Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Dataset on proteomic changes of whey protein after different heat treatment
    Xiong, Ling ; Boeren, Sjef ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2020
    Data in Brief 29 (2020). - ISSN 2352-3409
    Heat treatment - Milk - Pasteurization - Proteomics - Whey protein

    Hereby we provide data from a shot-gun proteomics experiment, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to relatively quantify the changes in the protein profile of whey proteins after heating milk at either 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C, 80 °C, or 85 °C for 30 min. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication [1]. The raw mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier “PXD016436”.

    Dairy farming system markers: The correlation of forage and milk fatty acid profiles from organic, pasture and conventional systems in the Netherlands
    Liu, Ningjing ; Pustjens, Annemieke M. ; Erasmus, Sara W. ; Yang, Yuzheng ; Hettinga, Kasper ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 314 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Classification - Correlation analysis - Fatty acids - Forage - Milk - Organic

    The relationships between the fatty acid (FA) composition in forage and milk (F&M) from different dairy systems were investigated. Eighty milk samples and 91 forage samples were collected from 40 farms (19 organic, 11 pasture and 10 conventional) in the Netherlands, during winter and summer. The FA profiles of F&M samples were measured with gas chromatography. The results showed that the F&M of organic farms were significantly differentiated from the F&M of other farms, both in summer and winter. The differences are likely due to the different grazing strategies in summer and different forage composition in winter. The Pearson's correlation results showed the specific relationship between individual FAs in forages and related milk. A PLS-DA model was applied to classify all milks samples, resulting in 87.5% and 83.3% correct classifications of training set and validation set.

    Effect of heat treatment on bacteriostatic activity and protein profile of bovine whey proteins
    Xiong, Ling ; Li, Chengkang ; Boeren, Sjef ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2020
    Food Research International 127 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
    Antibacterial - Milk - Milk enzymes - Pasteurization - Proteomics - Thermal treatment

    Bovine milk shows bacteriostatic activity mainly due to the presence of antibacterial proteins, like lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and immunoglobulins. Heat treatment is applied to kill bacteria and thereby extend shelf life of dairy products. Such heat treatment may, however, impair the activity of native antibacterial proteins in milk. The aim of this study was to investigate bacteriostatic capacity and retention of antibacterial proteins in unheated and heated bovine milk. Skim milk samples were heated at 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C, 80 °C and 85 °C, for 30 min. Whey was isolated from the heat-treated skim milk and the bacteriostatic capacity of this whey was tested against Streptococcus thermophilus, Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The proteomic profile of native whey was determined using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Results showed that the bacteriostatic activity of whey negatively correlated with intensity of heat treatment, which was also reflected in the reduced level of native antibacterial proteins. There is a significant difference between milk samples treated for 30 min at <75 °C and milk samples treated at ≥75 °C in both bacteriostatic capacity and native antibacterial proteins. Growth rates of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Pseudomonas fluorescens were negatively correlated with retention of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. In conclusion, our study shows that the bacteriostatic capacity of whey decreases with increasing heating intensity, which is strongly correlated with the denaturation of antibacterial proteins. Bacteriostatic activity can be a biomarker for loss of function of antibacterial proteins, and can thereby be used as an indicator for the extent of heat processing of dairy products including antibacterial proteins in a mild heat treatment.

    Assessment of air gap membrane distillation for milk concentration
    Moejes, S.N. ; Wonderen, G.J. van; Bitter, J.H. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Membrane Science 594 (2020). - ISSN 0376-7388
    Membrane distillation - Milk - Network optimization - Process design - Reverse osmosis

    Multi-effect evaporation is the state of the art for concentration of liquid food products to high solid content. Membrane technology with reverse-osmosis and membrane distillation offer an alternative. For the concentration of milk, a reverse osmosis and air-gap membrane distillation network was modelled and optimized. Fouling dynamics and scheduling are taken into account. Reverse osmosis is favourable until its maximum achievable concentration. Air gap membrane distillation is, despite the low operational temperatures, energy intensive for the concentration of milk. A large recirculation flow to keep sufficient cross flow has to be heated and cooled, and the costs for heating and cooling dominate the total costs for product concentration. Moreover, fouling increases the energy requirements. The optimal system for air gap membrane distillation has only one stage operating at a high concentration and relative low flux. Applying multiple stages reduces the investment costs due to smaller units, but the heating and cooling costs increase. Major opportunities to improve the performance of air gap membrane distillation for concentration of milk are: 1) increase the cold and hot side temperatures to their maximum acceptable values, 2) develop spacers that allow lower linear flow velocities in the system and thus lower recirculation rates, and 3) make use of available waste heat.

    Unfair milk prices? Lessons from a split-sample choice experiment
    Höhler, Julia ; Schreiner, Julia A. - \ 2019
    British Food Journal 122 (2019)2. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 515 - 530.
    Discrete choice experiment - Marketing - Milk - Price fairness - Reference prices

    Purpose: In times of “milk price crises”, “fair” milk prices are repeatedly demanded. Various studies indicate an increased willingness to pay (WTP) for the additional attribute of price fairness. Nevertheless, market shares have been low so far. The purpose of this paper is to discuss three possible reasons for this: low reference prices, socially desirable responses in choice experiments and the lack of justification of the claim “fair” by further attributes. Design/methodology/approach: In a split sample, one group facing alternatives with a higher price range and the other with a lower price range, the consumer’s choices are examined. This study uses a social desirability scale for controlling biases in the stated WTP. In addition, the claim “fair” is complemented with a guaranteed price, grazing, regional production and CO2-reduction. A random parameter logit model specified in WTP space is employed to estimate milk consumers’ (n=480) preferences for “fair” milk. Furthermore, a latent class approach reveals information about the source of preference heterogeneity for fair milk attributes among the two groups of the split sample. Findings: This study finds statistically significant differences between the two price ranges. In the low price range, additional attributes can trigger an additional WTP. In the high price range, there is no statistically significant additional WTP. WTP’s dependence on price levels could explain why the market share for “fair” milk has so far been low. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the study of the effect of split samples in choice experiments. In addition, it promotes the understanding of price fairness in milk and its determinants.

    Brominated flame retardants in animal derived foods in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014
    Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Lee, Martijn K. van der; Peters, Ruud J.B. ; Traag, Wim A. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2019
    Chemosphere 234 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 171 - 178.
    Eggs - Fish - HBCDD - Meat - Milk - PBDE

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were monitored in various foods from terrestrial and aquatic animal origin (>850 samples), collected in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014. The terrestrial samples included meat/fat from 7 animal species (including bovines, pigs, broilers and sheep), bovine milk and hen eggs. Dominant PBDE congeners in these samples were BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -183. The meat/fat generally contained the highest ∑PBDE concentrations compared to eggs and milk, with meat from deer, horse and sheep containing the highest concentrations. Generally declining ∑PBDE concentrations were observed between 2009 and 2014, however, this was only significant in pig meat and hen's eggs. The aquatic samples included fillets from 18 species (including herring, haddock and salmon), brown crab parts, shrimp and mussels, and the highest ∑PBDE concentrations were seen in body parts of brown crab, herring, mackerel, salmon and sea bass (on wet weight basis). Patterns generally contained more congeners (i.e., BDE-28, -49 and -66) additional to the aforementioned congeners found in terrestrial samples. Herring, sea bass and brown crab (body parts) contained among the highest PBDE concentrations. TBBPA was only detected in 3 individual samples (bovine and broiler meat and haddock), while α-HBCDD was the dominant diastereomer detected in several terrestrial and aquatic samples. When detected, TBBPA and HBCDD concentrations were generally in the same order as ∑PBDE concentrations in the same sample types.

    Robust sampling and preservation of DNA for microbial community profiling in field experiments
    Groenenboom, Anneloes E. ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. - \ 2019
    BMC Research Notes 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1756-0500
    DNA stabilisation - Fermentation - Field trial - Filter paper disks - Microbial community - Milk

    Objective: Stabilising samples of microbial communities for DNA extraction without access to laboratory equipment can be a challenging task. In this paper we propose a method using filter paper disks for the preservation of DNA from diverse microbial communities which are found in a fermented milk product. Results: Small adaptations to the DNA extraction method used for liquid fermented milk delivered DNA of sufficient amounts and quality to be used for later analyses, e.g. full community 16S amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure obtained via the filter paper method showed sufficient resemblance to the structure obtain via the traditional DNA extraction from the liquid milk sample. This method can therefore successfully be used to analyse diverse microbial communities from fermented milk products from remote areas.

    Alcalase enzyme treatment affects egg incubation and larval quality in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)
    Ljubobratović, Uroš ; Péter, Géza ; Alvestad, Rene ; Horváth, Zoltán ; Rónyai, András - \ 2019
    Aquaculture International 27 (2019)4. - ISSN 0967-6120 - p. 917 - 929.
    Alcalase - Egg de-adhesion - Hatching - Kaolin - Larviculture - Milk

    Although egg de-adhesion has been the subject of research in pikeperch of late, the possible effect of this technological procedure on larval viability under intensive rearing conditions has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Alcalase enzyme on egg incubation and larviculture success compared to a commonly used procedure with milk and kaolin clay suspension. Preliminary research was conducted in order to find the minimal exposure time of eggs in Alcalase enzyme solution for the total elimination of adhesiveness. Further on, stripped eggs from three females were divided into two equal portions, and each portion was treated according to the abovementioned procedures. Efficiency of the procedures was evaluated and compared through egg incubation and larviculture. Alcalase-treated eggs exhibited significantly shorter incubation time (121 ± 12 h vs. 157 ± 10 h), hatching period (16 ± 7 h vs. 48 ± 21 h) and lower embryo survival (82.5 ± 2.4% vs. 87.7 ± 1.4%) with a significantly higher hatching rate (98.5 ± 1.0% vs. 72.0 ± 35.3 %). The larviculture yielded significantly lower production efficacy in eggs treated with Alcalase manifested as the share of larvae with an inflated swim bladder in the total number of stocked eggs (5.8 ± 2.4%) compared to larvae hatched in eggs treated with milk and kaolin (20.1 ± 11.9%). The Alcalase enzyme treatment reduced the incubation time and diminished the larval performance; therefore, its application in eggs of pikeperch should be reconsidered.

    A quantitative model of the bovine casein micelle : ion equilibria and calcium phosphate sequestration by individual caseins in bovine milk
    Bijl, Etske ; Huppertz, Thom ; Valenberg, Hein van; Holt, Carl - \ 2019
    European Biophysics Journal 48 (2019)1. - ISSN 0175-7571 - p. 45 - 59.
    Calcium homeostasis - Milk - Phosphoprotein - Salt partition

    The white appearance of skim milk is due to strong light scattering by colloidal particles called casein micelles. Bovine casein micelles comprise expressed proteins from four casein genes together with significant fractions of the total calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and citrate ions in the milk. Thus, the milk salts are partitioned between the casein micelles, where they are mostly in the form of nanoclusters of an amorphous calcium phosphate sequestered by caseins through their phosphorylated residues, with the remainder in the continuous phase. Previously, a salt partition calculation was made assuming that the nanoclusters are sequestered only by short, highly phosphorylated casein sequences, sometimes called phosphate centres. Three of the four caseins have a proportion of their phosphorylated residues in either one or two phosphate centres and these were proposed to react with the nanoclusters equally and independently. An improved model of the partition of caseins and salts in milk is described in which all the phosphorylated residues in competent caseins act together to bind to and sequester the nanoclusters. The new model has been applied to results from a recent study of variation in salt and casein composition in the milk of individual cows. Compared to the previous model, it provides better agreement with experiment of the partition of caseins between free and bound states and equally good results for the partition of milk salts. In addition, new calculations are presented for the charge on individual caseins in their bound and free states.

    Omics and systems biology : Integration of production and omics data in systems biology
    Hettinga, Kasper ; Zhang, Lina - \ 2018
    In: Proteomics in Domestic Animals Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319696812 - p. 463 - 485.
    Biochemistry - Computation biology - Farm animal - Genomics - Interactomics - Metabolomics - Milk - Proteomics - Systems biology - Transcriptomics
    Omics technologies have become of mainstream use in the study of farm animals, to better understand the physiology of the animal and the quality of the products produced by those animals. Such studies can be done at the level of genes, transcripts, proteins and/or metabolites. An important aspect of doing such omics studies is understanding of variation. For example, in relation to parity, lactation, feeding status and animal health, variation can happen in transcripts, proteins or metabolites found in farm animals and the products produced. This variation can help in better understanding the physiology of the animal. Also variation between individual animals exists, which may assist in better understanding of the animal's physiology. One limitation of the majority of the studies in this area is that they are performed using one specific omics technology. Integrating omics data captured using multiple omics technologies, using a systems biology approach, can shed more light on the biochemistry of the farm animal's physiology. At the end of this chapter, the outlook on such studies and the (software) developments that would be needed for optimal integration of omics data is discussed.
    Effectiveness of climate change mitigation options considering the amount of meat produced in dairy systems
    Vellinga, T.V. ; Vries, M. de - \ 2018
    Agricultural Systems 162 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 136 - 144.
    Beef - Dairy - Greenhouse gas - Milk - Mitigation
    Many of the climate change mitigation options for dairy systems that aim at optimizing milk production imply a reduced output of meat from these systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a number of mitigation strategies for dairy systems, taking into account compensation for changes in the amount of beef produced. Four commonly used mitigation strategies for dairy systems were evaluated using an LCA modelling approach: increasing the milk production per cow, extending the productive life span of cows, increasing the calving interval, and changing breed from Holstein Friesian to Jersey. The Dutch dairy system was taken as a case study. For each scenario, analyses were done in two steps. First, effects of the mitigation strategy on production of milk and carcass weight from the dairy system were calculated. Second, GHG emission intensities were calculated for three different functional units (FU): one kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), one kg of carcass weight (CW), and a fixed amount of milk and beef (i.e. 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW). In the third FU, in case the amount of CW produced by the dairy system was lower than 40 g per kg FPCM, the remainder was compensated by CW produced in pure beef systems, assuming a GHG emission intensity of 30 kg CO 2 -eq. per kg CW for pure beef. Results showed a reduction in CW per kg FPCM from the dairy system in all four mitigation strategies. Considering GHG emissions per kg of FPCM only, the strategies reduced emissions by 0.2 to 18.1%. When considering emissions per kg of CW only, emissions were reduced by 12.5 to 48.9%. However, when we used a FU of 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW, changes in emissions ranged from −0.2 to 3.8%. This was caused by the compensation of the lower CW production from dairy systems by CW from pure beef systems. Differences in emissions per kg FPCM and 40 g CW were smaller when the assumed emission intensity of pure beef was lower. We concluded that the mitigation strategies for dairy systems evaluated in this study were less effective for reduction of GHG emissions from production of milk and beef, when accounting for changes in the amount of beef produced. This study showed that the challenge of reducing GHG emissions of milk and beef production is interrelated. Hence, analyses of GHG emissions related to changes in production of milk and beef requires an integrated approach, beyond the system boundaries of the dairy farm.
    Differences in fraud vulnerability in various food supply chains and their tiers
    Ruth, S.M. van; Luning, P.A. ; Silvis, I.C.J. ; Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. - \ 2018
    Food Control 84 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 375 - 381.
    Bananas - Fish - Meat - Milk - Olive oil - Spices
    Food fraud results from the interaction of motivated offenders with opportunities, and lack of control measures. The vulnerability to food fraud varies across chain actors (tiers) though, but insights on prime fraud drivers and enablers, as well as chain areas where vulnerabilities might exist are lacking. In the current study the fish, meat, milk, olive oil, organic bananas, and spice supply chains were assessed for their fraud vulnerabilities. The differences and similarities in vulnerabilities across the supply chains, as well as between groups of chain actors were evaluated using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were applied for exploratory data analysis, and differences between chains and actors were assessed by analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Thirteen fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high across all supply chains indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Control measures varied considerably across supply chains and actor groups, with technical (hard) controls generally being more in place than managerial (soft) controls. Approximately half of the fraud factors were impacted by the type of commodity chain, and one out of seven of the fraud factors by the actor group. From the current sample group overall fraud vulnerability appeared highest for the spice chain, which was followed by the olive oil, meat, fish, milk and organic banana chains. Among the actor groups, the wholesale/traders group appeared most vulnerable, followed by retailers and processors. The current results provide new insights in the fraud factors determining fraud vulnerability in various supply chains, and the (dis)similarities in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and actor groups which helps to combat future food fraud.
    Normal milk microbiome is reestablished following experimental infection with Escherichia coli independent of intramammary antibiotic treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin in bovines
    Ganda, Erika K. ; Gaeta, Natalia ; Sipka, Anja ; Pomeroy, Brianna ; Oikonomou, Georgios ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Bicalho, Rodrigo C. - \ 2017
    Microbiome 5 (2017)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - p. 74 - 74.
    Antimicrobial treatment - Ceftiofur - Cephalosporins - Dairy cattle - E. coli - Mastitis - Milk - Milk microbiome - Third-generation cephalosporin
    BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobials in food animals and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance are global concerns. Ceftiofur is the only third-generation cephalosporin labeled for veterinary use in the USA, and it is the drug of choice in the majority of dairy farms for the treatment of mastitis. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to describe longitudinal changes that occur in the milk microbiome before, during, and after infection and treatment with ceftiofur. Twelve animals were intramammary challenged with Escherichia coli in one quarter and randomly allocated to receive intramammary treatment with ceftiofur (5d) or untreated controls. Serial samples were collected from -72 to 216 h relative to challenge from the challenged quarter, an ipsilateral quarter assigned to the same treatment group, and from a third quarter that did not undergo intervention.RESULTS: Infection with E. coli dramatically impacted microbial diversity. Ceftiofur significantly decreased LogCFUs but had no significant effect on the milk microbiome, rate of pathogen clearance, or somatic cell count. At the end of the study, the microbial profile of infected quarters was indistinguishable from pre-challenge samples in both treated and untreated animals. Intramammary infusion with ceftiofur did not alter the healthy milk (i.e., milk devoid of clots or serous appearance and collected from a mammary gland that shows no clinical signs of mastitis) microbiome.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the mammary gland harbors a resilient microbiome, capable of reestablishing itself after experimental infection with E. coli independent of antimicrobial treatment.
    Zinc absorption from milk is affected by dilution but not by thermal processing, and milk enhances absorption of Zinc from high-phytate rice in young dutch women
    Talsma, Elise F. ; Moretti, Diego ; Ly, Sou Chheng ; Dekkers, Renske ; Heuvel, Ellen G.H.M. van den; Fitri, Aditia ; Boelsma, Esther ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Zeder, Christophe ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida - \ 2017
    The Journal of Nutrition 147 (2017)6. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1086 - 1093.
    Absorption - Food processing - Human - Isotope dilution - Milk - Phytate - Rice - Thermal processing - Zinc

    Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 20-25]: 1) a milk study (n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with 67Zn, and 2) a rice study (n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically 67Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or fullfat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]. The fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured with the double-isotope tracer ratio method. In vitro, we assessed zinc extraction from rice blended into water, UM, or HTM with or without phytate. Results: FAZ from HTM was 25.5% (95% CI: 21.6%, 29.4%) and was not different from UM (27.8%; 95% CI: 24.2%, 31.4%). FAZ from water was higher (72.3%; 95% CI: 68.7%, 75.9%), whereas FAZ fromMWwas lower (19.7%; 95% CI: 17.5%, 21.9%) than HTM and UM (both P < 0.01). FAZ from RM (20.7%; 95% CI: 18.8%, 22.7%) was significantly higher than from RW (12.8%; 95% CI: 10.8%, 14.6%; P < 0.01). In vitro, HTM and UM showed several orders of magnitude higher extraction of zinc from rice with HTM than from rice with water at various phytate concentrations. Conclusions: Milk enhanced human FAZ from high-phytate rice by 62% compared with water. Diluting milk with water decreases its absorption-enhancing proprieties, whereas UHT processing does not.

    Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality : dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    Guo, Jing ; Astrup, Arne ; Lovegrove, Julie A. ; Gijsbers, Lieke ; Givens, David I. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. - \ 2017
    European Journal of Epidemiology 32 (2017)4. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 269 - 287.
    All-cause mortality - Cardiovascular disease - Dairy - Dose–response meta-analysis - Fermented dairy - Milk
    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose–response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95–1.00; I2 = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral associations between dairy products and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. For future studies it is important to investigate in more detail how dairy products can be replaced by other foods.
    Recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products
    Verardo, Vito ; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria ; Arráez-Román, David ; Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2017
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (2017)1. - ISSN 1661-6596
    Colostrum - Dairy by-products - Healthy effects - Milk - Phospholipids

    Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

    Market opportunities for animal-friendly milk in different consumer segments
    Graaf, Sophie de; Vanhonacker, Filiep ; Loo, Ellen J. Van; Bijttebier, Jo ; Lauwers, Ludwig ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Verbeke, Wim - \ 2016
    Sustainability 8 (2016)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Animal welfare - Consumers - Dairy cattle - Ethical consumption - Market segmentation - Milk - Survey

    Consumers have increasing, but highly variable, interest in sustainability attributes of food, including ethical aspects, such as animal welfare. We explored market opportunities for animal-friendly cow's milk based on segmentation (cluster) analysis. Flemish survey participants (n = 787) were clustered (n = 6) based on their intention to purchase (IP) animal-friendly milk, and their evaluation of cows' welfare state (EV). Three market opportunity segments were derived from clusters and labelled as "high", "moderate" and "limited". Only 8% of the participants belong to the "high market opportunities" segment, characterized by a high IP and a low EV. The "limited" segment (44%) indicated a neutral to low IP and a positive EV. The "moderate" segment (48%) had a moderately positive IP and positive/negative EV. Reported willingness to pay, interest in information about the state of animal welfare and importance of the product attribute "animal welfare" differed among segments and were strongly related to IP. Most promising selling propositions about animal-friendly milk were related to pasture access. The high degree of differentiation within the Flemish milk market reveals market opportunities for animal-friendly milk, but for an effective market share increase supply of animal-friendly products needs to get more aligned with the heterogeneous demand.

    Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life
    Liem, D.G. ; Bolhuis, D.P. ; Hu, X. ; Keast, R.S.J. - \ 2016
    Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1747 - 1754.
    Consumer - Cross-cultural - Liking - Milk - Sensory

    Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese ( n = 48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian ( n = 93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers.

    The protein and lipid composition of the membrane of milk fat globules depends on their size
    Lu, Jing ; Argov-Argaman, Nurit ; Anggrek, Jeni ; Boeren, Sjef ; Hooijdonk, Toon van; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper Arthur - \ 2016
    Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4726 - 4738.
    Fat globule - Membrane proteome - Milk - Phospholipids - Triglycerides

    In bovine milk, fat globules (MFG) have a heterogeneous size distribution with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 15 μm. Although efforts have been made to explain differences in lipid composition, little is known about the protein composition of MFG membranes (MFGM) in different sizes of MFG. In this study, protein and lipid analyses were combined to study MFG formation and secretion. Two different sized MFG fractions (7.6 ± 0.9 μm and 3.3 ± 1.2 μm) were obtained by centrifugation. The protein composition of MFGM in the large and small MFG fractions was compared using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. The lipid composition and fatty acid composition of MFG was determined using HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detector and gas chromatography, respectively. Two frequently studied proteins in lipid droplet biogenesis, perilipin-2 and TIP47, were increased in the large and small MFG fractions, respectively. In the large MFG fraction, besides perilipin-2, cytoplasmic vesicle proteins (heat shock proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and Rabs), microfilaments and intermediate filament-related proteins (actin and vimentin), host defense proteins (cathelicidins), and phosphatidylinositol were higher in concentration. On the other hand, cholesterol synthesis enzymes [lanosterol synthase and sterol-4-α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)], cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine were, besides TIP47, higher in concentration in the small MFG fraction. These results suggest that vesicle proteins, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, cholesterol, and specific phospholipids play an important role in lipid droplet growth, secretion, or both. The observations from this study clearly demonstrated the difference in protein and lipid composition between small and large MFG fractions. Studying the role of these components in more detail in future experiments may lead to a better understanding of fat globule formation and secretion.

    A proteomics-based identification of putative biomarkers for disease in bovine milk
    Altena, S.E.C. van; Klerk, B. de; Hettinga, K.A. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Boeren, S. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Tijhaar, E.J. - \ 2016
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 174 (2016). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 11 - 18.
    Biomarker - Dairy cattle - Lactoferrin - Milk

    The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential biomarkers for disease resistance in bovine milk that can be used to indicate dairy cows at risk to develop future health problems. We selected high- and low-resistant cows i.e. cows that were less or more prone to develop diseases according to farmers' experience and notifications in the disease registration data. The protein composition of milk serum samples of these high- and low-resistant cows were compared using NanoLC-MS/MS. In total 78 proteins were identified and quantified of which 13 were significantly more abundant in low-resistant cows than high-resistant cows. Quantification of one of these proteins, lactoferrin (LF), by ELISA in a new and much larger set of full fat milk samples confirmed higher LF levels in low- versus high-resistant cows. These high- and low-resistant cows were selected based on comprehensive disease registration and milk recording data, and absence of disease for at least 4 weeks. Relating the experienced diseases to LF levels in milk showed that lameness was associated with higher LF levels in milk. Analysis of the prognostic value of LF showed that low-resistant cows with higher LF levels in milk had a higher risk of being culled within one year after testing than high-resistant cows. In conclusion, LF in milk are higher in low-resistant cows, are associated with lameness and may be a prognostic marker for risk of premature culling.

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