-point hedonic scale were presented simultaneously on the computer screen. While performing TDS, consumers could reassess their liking score as often as they wanted. This new type of sensory data was coded by individual average liking scores while a given attribute was perceived as dominant (Liking While Dominant; LWD).Although significant differences in preference were observed among countries, there were global preferences for a longer dominance of melting, fatty and tender textures. The cheese flavour attribute was the best positive TDL, whereas bitter was a strong negative TDL. A cluster analysis of the 667 consumers identified three significant liking clusters, each with different most and least preferred samples. For the TDL computation by cluster, significant specific TDL were observed. These results showed the importance of overall liking segmentation before TDL analysis to determine which attributes should have a longer dominance duration in order to please specific consumer targets.
Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life
Liem, D.G. ; Bolhuis, D.P. ; Hu, X. ; Keast, R.S.J. - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1747 - 1754.
Consumer - Cross-cultural - Liking - Milk - Sensory
Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese ( n = 48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian ( n = 93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers.
Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception
Spence, Charles ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003510 - p. 107 - 132.
Expectations - Flavor - Liking - Multisensory - Sensory dominance - Taste - Vision
Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of different food and beverage items exerts a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and often on the subsequent taste/flavor experiences of participants in the lab, as well as consumers under the more naturalistic conditions of everyday life. It is important to note that food colors can have rather different meanings, and hence give rise to differing expectations in these different age groups, not to mention in those from different cultures. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by food color in different groups of individuals, researchers are now coming to better understand the various ways in which what we see can modulate the multisensory perception of flavor, and alter our food behaviors.
Application and validation of the Feeding Infants : Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS) to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding
Nekitsing, C. ; Madrelle, J. ; Barends, C. ; Graaf, C. de; Parrott, H. ; Morgan, S. ; Weenen, H. ; Hetherington, M.M. - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 48 (2016)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 228 - 237.
Complementary feeding - Facial expressions - Food refusal - Infant feeding - Like/dislike - Liking - Scale - Wanting - Weaning
Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a novel tool developed to measure liking and wanting in infants during the weaning period. The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS; Hetherington et al., in press) is an evidence based video coding tool, consisting of 13 items. There are 6 measures of avoidance/approach behaviours (turns head away, arches back, pushes spoon away, crying/fussy, leaning forward and rate of acceptance) to assess wanting and 7 facial expressions (brow lowered, inner brow raised, squinting, nose wrinkling, lip corners down, upper lip raised and gaping) to assess liking. Lower scores on the total scale indicated greater wanting and/or liking. The tool was applied to a recent randomized control trial (Hetherington et al., 2015). Method: 36 mother-infant dyads took part in the study and were randomised to the intervention or the control group. Infants were filmed on two occasions whilst eating a generally liked vegetable (carrots) and less preferred vegetable (green bean). 72 video extracts were coded by 4 trained researchers with adequate certification scores, each video was coded by at least two coders. Items and scales were tested for discrimination ((1) intervention vs control; (2) liked vs disliked vegetable) and construct validity (correlation with intake and liking assessed by mother and researcher). Results: Very good discrimination (p <0.001) was obtained for carrots vs green bean for the total score and total negative facial expressions and rejection behaviours (p=0.003). Discrimination for the intervention vs control groups was only obtained for the total rejections and the rate of acceptance (p <05). The FIBFECS subscales had good construct validity as these were significantly correlated with intake and liking ratings (p <0.01). Items such as crying/fussy and leaning forward were removed from the scale as well as inner brow raised, squinting and lip corners down, as these do not correlate with other variables. Their removal did not affect the integrity of the scale. The rate of acceptance parameter was found to have potential as a short method to measure wanting in infants. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the FIBFECS can be used to identify liking and wanting independent of subjective ratings from mothers and researchers, therefore, this tool can be used widely in the study of infant responses to novel foods at the time of weaning. There is potential to develop the tool for infants beyond the period of complementary feeding and to assist in identifying fussy eating in the early stages of development.
Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods
Schrieks, I.C. ; Stafleu, Annette ; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne ; Graaf, Kees de; Witkamp, R.F. ; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2015
Appetite 89 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 77 - 83.
Alcohol consumption - Appetite - Food intake - Food reward - Liking - Wanting
The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P
Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action
Parma, Valentina ; Castiello, Umberto ; Köster, Egon Peter ; Mojet, Jos - \ 2014
Appetite 76 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 186 - 196.
Flavour memory - Liking - Reach-to-grasp - Visual memory
The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes.
Effect of background noise on food perception
Woods, A.T. ; Poliakoff, E. ; Lloyd, D.M. ; Kuenzel, J. ; Hodson, R. ; Gonda, H. ; Batchelor, J. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Thomas, A. - \ 2011
Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 42 - 47.
Crunchiness - Flavour - Liking - Multisensory - Perception - Sound - Taste
We investigated the effects of auditory background noise on the perception of gustatory food properties (sugar level, salt level), food crunchiness and food liking. Participants blindly consumed different foods whilst passively listening to either no sound, or quiet or loud background white noise. The foods were then rated in terms of sweetness, saltiness and liking (Experiment 1) or in terms of overall flavour, crunchiness and liking (Experiment 2). Reported sweetness and saltiness was significantly lower in the loud compared to the quiet sound conditions (Experiment 1), but crunchiness was reported to be more intense (Experiment 2). This suggests that food properties unrelated to sound (sweetness, saltiness) and those conveyed via auditory channels (crunchiness) are differentially affected by background noise. A relationship between ratings of the liking of background noise and ratings of the liking of the food was also found (Experiment 2). We conclude that background sound unrelated to food diminishes gustatory food properties (saltiness, sweetness) which is suggestive of a cross-modal contrasting or attentional effect, whilst enhancing food crunchiness.