Climate-Smart Forestry : the missing link
Verkerk, P.J. ; Costanza, R. ; Hetemäki, L. ; Kubiszewski, I. ; Leskinen, P. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Potočnik, J. ; Palahí, M. - \ 2020
Forest Policy and Economics 115 (2020). - ISSN 1389-9341
Adaptation - Climate change - Forestry - Mitigation - Policy
To achieve the objectives of the Paris Climate Agreement, a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is needed, as well as increased removals by carbon sinks. In this context, we argue that Climate-Smart Forestry is a necessary, but still missing component in national strategies for implementing actions under the Paris Agreement. Climate-Smart Forestry is needed to (a) increase the total forest area and avoid deforestation, (b) connect mitigation with adaption measures to enhance the resilience of global forest resources, and (c) use wood for products that store carbon and substitute emission-intensive fossil and non-renewable products and materials. Successful Climate-Smart Forestry has important policy implications on finding the right balance between short and long-term goals, as well as between the need for wood production, the protection of biodiversity and the provision of other important ecosystem services. CSF thus can provide important co-benefits that are increasingly being recognized as essential for sustainable well-being.
Integrity of organic foods and their suppliers : Fraud vulnerability across chains
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Pagter-de Witte, Leontien de - \ 2020
Foods 9 (2020)2. - ISSN 2304-8158
Banana - Egg - Fraud - Mitigation - Olive oil - Organic - Pork - Vulnerability
Organic foods are frequently targeted by fraudsters. Examination of underlying factors helps to reduce fraud vulnerability and to prevent fraud. In this study, the fraud vulnerability of five actors from each of four chains were examined using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool: the organic banana, egg, olive oil and pork supply chains. The organic chains appeared slightly less vulnerable than conventional chains due to fewer opportunities for fraud and the more adequate controls being present. On the other hand, organic chains were associated with enhanced vulnerability resulting from cultural and behavioral drivers. Generally, actors in the organic olive oil and pork chains were more vulnerable than those from the banana and egg chains. However, high risk actors were not limited to particular chains. Across the whole group of actors in organic chains, three groups in terms of cultural/behavioral drivers were distinguished: a low vulnerability group, a group facing more external threats and a group presenting fraud vulnerability in general and in particular from within their own company. Ethical business culture and criminal history scores of businesses correlated significantly. This implies that the climate in a company is an important factor to consider when estimating the exposure of businesses to food fraud.
Food fraud and vulnerability assessments
Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2019
In: Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry Elsevier - ISBN 9780128140260 - p. 663 - 669.
Controls - Drivers - Enablers - Food adulteration - Food authenticity - Food fraud - Food safety - Mitigation - Motivations - Offenders - Opportunities - Quality management
Food fraud is the intentional, deceptive misrepresentation of foods for economic gain. It is the outcome of the convergence in time and place of a motivated offender and a suitable target in the absence of capable guardians. Fraud vulnerability of businesses depend on openings for undesirable events resulting from weaknesses or flaws in the system. The mapping of a company’s or chain’s fraud vulnerabilities is a first step towards fraud management. In this chapter the food fraud concept based on the criminological routine activity theory is described. Furthermore, key elements and individual fraud factors are discussed, as well as differences in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and their tiers.
Enviroscaping: An environment friendly landscaping
Sharath, Malleshaiah Kumar ; Peter, K.V. - \ 2019
In: Sustainable Green Technologies for Environmental Management / Shah, S., Venkatramanan, V., Prasad, R., Springer Nature Singapore - ISBN 9789811327711 - p. 1 - 27.
Green architecture - Landscape design - Mitigation - Recycling - Sustainability
The goal of developing ornamental landscapes that are safe, attractive, and functional for urban dwellers is pursued with great interest, and vast amounts of energy and material resources were used in this effort. However, direct and indirect energy consumption, the need for supplemental water, and the concerns about soil and ground water contamination raise serious questions regarding the long-term sustainability of urban landscapes. Sustainability in landscaping can be improved through a number of actions, such as planning and managing landscapes to function more like natural environments through cycling of resources and managing energy costs; integrating efforts to conserve water and energy, reduce green waste, improve soils, increase wildlife and reducing the demand for energy and material resources in other sectors of the urban environment through microclimate mitigation and habitat restoration. The objective of enviroscaping is to provide home gardeners and commercial landscapers with information that can help them to design and develop beautiful healthy, landscapes in an environmental friendly manner. The approach of enviroscaping is to manage landscapes as an interactive system by considering various components such as temperature, water/irrigation, fertilization, plants and trees, insect pest and pathogens control. Enviroscaping sets new dimension to landscape design and maintenance that can help us to conserve energy and water, recycle yard wastes on site and reduce inputs of fertilizers and pesticides into the environment.
Effect of silage characteristics on enteric methane emission from ruminants
Gastelen, Sanne van; Bannink, André ; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2019
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 14 (2019)51. - ISSN 1749-8848
Enteric methane production - Grass silage quality - Maize silage quality - Mitigation - Ruminants - Silage replacement
This review evaluates the effects of silage characteristics on enteric methane (CH4) emission from ruminants by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 17 studies were selected from the literature, and the relationship between CH4 yield (g/kg dry matter [DM] intake) and silage characteristics was determined using a mixed model univariate regression procedure. For grass silage, organic matter digestibility (%; R2 = 0.74) and crude protein content (g/kg DM; R2 = 0.36) were negatively associated, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content (g/kg DM; R2 = 0.44) was positively associated with CH4 yield. This indicates that increased grass silage quality consistently decreases CH4 yield and may be an effective enteric CH4 mitigation strategy. Similarly, optimizing maize silage quality appears to be an effective enteric CH4 mitigation strategy, because NDF content (g/kg DM; R2 = 0.60) was positively associated with CH4 yield. Upon replacing grass silage with maize silage, dietary starch content (g/kg DM; R2 = 0.62) and silage replacement level (%; R2 = 0.33) were negatively associated, and NDF content (g/kg DM; R2 = 0.34) was positively associated with CH4 yield. These results indicate that replacing grass silage with maize silage consistently decreases CH4 yield and may be an effective enteric CH4 mitigation strategy. In contrast, replacement of alfalfa silage with maize silage was not associated with CH4 yield and does not appear to be an effective strategy to decrease CH4 yield. In conclusion, management practices to improve silage quality are a potent mitigation strategy to reduce enteric CH4 emission per unit of feed fed to ruminants, and implications of silage quality have to be addressed when assessing greenhouse gas emissions in ruminant production.
Towards optimal 1.5° and 2 °C emission pathways for individual countries : A Finland case study
Sferra, Fabio ; Krapp, Mario ; Roming, Niklas ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Malik, Aman ; Hare, Bill ; Brecha, Robert - \ 2019
Energy Policy 133 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4215
1.5 °C pathway - Downscaling - Energy sector - Integrated assessment models - Mitigation - Paris agreement
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted so far under the Paris Agreement are not in line with its long-term temperature goal. To bridge this gap, countries are required to provide regular updates and enhancements of their long-term targets and strategies, based on scientific assessments. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a policy-support approach for evaluating NDCs and guiding enhanced ambition. The approach rests on deriving national targets in line with the Paris Agreement by downscaling regional results of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to the country level. The method of downscaling relies on a reduced complexity IAM: SIAMESE (Simplified Integrated Assessment Model with Energy System Emulator). We apply the approach to an EU28 member state – Finland – with the aim of providing useful insights for policy makers to consider cost-effective mitigation options. Results over the historical period confirm that our approach is valid when national policies are similar to those across the larger IAM region, but must include country-specific circumstances. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed. We assess the remaining carbon budget and analyse the different implications of 2 °C and 1.5 °C global warming limits for the emissions pathway and energy mix in Finland over the 21st century.
Arsenic in Argentina : Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater sources, investment costs and waste management practices
Litter, Marta I. ; Ingallinella, Ana M. ; Olmos, Valentina ; Savio, Marianela ; Difeo, Gonzalo ; Botto, Lía ; Torres, Elsa Mónica Farfán ; Taylor, Sergio ; Frangie, Sofía ; Herkovits, Jorge ; Schalamuk, Isidoro ; González, María José ; Berardozzi, Eliana ; García Einschlag, Fernando S. ; Bhattacharya, Prosun ; Ahmad, Arslan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 690 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 778 - 789.
Argentina - Arsenic - Drinking water - Mitigation - Removal technologies
An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. In this second part, the conventional and emerging technologies for As removal, management of wastes, and the initial investment costs of the proposed technologies, with emphasis on developments of local groups are described. Successful examples of real application of conventional and emerging technologies for As removal in waters for human consumption, for medium, small and rural and periurban communities are reported. In the country, the two most applied technologies for arsenic removal at a real scale are reverse osmosis and coagulation-adsorption-filtration processes using iron or aluminum salts or polyelectrolytes as coagulants. A decision tree to evaluate the possible technologies to be applied, based on the population size, the quality of the water and its intended use, is presented, including preliminary and indicative investment costs. Finally, a section discussing the treatment and final disposal of the liquid, semiliquid and solid wastes, generated by the application of the most used technologies, is included. Conclusions and recommendations, especially for isolated rural and periurban regions, have been added.
A systematic evaluation of measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Indonesia
Pramuwidyatama, Muchammad Gumilang ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Saatkamp, Helmut W. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 6 (2019)FEB. - ISSN 2297-1769
Endemic - Evaluation - HPAI H5N1 - Measures - Mitigation - Strategy - Vaccination
Over the past years, many different control measures have been implemented to prevent HPAI infection. The national plan with numerous measures lead to problems in terms of prioritization and budget allocation. Our study objectives are to (i) establish an inventory of measures on HPAI control in Indonesia since the first actions were taken in 2004, (ii) evaluate preferences for different HPAI control measures applied in the West Java province at the district level during 2013-2017, and (iii) establish a basis for further qualitative and quantitative research to improve control for an endemic HPAI in Indonesia. This research was carried out according to the following five steps (i) development of an HPAI management framework for an endemic state, (ii) inventorization of measures directed at HPAI and description of the development of HPAI in Indonesia, (iii) development of a questionnaire for the experts involved, (iv) systematic evaluation of preferences for short- and long-term HPAI strategies and measures applied in the West Java Province based on expert opinion, and (v) data analysis. The study systematically evaluated in total 27 measures. The results of this study show that the animal disease management framework is helpful as a systematic structure to distinguish and evaluate strategies and measures. In our framework, we defined the following strategies: prevention, monitoring, control, mitigation, eradication, and human protection. The findings of our research show that the primary aims of the government were to safeguard humans from HPAI transmission by mitigating HPAI disease in livestock. The measures with the highest priority were preventive vaccination of poultry, biosecurity, and stamping-out infected flocks. This showed that the government predominantly chose a vaccination-based HPAI mitigation strategy. However, the chosen strategy has a low implementation feasibility. A collaboration between the responsible stakeholders farmers may increase the feasibility of the chosen strategy in the future. Furthermore, our findings provide a basis for research into the motivation of farmers to implement different measures as well as into the expected impact of different measures to develop an effective and efficient mitigation approach.
Advancing the use of scenarios to understand society's capacity to achieve the 1.5 degree target
Pedde, Simona ; Kok, Kasper ; Hölscher, Katharina ; Frantzeskaki, Niki ; Holman, Ian ; Dunford, Rob ; Smith, Alison ; Jäger, Jill - \ 2019
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 56 (2019). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 75 - 85.
1.5 degree target - Capacities - Capitals - Mitigation - SSP-RCP scenarios - Transformation
With a range of potential pathways to a sustainable future compatible with the Paris Agreement 1.5 °C target, scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool in studies of climate change mitigation and adaptation. A wide range of alternative scenarios have been created, and core amongst these are five socio-economic scenarios (Shared Socio-economic Pathways or SSPs) and four emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways or RCPs). Whilst mitigation scenarios (the Shared Policy Assumptions, or SPAs) have been developed for each SSP-RCP combination, describing the actions necessary to match the climate pathway of the RCP, there has not yet been a systematic approach to address whether and how these actions can be enabled in practice. We present a novel and transferable framework to understand society's capacity to achieve the 1.5 °C target, based on four participatory case studies using the SSP-RCP scenarios. The methodology builds on a framework for categorising different types of societal capitals and capacities and assessing their impact on the potential to implement different types of mitigation actions. All four case studies show that SSP1 has the highest potential to reach the target. Although environmental awareness is high in both SSP1 and SSP4, continued social inequalities in SSP4 restrict society's capacity to transform, despite economic growth. In the two least environmentally-aware SSPs, SSP3 and SSP5, the transformation potential is low, but the view on capitals and capacities nonetheless helps identify opportunities for actors to develop and implement mitigation actions. The study highlights that techno-economic assessments of climate strategies need to be complemented by consideration of the critical role played by social and human capital, and by societal capacity to mobilise and create these capitals despite different socio-economic trends. These capitals and capacities are essential to enable the rapid innovation, behavioural change and international co-ordination needed to achieve the 1.5 °C target.
Transition pathways to sustainability in greater than 2 °C climate futures of Europe
Frantzeskaki, Niki ; Hölscher, Katharina ; Holman, Ian P. ; Pedde, Simona ; Jaeger, Jill ; Kok, Kasper ; Harrison, Paula A. - \ 2019
Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 777 - 789.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mitigation - Pathways - Transformation - Transition management
The complex challenges arising from climate change that exceeds the +2 °C target (termed ‘high-end climate change’) in Europe require new integrative responses to support transformations to a more sustainable future. We present a novel methodology that combines transition management and high-end climate and socioeconomic change scenarios to identify pathways and move Europe closer to sustainability. Eighteen pathways have been co-created with stakeholders through a participatory process. The pathways support Europe in moving towards a desirable future vision, through top-down and bottom-up actions that lower greenhouse gas emissions, reduce impacts of and vulnerabilities to climate and socioeconomic changes and enhance well-being. Analysis shows that the pathways that are robust to future scenario uncertainty are those that shift Europe towards sustainable lifestyles, support and strengthen good governance for sustainability and promote adaptive resource management for water, agriculture and energy. The methodology can support the design of the urgent actions needed to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement and to transform Europe, in preparation for an uncertain future.
Scenarios for withdrawal of oil palm plantations from peatlands in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia
Afriyanti, Dian ; Hein, Lars ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Zuhdi, Mohammad ; Saad, Asmadi - \ 2019
Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1201 - 1215.
Carbon emission - Mitigation - Oil palm - Peatlands - Restore - Withdrawal
In Indonesia, peatlands are still being converted into oil palm plantations. The associated fires and peat oxidation result in smoke and large carbon emissions. In the medium term, peatlands should be used for production systems that do not require (or require much less) drainage. In this context, this study aims to explore scenarios for the withdrawal of oil palm plantations from peatlands in Jambi province and the associated carbon emissions in the coming decades. We first analyzed past land-use change trends in Jambi peatlands. Then, we analyzed three scenarios for the future: (1) a baseline scenario, assuming further expansions by smallholders, but not by companies, (2) a scenario assuming withdrawal from peat by companies only, and (3) a scenario assuming withdrawal from peat by companies and smallholders. In both scenarios 1 and 2, it is assumed smallholders keep on expanding oil palm plantations in peatlands up to 2020 but not thereafter. To accommodate economic interests of growers, withdrawal of oil palm plantations is assumed to only take place when the palm trees are 25 years old and their productivity starts declining. Our study shows that there has been a rapid expansion of oil palm plantations in peatlands of Jambi from 30,000 ha in 1987 to 483,000 ha in 2014. In our baseline scenario, involving commitments from companies but not from smallholders, the area of oil palm further increases by 20% between 2014 and 2040; this implies that by 2040, almost all peatlands, including those in the buffer zone of Berbak National Park, will have been converted to plantations. The corresponding greenhouse gas emissions are 53 Mt CO 2 -equivalent per year (from both peat decomposition and fires). In the scenario assuming withdrawal of company plantations from peatlands, the plantation area will be reduced to half that in the baseline scenario in 2040. This would decrease CO 2 -equivalent emissions in 2040 to below 2010 levels (27.9 Mt per year). Our study shows that a substantial decrease in emissions is only possible in scenario 3 with an almost full withdrawal of plantations from peatlands by 2040. This reduces CO 2 -equivalent emissions to the level of 2000 (4.3 Mt per year) and leads to safeguarding the remaining pristine peat swamp forest in Berbak National Park.
Options to model the effects of tillage on N2O emissions at the global scale
Lutz, Femke ; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. ; Müller, Christoph - \ 2019
Ecological Modelling 392 (2019). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 212 - 225.
Agriculture - GHG emissions - Global ecosystem models - Mitigation - Soil management
Strategies on agricultural management can help to reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the potential of agricultural management to reduce GHG emissions at the global scale is unclear. Global ecosystem models often lack sufficient detail in their representation of management, such as tillage. This paper explores whether and how tillage can be incorporated in global ecosystem models for the analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We identify the most important nitrogen processes in soils and their response to tillage. We review how these processes and tillage effects are described in field-scale models and evaluate whether they can be incorporated in the global-scale models while considering the data requirements for a global application. The most important processes are described in field-scale models and the basic data requirements can be met at the global scale. We therefore conclude that there is potential to incorporate tillage in global ecosystem models for the analysis of N2O emissions. There are several options for how the relevant processes can be incorporated into global ecosystem models, so that generally there is potential to study the effects of tillage on N2O emissions globally. Given the many interactions with other processes, modelers need to identify the modelling approaches that are consistent with their modelling framework and test these.
A framework for priority-setting in climate smart agriculture research
Thornton, Philip K. ; Whitbread, Anthony ; Baedeker, Tobias ; Cairns, Jill ; Claessens, Lieven ; Baethgen, Walter ; Bunn, Christian ; Friedmann, Michael ; Giller, Ken E. ; Herrero, Mario ; Howden, Mark ; Kilcline, Kevin ; Nangia, Vinay ; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian ; Kumar, Shalander ; West, Paul C. ; Keating, Brian - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 167 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 161 - 175.
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Mitigation - Research
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is widely promoted as an approach for reorienting agricultural development under the realities of climate change. Prioritising research-for-development activities is crucial, given the need to utilise scarce resources as effectively as possible. However, no framework exists for assessing and comparing different CSA research investments. Several aspects make it challenging to prioritise CSA research, including its multi-dimensional nature (productivity, adaptation and mitigation), the uncertainty surrounding many climate impacts, and the scale and temporal dependencies that may affect the benefits and costs of CSA adoption. Here we propose a framework for prioritising agricultural research investments across scales and review different approaches to setting priorities among agricultural research projects. Many priority-setting case studies address the short- to medium-term and at relatively local scales. We suggest that a mix of actions that span spatial and temporal time scales is needed to be adaptive to a changing climate, address immediate problems and create enabling conditions for enduring change.
Comment on “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management”1
Wellstead, Adam ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cairney, Paul ; Davidson, Debra ; Dupuis, Johann ; Howlett, Michael ; Rayner, Jeremy ; Stedman, Richard - \ 2018
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48 (2018)10. - ISSN 0045-5067 - p. 1241 - 1245.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mechanisms - Mitigation - Policy
We comment on the recent comprehensive review “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management” by Williamson and Nelson (2017, Can. J. For. Res. 47: 1567–1576, doi:10.1139/cjfr-2017-0252). They employ the popular barriers analysis approach and present a synthesis highlighting the numerous barriers facing Canadian forest managers. The underlying functionalist assumptions of such an approach are highly problematic from both a scholarly and a practical policy perspective. We argue that social scientists engaged in climate change research who want to influence policy-making should understand and then empirically apply causal mechanisms. Methods such as process tracing and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) are promising tools that can be employed in national-or local-level assessments.
Facilitating change for climate-smart agriculture through science-policy engagement
Dinesh, Dhanush ; Zougmore, Robert B. ; Vervoort, Joost ; Totin, Edmond ; Thornton, Phillip K. ; Solomon, Dawit ; Shirsath, Paresh B. ; Pede, Valerien O. ; Lopez Noriega, Isabel ; Läderach, Peter ; Körner, Jana ; Hegger, Dries ; Girvetz, Evan H. ; Friis, Anette E. ; Driessen, Peter P.J. ; Campbell, Bruce M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Agricultural research for development - Agriculture - Climate change - Climate-smart agriculture - Food security - Mitigation - Science-policy engagement - Science-policy interface
Climate change impacts on agriculture have become evident, and threaten the achievement of global food security. On the other hand, the agricultural sector itself is a cause of climate change, and if actions are not taken, the sector might impede the achievement of global climate goals. Science-policy engagement efforts are crucial to ensure that scientific findings from agricultural research for development inform actions of governments, private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international development partners, accelerating progress toward global goals. However, knowledge gaps on what works limit progress. In this paper, we analyzed 34 case studies of science-policy engagement efforts, drawn from six years of agricultural research for development efforts around climate-smart agriculture by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Based on lessons derived from these case studies, we critically assessed and refined the program theory of the CCAFS program, leading to a revised and improved program theory for science-policy engagement for agriculture research for development under climate change. This program theory offers a pragmatic pathway to enhance credibility, salience and legitimacy of research, which relies on engagement (participatory and demand-driven research processes), evidence (building scientific credibility while adopting an opportunistic and flexible approach) and outreach (effective communication and capacity building).
Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture : A systematic literature review
Totin, Edmond ; Segnon, Alcade C. ; Schut, Marc ; Affognon, Hippolyte ; Zougmoré, Robert B. ; Rosenstock, Todd ; Thornton, Philip K. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Climate-smart agriculture - Institutions - Mitigation - Systematic review
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is increasingly seen as a promising approach to feed the growing world population under climate change. The review explored how institutional perspectives are reflected in the CSA literature. In total, 137 publications were analyzed using institutional analysis framework, of which 55.5% make specific reference to institutional dimensions. While the CSA concept encompasses three pillars (productivity, adaptation, and mitigation), the literature has hardly addressed them in an integrated way. The development status of study sites also seems to influence which pillars are promoted. Mitigation was predominantly addressed in high-income countries, while productivity and adaptation were priorities for middle and low-income countries. Interest in institutional aspects has been gradual in the CSA literature. It has largely focused on knowledge infrastructure, market structure, and hard institutional aspects. There has been less attention to understand whether investments in physical infrastructure and actors' interaction, or how historical, political, and social context may influence the uptake of CSA options. Rethinking the approach to promoting CSA technologies by integrating technology packages and institutional enabling factors can provide potential opportunities for effective scaling of CSA options.
Effectiveness of climate change mitigation options considering the amount of meat produced in dairy systems
Vellinga, T.V. ; Vries, M. de - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 162 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 136 - 144.
Beef - Dairy - Greenhouse gas - Milk - Mitigation
Many of the climate change mitigation options for dairy systems that aim at optimizing milk production imply a reduced output of meat from these systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a number of mitigation strategies for dairy systems, taking into account compensation for changes in the amount of beef produced. Four commonly used mitigation strategies for dairy systems were evaluated using an LCA modelling approach: increasing the milk production per cow, extending the productive life span of cows, increasing the calving interval, and changing breed from Holstein Friesian to Jersey. The Dutch dairy system was taken as a case study. For each scenario, analyses were done in two steps. First, effects of the mitigation strategy on production of milk and carcass weight from the dairy system were calculated. Second, GHG emission intensities were calculated for three different functional units (FU): one kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), one kg of carcass weight (CW), and a fixed amount of milk and beef (i.e. 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW). In the third FU, in case the amount of CW produced by the dairy system was lower than 40 g per kg FPCM, the remainder was compensated by CW produced in pure beef systems, assuming a GHG emission intensity of 30 kg CO 2 -eq. per kg CW for pure beef. Results showed a reduction in CW per kg FPCM from the dairy system in all four mitigation strategies. Considering GHG emissions per kg of FPCM only, the strategies reduced emissions by 0.2 to 18.1%. When considering emissions per kg of CW only, emissions were reduced by 12.5 to 48.9%. However, when we used a FU of 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW, changes in emissions ranged from −0.2 to 3.8%. This was caused by the compensation of the lower CW production from dairy systems by CW from pure beef systems. Differences in emissions per kg FPCM and 40 g CW were smaller when the assumed emission intensity of pure beef was lower. We concluded that the mitigation strategies for dairy systems evaluated in this study were less effective for reduction of GHG emissions from production of milk and beef, when accounting for changes in the amount of beef produced. This study showed that the challenge of reducing GHG emissions of milk and beef production is interrelated. Hence, analyses of GHG emissions related to changes in production of milk and beef requires an integrated approach, beyond the system boundaries of the dairy farm.
Modeling soil acidification in typical Chinese cropping systems
Zhu, Qichao ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hao, Tianxiang ; Zeng, Mufan ; Shen, Jianbo ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Vries, Wim De - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 613-614 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1339 - 1348.
China - Cropland - Mitigation - Scenarios - Soil acidification - VSD + model
We applied the adapted model VSD + to assess cropland acidification in four typical Chinese cropping systems (single Maize (M), Wheat-Maize (W-M), Wheat-Rice (W-R) and Rice-Rice (R-R)) on dominant soils in view of its potential threat to grain production. By considering the current situation and possible improvements in field (nutrient) management, five scenarios were designed: i) Business as usual (BAU); ii) No nitrogen (N) fertilizer increase after 2020 (N2020); iii) 100% crop residues return to cropland (100%RR); iv) manure N was applied to replace 30% of chemical N fertilizer (30%MR) and v) Integrated N2020 and 30%MR with 100%RR after 2020 (INMR). Results illustrated that in the investigated calcareous soils, the calcium carbonate buffering system can keep pH at a high level for > 150 years. In non-calcareous soils, a moderate to strong decline in both base saturation and pH is predicted for the coming decades in the BAU scenario. We predicted that approximately 13% of the considered croplands may suffer from Al toxicity in 2050 following the BAU scenario. The N2020, 100%RR and 30%MR scenarios reduce the acidification rates by 16%, 47% and 99%, respectively, compared to BAU. INMR is the most effective strategy on reducing acidification and leads to no Al toxicity in croplands in 2050. Both improved manure and field management are required to manage acidification in wheat-maize cropping system.
Major challenges of integrating agriculture into climate change mitigation policy frameworks
Fellmann, T. ; Witzke, P. ; Weiss, F. ; Doorslaer, B. van; Drabik, D. ; Huck, I. ; Salputra, G. ; Jansson, T. ; Leip, A. - \ 2018
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 451 - 468.
Agriculture - Climate change - Emissions - Mitigation - Policy
Taking the European Union (EU) as a case study, we simulate the application of non-uniform national mitigation targets to achieve a sectoral reduction in agricultural non-carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Scenario results show substantial impacts on EU agricultural production, in particular, the livestock sector. Significant increases in imports and decreases in exports result in rather moderate domestic consumption impacts but induce production increases in non-EU countries that are associated with considerable emission leakage effects. The results underline four major challenges for the general integration of agriculture into national and global climate change mitigation policy frameworks and strategies, as they strengthen requests for (1) a targeted but flexible implementation of mitigation obligations at national and global level and (2) the need for a wider consideration of technological mitigation options. The results also indicate that a globally effective reduction in agricultural emissions requires (3) multilateral commitments for agriculture to limit emission leakage and may have to (4) consider options that tackle the reduction in GHG emissions from the consumption side.
The power and pain of market-based carbon policies : a global application to greenhouse gases from ruminant livestock production
Henderson, B. ; Golub, A. ; Pambudi, D. ; Hertel, T. ; Godde, C. ; Herrero, M. ; Cacho, O. ; Gerber, P. - \ 2018
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 349 - 369.
Carbon policy - Greenhouse gases - Mitigation - Ruminants
The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on understanding the adjustment challenges posed by such policies. We show that market-based mitigation policies can greatly amplify the mitigation potential identified in marginal abatement cost studies by harnessing powerful market forces such as product substitution and trade. We estimate that a carbon tax of US$20 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions could mitigate 626 metric megatons of CO2 equivalent ruminant emissions per year (MtCO2-eq year−1). This policy would also incentivize a restructuring of cattle production, increasing the share of cattle meat coming from the multiproduct dairy sector compared to more emission intensive, single purpose beef sector. The mitigation potential from this simple policy represents an upper bound because it causes ruminant-based food production to fall and is therefore likely to be politically unpopular. In the spirit of the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC 2015), which expresses the ambition of reducing agricultural emissions while protecting food production, we assess a carbon policy that applies both a carbon tax and a subsidy to producers to manage the tradeoff between food production and mitigation. The policy maintains ruminant production and consumption levels in all regions, but for a much lower global emission reduction of 185 MtCO2-eq year−1. This research provides policymakers with a quantitative basis for designing policies that attempt to trade off mitigation effectiveness with producer and consumer welfare.