- Marieke A. Taal (1)
- Maarten A.I. Schutyser (1)
- Martin Alewijn (1)
- H. As van (1)
- Alexander Bernreuther (1)
- H.J.H. Brouwers (1)
- V. Caprai (1)
- John Clifton-Brown (1)
- J.E.G. Dam van (1)
- Xiao Dong Chen (1)
- G.C.H. Doudart de la Grée (1)
- Yasir Iqbal (1)
- Olena Kalinina (1)
- Andreas Kiesel (1)
- Iris Lewandowski (1)
- Remko M. Boom (1)
- Luisa M. Trindade (1)
- Christopher Nunn (1)
- Erika Silletti (1)
- Ivan Tarakanov (1)
- Moritz Wagner (1)
- Yannick Weesepoel (1)
- Tim Weijde Van der (1)
- Q.L. Yu (1)
- Lu Zhang (1)
- Mensure Özgüven (1)
Importance of harmonised sample preparation for moisture and protein content determinations in official food control laboratories: A poultry meat case study
Weesepoel, Yannick ; Silletti, Erika ; Alewijn, Martin ; Bernreuther, Alexander - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 301 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - 1 p.
Moisture content - Poultry meat - Proficiency test - Protein content - Sample homogenisation
Commission Regulation (EC) 543/2008 limits moisture and protein contents in poultry meat. However, this regulation leaves room for interpretation regarding sample homogenisation, potentially affecting comparability of laboratory results. Therefore, a proficiency test and sample homogenisation study were organised amongst 19 European National Reference Laboratories (NRL). In the proficiency test, three different pre-homogenised chicken samples (fillets, drumsticks and carcasses) were analysed. Only one NRL produced unsatisfactory results. In the homogenisation study, NRLs were supplied with uniform fillet, drumstick and carcass materials. Homogenisation was performed according to the NRLs in-house methods. Five NRLs did not return satisfactory results. As these NRLs produced satisfactory results in the proficiency test, their increase in z-scores was related to their homogenisation practices. Overall, scattering of individual results was higher for drumsticks compared to fillets and carcasses. Homogenisation practices for poultry meat introduced significant differences in moisture and protein results and standardisation is therefore advisable.
Ionic interaction and liquid absorption by wood in lignocellulose inorganic mineral binder composites
Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H. ; Caprai, V. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; As, H. van; Brouwers, H.J.H. ; Yu, Q.L. - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 206 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 808 - 818.
Alkali activated binder - Ionic behaviour - Lignocellulose - Moisture content - NMR - Reaction kinetics
This study investigates the suitability of alkali activated binders to replace Portland cement for lignocellulosic mineral-binder composite, aiming to lower the CO2 footprint. The effects of wood composition on the reaction kinetics of the binders and the formation of the reaction products are studied using isothermal calorimetry and ion chromatography. The ionic behaviour analysis of Ca2+ and Na+ ions in the binders shows that in presence of wood, a neutralisation of OH− ions and reduction of Ca2+ and Na+ ions during the first 24 h of curing take place, which alters the formation of C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H gels and influences the final composite performance. Moreover, the position of water absorbed by wood with different moisture levels is investigated by using T2 relaxometry Time Domain (TD) NMR to understand the required water amount for the binder reaction as well as the liquid uptake of the wood and occurring ion migration. The results show that a hybrid binder consisting of 70% alkali activated material and 30% cement applied without NaOH pre-treatment results in a composite with excellent mechanical performances and reduced environmental impacts of 61.5% compared to a pure cement system.
Effect of baking conditions and storage on the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum supplemented to bread
Zhang, Lu ; Taal, Marieke A. ; Boom, Remko M. ; Chen, Xiao Dong ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. - \ 2018
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 87 (2018). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 318 - 325.
Baking - Lactobacillus plantarum - Moisture content - Probiotic
Bread is an interesting non-dairy-based vehicle for probiotics delivery given its daily consumption worldwide. The incorporation of probiotics in bread is challenging due to the high baking temperatures. In this study the influence of various baking conditions and subsequent storage on survival of a model strain Lactobacillus plantarum P8 is systematically investigated. Bread samples with varying dough weight (5, 30, and 60 g) were baked at different temperatures (175, 205, and 235 ○C) for 8 min, and the residual viability of bacteria was determined every 2 min. Under all baking conditions, the viability of probiotics decreased from 109 CFU/g to 104∼5 CFU/g after baking. For specific conditions a difference in bacterial viability between bread crust and crumb was observed, which was explained by the different temperature-moisture history and developed microstructure during baking. Remarkably, during storage bacterial viability increased by 2–3 log to 108 CFU/g in crust and 106 CFU/g in crumb, respectively. The re-growth of probiotics was accompanied by a decrease in pH of the bread and an increase of the total titratable acidity. The results of this work provide valuable experimental data for further modelling and optimization studies, which then could contribute to the development of probiotic bakery products.
Site-specific management of miscanthus genotypes for combustion and anaerobic digestion : A comparison of energy yields
Kiesel, Andreas ; Nunn, Christopher ; Iqbal, Yasir ; Weijde, Tim Van der; Wagner, Moritz ; Özgüven, Mensure ; Tarakanov, Ivan ; Kalinina, Olena ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Clifton-Brown, John ; Lewandowski, Iris - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X
Biogas - Biomass - Energy yield - Harvest time - Moisture content - Substrate-specific methane yield - Yield
In Europe, the perennial C4 grass miscanthus is currently mainly cultivated for energy generation via combustion. In recent years, anaerobic digestion has been identified as a promising alternative utilization pathway. Anaerobic digestion produces a higher-value intermediate (biogas), which can be upgraded to biomethane, stored in the existing natural gas infrastructure and further utilized as a transport fuel or in combined heat and power plants. However, the upgrading of the solid biomass into gaseous fuel leads to conversion-related energy losses, the level of which depends on the cultivation parameters genotype, location, and harvest date. Thus, site-specific crop management needs to be adapted to the intended utilization pathway. The objectives of this paper are to quantify (i) the impact of genotype, location and harvest date on energy yields of anaerobic digestion and combustion and (ii) the conversion losses of upgrading solid biomass into biogas. For this purpose, five miscanthus genotypes (OPM 3, 6, 9, 11, 14), three cultivation locations (Adana, Moscow, Stuttgart), and up to six harvest dates (August-March) were assessed. Anaerobic digestion yielded, on average, 35% less energy than combustion. Genotype, location, and harvest date all had significant impacts on the energy yield. For both, this is determined by dry matter yield and ash content and additionally by substrate-specific methane yield for anaerobic digestion and moisture content for combustion. Averaged over all locations and genotypes, an early harvest in August led to 25%and a late harvest to 45%conversion losses. However, each utilization option has its own optimal harvest date, determined by biomass yield, biomass quality, and cutting tolerance. By applying an autumn green harvest for anaerobic digestion and a delayed harvest for combustion, the conversion-related energy loss was reduced to an average of 18%. This clearly shows that the delayed harvest required tomaintain biomass quality for combustion is accompanied by high energy losses through yield reduction over winter. The pre-winter harvest applied in the biogas utilization pathway avoids these yield losses and largely compensates for the conversion-related energy losses of anaerobic digestion.