High levels of dioxins and PCBs in meat, fat and livers of free ranging pigs, goats, sheep and cows from the island of Curaçao
Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van; Egmond, Harry van; Nicolina, Jennyfer ; Dwarkasing, Arnold J.S. - \ 2020
Chemosphere 263 (2020). - ISSN 0045-6535
Dioxins - Fat - Foraging animals - Liver - Meat - PCBs
Samples of adipose tissue, meat and livers from pigs, cows, sheep and goats from Curaçao were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like (dl-) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Levels in many samples of adipose tissue were higher than the EU maximum levels (MLs) for PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs (sum-TEQ), indicating unusually high levels. Median sum-TEQ (Toxic Equivalents) levels for pigs, cows, sheep and goats were 0.9 (range 0.3–35), 3.0 (0.5–14), 5.7 (0.3–28) and 6.5 (0.5–134) pg TEQ g−1 fat. For most samples, the congener pattern pointed to the burning of waste as the major source, in line with the fact that most animals forage outside. MLs for ndl-PCBs were also exceeded in some of the samples, indicating that some areas are additionally contaminated with PCBs. Meat levels showed similar lipid based levels as adipose tissue, contrary to liver levels, which were much higher in most animals. Pigs showed liver sequestration at lower levels in adipose tissue than the ruminants. The relatively high levels observed in this study are likely to result in high exposure of consumers and measures were taken to reduce the contamination of areas where animals forage.
Consumer moral dilemma in the choice of animal-friendly meat products
Lin-Schilstra, Li ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)12. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 1 p.
Animal-friendly products - Consumer behavior - Meat - Moral dilemma - Systematic review
More and more consumers, at least in Western developed countries, are attentive to the sustainability aspects of their food, one of which concerns animal welfare. The conflict of harming an animal for the joy of eating meat causes a moral dilemma, affecting consumers' reactions to, and choices of, animal-friendly products. This systematic review identified 86 studies from Scopus andWeb of Science. The review outlines: (1) What are the personal antecedents among consumers regarding moral conflicts?; (2) In what situation do moral conflicts occur in consumer food choice?; (3) How do consumers emotionally experience the moral dilemma?; (4) How do consumers resolve moral conflicts over animal products? Researchers have studied personal factors and situational factors that arouse consumers' moral dilemma and how the dilemma is solved, during which emotions and dissonance come into play. When synthesizing these findings into a comprehensive model, we notice that the current research is lacking on how personal factors change and interact with situations, which limits the understanding of the real-life context of consumers' moral dilemma as well as their choices of animal-friendly products. More in-depth studies are needed to find situational factors that contribute to this complex psychological process.
Portioning meat and vegetables in four different out of home settings : A win-win for guests, chefs and the planet
Reinders, Machiel J. ; Lieshout, Lilou van; Pot, Gerda K. ; Neufingerl, Nicole ; Broek, Eva van den; Battjes-Fries, Marieke ; Heijnen, Joris - \ 2020
Appetite 147 (2020). - ISSN 0195-6663
Environmental impact - Healthy diet - Meat - Plant-forward diet - Portion size - Real-life intervention study - Restaurant - Vegetables
Individuals increasingly consume their meals away from home. This article describes a series of studies that examined the effects of meals with reduced amounts of meat and increased amounts of vegetables on food consumption, waste and guest satisfaction in four real-life restaurant settings in the Netherlands: an a-la-carte restaurant, six company canteens, a self-service restaurant, and a buffet restaurant, including nearly 1500 participants in total. The four studies in these four different out of home settings consistently showed that adapting portion sizes of meat and vegetables was effective to reduce meat consumption and increase vegetable consumption, while maintaining high guest satisfaction. Guest satisfaction even increased when vegetables were presented and prepared in a more attractive and tasty way. Thus, adapting portion sizes of meat and vegetables provides a viable strategy to stimulate healthy and environmentally sustainable consumption patterns in out of home settings.
Brominated flame retardants in animal derived foods in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014
Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Lee, Martijn K. van der; Peters, Ruud J.B. ; Traag, Wim A. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2019
Chemosphere 234 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 171 - 178.
Eggs - Fish - HBCDD - Meat - Milk - PBDE
Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were monitored in various foods from terrestrial and aquatic animal origin (>850 samples), collected in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014. The terrestrial samples included meat/fat from 7 animal species (including bovines, pigs, broilers and sheep), bovine milk and hen eggs. Dominant PBDE congeners in these samples were BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -183. The meat/fat generally contained the highest ∑PBDE concentrations compared to eggs and milk, with meat from deer, horse and sheep containing the highest concentrations. Generally declining ∑PBDE concentrations were observed between 2009 and 2014, however, this was only significant in pig meat and hen's eggs. The aquatic samples included fillets from 18 species (including herring, haddock and salmon), brown crab parts, shrimp and mussels, and the highest ∑PBDE concentrations were seen in body parts of brown crab, herring, mackerel, salmon and sea bass (on wet weight basis). Patterns generally contained more congeners (i.e., BDE-28, -49 and -66) additional to the aforementioned congeners found in terrestrial samples. Herring, sea bass and brown crab (body parts) contained among the highest PBDE concentrations. TBBPA was only detected in 3 individual samples (bovine and broiler meat and haddock), while α-HBCDD was the dominant diastereomer detected in several terrestrial and aquatic samples. When detected, TBBPA and HBCDD concentrations were generally in the same order as ∑PBDE concentrations in the same sample types.
Differences in fraud vulnerability in various food supply chains and their tiers
Ruth, S.M. van; Luning, P.A. ; Silvis, I.C.J. ; Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. - \ 2018
Food Control 84 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 375 - 381.
Bananas - Fish - Meat - Milk - Olive oil - Spices
Food fraud results from the interaction of motivated offenders with opportunities, and lack of control measures. The vulnerability to food fraud varies across chain actors (tiers) though, but insights on prime fraud drivers and enablers, as well as chain areas where vulnerabilities might exist are lacking. In the current study the fish, meat, milk, olive oil, organic bananas, and spice supply chains were assessed for their fraud vulnerabilities. The differences and similarities in vulnerabilities across the supply chains, as well as between groups of chain actors were evaluated using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were applied for exploratory data analysis, and differences between chains and actors were assessed by analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Thirteen fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high across all supply chains indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Control measures varied considerably across supply chains and actor groups, with technical (hard) controls generally being more in place than managerial (soft) controls. Approximately half of the fraud factors were impacted by the type of commodity chain, and one out of seven of the fraud factors by the actor group. From the current sample group overall fraud vulnerability appeared highest for the spice chain, which was followed by the olive oil, meat, fish, milk and organic banana chains. Among the actor groups, the wholesale/traders group appeared most vulnerable, followed by retailers and processors. The current results provide new insights in the fraud factors determining fraud vulnerability in various supply chains, and the (dis)similarities in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and actor groups which helps to combat future food fraud.
Food-grade double emulsions as effective fat replacers in meat systems
Eisinaite, Viktorija ; Juraite, Dovile ; Schroën, Karin ; Leskauskaite, Daiva - \ 2017
Journal of Food Engineering 213 (2017). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 54 - 59.
Double emulsion - Encapsulation - Fat replacers - Meat
Double emulsions were used to not only replace 7 and 11% of animal fat in meat products, but also as a way to enhance the product colour. The coarse emulsion containing native beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% whey protein isolate as outer water phase was prepared using a rotor stator system. The resulting coarse double emulsion had a typical average droplet size of 32 μm, that was refined further using a hybrid membrane premix emulsification system resulting in an average droplet size of 20 μm. Both double emulsions were exposed to heat threatment (70 °C for 30 min), and were physically stable due to the high viscosity (2.9 Pa s). Besides these emulsions had high colour retention. When added to meat systems, both double emulsions showed good water and fat binding capacity, and they reduced the hardness and improved the colour of meat systems, which are both desirable characteristics. The main conclusion of the paper is that double emulsion technology can be used to reach dual functionality in meat products; reduction of caloric load and colour retention.
Development and validation of a quantitative confirmatory method for 30 β-lactam antibiotics in bovine muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
Rocco, M. Di; Moloney, M. ; O'Beirne, T. ; Earley, S. ; Berendsen, B. ; Furey, A. ; Danaher, M. - \ 2017
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1500 (2017). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 121 - 135.
Carbapenem - Cephalosporin - Meat - Penicillin - UHPLC-MS/MS - β-Lactam
A method was developed for the confirmatory and quantitative analysis of 30 β-lactam antibiotic residues in bovine muscle. The method includes 12 penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, mecillinam, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, piperacillin, ticarcillin), 12 cephalosporins (cefacetrile, cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefalonium, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefquinome, cefuroxime, desacetyl cephapirin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide, desfuroylceftiofur dimer), five carbapenems (biapenem, doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem) and faropenem. Samples were extracted using a simple solvent extraction with acetonitrile:water (80:20, v/v) and C18 dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection. Chromatography was performed on a reversed phase CSH C18 column, using a binary gradient separation comprising of 0.01% formic acid and 0.2mM ammonium acetate in water (mobile phase A) and 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile (mobile phase B). The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI(+)). Validation was performed following the 2002/657/EC guidelines. Trueness ranged between 69% and 143% and precision ranged between 2.0% and 29.9% under within-laboratory reproducibility conditions. The developed method uses minimal sample preparation and 30 test samples can be analysed by a single analyst in a single day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method for carbapenems in foodstuff that does not require derivatisation.
Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption : A real-life experiment
Reinders, Machiel J. ; Huitink, Marlijn ; Dijkstra, S.C. ; Maaskant, Anna J. ; Heijnen, Joris - \ 2017
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
Diet - Intake - Meat - Menu - Portion size - Restaurant - Vegetables
Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. Methods: A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included. Results: Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish. Conclusions: This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.
Meet meat : An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch
Bekker, Gerben A. ; Tobi, Hilde ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2017
Appetite 114 (2017). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 82 - 92.
Cross-cultural comparison - Cultured meat - Meat - Practice theory - Social practice - Symbolic boundaries
In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat.
When indifference is ambivalence : Strategic ignorance about meat consumption
Onwezen, Marleen C. ; Weele, Cor N. van der - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 52 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 96 - 105.
Cognitive dissonance - Emotions - Ignorance - Meat - Wilful blindness
Meat consumption is associated with a tension, for example the tension between love of meat and concern about animal welfare or health. Based on the literature we propose four consumer segments that each respond differently to (potential) conflicting thoughts in the context of meat: struggling-, coping-, strategically ignoring-, and indifferent consumers. As proposed we identified the four segments (of which one segment can be divided in two separate segments) in two separate cases (N = 1842). This study is the first to identify a group of strategically ignorant consumers for a real life issue (i.e., conflicting experiences regarding meat consumption). The findings indicate that previously labelled indifferent consumers consists of 1) consumers who do not care and, therefore, ignore the issue and 2) consumers who do care but strategically choose to ignore the issue. We discuss the theoretical implications of strategic ignorance and the practical implications for reducing meat consumption.
Challenges and prospects for consumer acceptance of cultured meat
Verbeke, Wim ; Sans, Pierre ; Loo, Ellen J. Van - \ 2015
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14 (2015)2. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 285 - 294.
Acceptance - Artificial - Attitude - Consumer - Cultured - In vitro - Meat - Synthetic
Consumer acceptance of cultured meat is expected to depend on a wide diversity of determinants ranging from technology-related perceptions to product-specific expectations, and including wider contextual factors like media coverage, public involvement, and trust in science, policy and society. This paper discusses the case of cultured meat against this multitude of possible determinants shaping future consumer acceptance or rejection. The paper also presents insights from a primary exploratory study performed in April 2013 with consumers from Flanders (Belgium) (n=180). The concept of cultured meat was only known (unaided) by 13% of the study participants. After receiving basic information about what cultured meat is, participants expressed favorable expectations about the concept. Only 9% rejected the idea of trying cultured meat, while two thirds hesitated and about quarter indicated to be willing to try it. The provision of additional information about the environmental benefits of cultured meat compared to traditional meat resulted in 43% of the participants indicating to be willing to try this novel food, while another 51% indicated to be 'maybe' willing to do so. Price and sensory expectations emerged as major obstacles. Consumers eating mostly vegetarian meals were less convinced that cultured meat might be healthy, suggesting that vegetarians may not be the ideal primary target group for this novel meat substitute. Although exploratory rather than conclusive, the findings generally underscore doubts among consumers about trying this product when it would become available, and therefore also the challenge for cultured meat to mimic traditional meat in terms of sensory quality at an affordable price in order to become acceptable for future consumers.
Viruses: Hepatitis E Virus
Cook, N. ; Martelli, F. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Ruggeri, Franco M. - \ 2014
In: Hazards and Diseases Elsevier - ISBN 9780123786135 - p. 205 - 207.
Autochthonous - Deer - Foodborne - Foodborne pathogen - Hepatitis E - Jaundice - Liver - Meat - Microbial hazards - Pig - Shellfish - Wild boar - Zoonoses
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a nonenveloped single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus, classified into four genotypes with a single serotype. HEV infection can result in liver damage, and symptoms can be particularly severe in pregnant women. HEV is also found in a variety of animal species, including pigs, which has prompted concern over zoonotic transmission of the virus. Several cases of foodborne transmission of hepatitis E have been reported, often involving consumption of meat, especially raw or undercooked. However, thorough cooking can inactivate the virus. Information is lacking on the exact extent of foodborne transmission of HEV.
Total antioxidant capacities of raw and cooked meats
Serpen, Arda ; Gökmen, Vural ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2012
Meat Science 90 (2012)1. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 60 - 65.
Antioxidant activity - Denaturation - Heating - Meat - Quencher procedure
This study investigated the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of meats (beef, chicken, pork and fish) and its changes on thermal treatment. The QUENCHER procedure, which is performed directly on the solid material without extraction, was selected and proved to be particularly suitable for meat samples. The ABTS+ scavenging capacity of raw meats ranged between 25.9±1.0 and 51.7±1.2mmol Trolox Eq./kg. Raw chicken had the highest TAC followed by pork, beef and fish. Upon heating at 180°C, TAC of meats increased to an apparent maximum at 5min followed by sudden decreases until 15min, while the final stage of heating was characterized by slight increases. The modifications of TAC during cooking can be explained considering factors such as denaturation and exposure of reactive protein sites, degradation of endogenous antioxidants and the formation of Maillard reaction products having antioxidant properties.
Training a sensory panel for TI: A case study
Peyvieux, Christine ; Dijksterhuis, Garmt - \ 2001
Food Quality and Preference 12 (2001)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 19 - 28.
Meat - Panel training - Procrustes - Time-intensity
Time-intensity (TI) is an increasingly used sensory method, however, no proper guidelines for training panellists with TI seem to have been set up, hence comparison of results from different TI studies is difficult. In this paper a three steps approach is proposed: (1) introduction to the method; (2) training for the TI task through a simple product assessment: basic taste beverages; (3) running a TI pilot experiment. The loadings from a principal components analysis (PCA) on TI data have proved to be useful in assessing panel agreement and providing information about individual differences. Pilot profiling proved useful for choosing the attributes to be used in the TI study. This minimises the chance of performing a TI study with irrelevant attributes. It is concluded that, following the steps in this study, most panellists are able to learn to perform a TI task reliably.