Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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TrackLab 2: A new solution for automatic recording of location, activity and social behaviour of group-housed animals
Gijssel, A. Van; Loke, B.J. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Visser, E.K. ; Noldus, L.P.J.J. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 677 - 683.
Health - Livestock - Monitoring - Multi-modal - TrackLab - Welfare

The popularity of precision livestock farming is largely driven by a desire to optimise productivity, profitability and comfort. At the same time, there are growing societal concerns about animal welfare and animal health in relation to food safety and human health. These concerns can be addressed by academic and applied research into animal welfare and health indicators and increasingly by the utilisation of welfare and health metrics in operational farm management systems. TrackLab 2 is the latest tool for the measurement of livestock welfare and health indicators. It is designed to integrate and process multi-modal data for the capture of welfare and health indicators such as social behaviour, place-preference, activity, feeding and physiology. It was beta tested on four sites in the dairy cattle, poultry and pig farming domain. These first explorative tests revealed that TrackLab metrics are useful for both scientific, applied and commercial livestock research. TrackLab hardware is working well for large animals (cows, calves, pigs, sheep, poultry) but needs to be optimised for use on young birds and piglets. TrackLab 2 is also the first version to be applied in the operational farming context. The utilisation of welfare and health metrics in the operational context, to a level that exceeds the productivity focus, can prove a valuable asset in addressing societal concerns and enhancing livestock farming sustainability.

Enforcement mechanisms and governance structures to protect a region of origin lamb product
Merwe, Melissa van der; Kirsten, Johann F. ; Trienekens, Jacques H. - \ 2019
Supply Chain Management : an International Journal 24 (2019)5. - ISSN 1359-8546 - p. 561 - 573.
Conjoint analysis - Conjoint experiment - Enforcement mechanisms - Governance - Governance structures - Karoo Lamb - Meat industry - Monitoring - South Africa - Supplier relationships - Supply chain disruptions - Transactional model

Purpose: This paper aims to make an empirical contribution by investigating the enforcement mechanisms and governance structures required to protect and govern a regional food product when public certification fails. As one of the recent additions to South Africa’s repertoire of products with a designated origin, Karoo Lamb made for an interesting case study. Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis was conducted to elicit the farmers’ preferred enforcement mechanisms to protect the authenticity of the Karoo Lamb product. The investigation, furthermore, draws on survey data collected among 73 farmers, five abattoirs, two processors/packers and five retail outlets to evaluate the governance structures of the Karoo Lamb supply chain. Findings: The results indicate that due to failed public certification that is governed by market-like structures, Karoo Lamb is better off being governed by hierarchical structures. These structures are expected to allow for a stronger focus on stricter enforcement mechanisms. Practical implications: At the farm level, the Karoo Lamb supply chain requires better enforcement mechanisms to protect the unique attributes of origin and taste to ensure the authenticity of Karoo Lamb. This change towards stricter enforcement requires more hierarchical structures to allow for private or mutual enforcement mechanisms. Originality/value: This paper contributes empirically to the governance structure knowledge base by analysing the enforcement mechanisms and governance structures needed to enforce and protect, the quality and origin standards of a region of origin product, Karoo Lamb, in South Africa.

In situ removal of four organic micropollutants in a small river determined by monitoring and modelling
Brunsch, Andrea F. ; Langenhoff, Alette A.M. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Ahring, Alexander ; Laak, Thomas L. ter - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 252 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 758 - 766.
Micropollutants - Modelling - Monitoring - Photodegradation - Surface water

Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are widely detected in surface waters. So far, the removal processes of these compounds in situ in river systems are not yet totally revealed. In this study, a combined monitoring and modelling approach was applied to determine the behaviour of 1-H benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and galaxolide in a small river system. Sewage treatment plant effluents and the receiving waters of the river Swist were monitored in 9 dry weather sampling campaigns (precipitation < 1 mm on the sampling day itself and <5 mm total precipitation two days before the sampling) during different seasons over a period of 3 years. With the results gained through monitoring, mass balances have been calculated to assess fate in the river. With the DWA Water Quality Model, OMP concentrations in the river were successfully simulated with OMP characteristics gained through literature studies. No removal was determined for 1-H benzotriazole and carbamazepine, whereas diclofenac showed removal that coincided with light intensity. Moreover, modelling based on light sensitivity of diclofenac also suggested relevant degradation at natural light conditions. These two approaches suggest removal by photodegradation. The highest removal in the river was detected for galaxolide, presumably due to volatilisation, sorption and biodegradation. Furthermore, short-term concentration variability in the river was determined, showing that daily concentration patterns are influenced by dynamics of sewage treatment plant effluent volumes and removal processes in the river.

Over a century of data reveal more than 80% decline in butterflies in the Netherlands
Strien, Arco J. van; Swaay, Chris A.M. van; Strien-van Liempt, Willy T.F.H. van; Poot, Martin J.M. ; WallisDeVries, Michiel F. - \ 2019
Biological Conservation 234 (2019). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 116 - 122.
Bayesian inference - Distribution - JAGS - List length analysis - Living Planet Index - Monitoring

Opportunistic butterfly records from 1890 to 2017 were analysed to quantitatively estimate the overall long-term change in occurrence of butterfly species in the Netherlands. For 71 species, we assessed trends in the number of occupied 5 km × 5 km sites by applying a modified List Length method, which takes into account changes in observation effort. We summarised the species trends in a Multi-Species Indicator (MSI) by taking the geometric mean of the species indices. Between 1890–1930 and 1981–1990, the MSI decreased by 67%; downward trends were detected for 42 species, many of which have disappeared completely from the Netherlands. Monitoring count data available from 1992 showed a further 50% decline in MSI. Combined, this yields an estimated decline of 84% in 1890–2017. We argue that in reality the loss is likely even higher. We also assessed separate MSIs for three major butterfly habitat types in the Netherlands: grassland, woodland and heathland. Butterflies strongly declined in all three habitats alike. The trend has stabilised over recent decades in grassland and woodland, but the decline continues in heathland.

Dissolved oxygen dynamics in drainage ditches along a eutrophication gradient
Lee, Gea H. van der; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2018
Limnologica 72 (2018). - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 28 - 31.
Dissolved oxygen saturation - Ecosystem functioning - Monitoring - Primary production - Respiration - Water quality

The impact of eutrophication on the functioning of drainage ditch ecosystems is understudied. Therefore, we performed a field study to quantify the dissolved oxygen dynamics of ditches at different depths and seasons along a eutrophication gradient. During summer, a clear distinction in daily variation in dissolved oxygen saturation of the top water layer was observed between the trophic states. We recommend including dissolved oxygen dynamics as a functional parameter in drainage ditch monitoring programmes.

Applying soil health indicators to encourage sustainable soil use : The transition from scientific study to practical application
Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Faber, Jack ; Bloem, Jaap - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2071-1050
Earthworms - Ecosystem services - Monitoring - Soil food web - Water infiltration

The sustainable management of land for agricultural production has at its core a healthy soil, because this reduces the quantity of external inputs, reduces losses of nutrients to the environment, maximises the number of days when the soil can be worked, and has a pore structure that maximises both the retention of water in dry weather and drainage of water in wet weather. Soil health encompasses the physical, chemical, and biological features, but the use of biological indicators is the least well advanced. Sustainability also implies the balanced provision of ecosystem services, which can be more difficult to measure than single indicators. We describe how the key components of the soil food web contribute to a healthy soil and give an overview of the increasing number of scientific studies that have examined the use of biological indicators. A case study is made of the ecosystem service of water infiltration, which is quite an undertaking to measure directly, but which can be inferred from earthworm abundance and biodiversity which is relatively easy to measure. This highlights the difficulty of putting any monitoring scheme into practice and we finish by providing the considerations in starting a new soil health monitoring service in the UK and in maintaining biological monitoring in The Netherlands.

Foreword to the Special Issue on Urban Remote Sensing for Smarter Cities
Marpu, P.R. ; Tuia, D. ; Mallet, C. - \ 2018
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 11 (2018)8. - ISSN 1939-1404 - p. 2575 - 2577.
Computer vision - Earth - Machine learning - Monitoring - Remote sensing - Special issues and sections - Urban areas
Urban growth models predict rapid increases in extent and populations all over the world. It is anticipated that over two-thirds of the population will live in cities by 2050 [item 1) in the Appendix]. The fastest growing cities in the world are in the developing countries where the infrastructure growth has not been matching the urban growth thereby creating a range of socio-economic issues [item 2) in the Appendix]. In developed countries, urban monitoring mainly consists in tracking more subtle changes and densification within cities. In both cases, poorly planned urbanization can lead to greater risks to the quality of life and thereby significant economic risks.
Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences
Focker, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2018
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 17 (2018)3. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 633 - 645.
Cost-effectiveness - Food safety - Hazards - Models - Monitoring
This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each method, provides examples of different applications, and concludes with comments about their applicability to food safety. A systematic literature search identified publications assessing the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans in the life sciences. Publications were classified into 4 groups depending on their subject: food safety, environmental hazards, animal diseases, or pests. Publications were reviewed according to the type of model and input data used, and the types of costs included. Three types of models were used: statistical models, simulation models, and optimization models. Input data were either experimental, historical, or simulated data. Publications differed according to the costs included. More than half the publications only included monitoring costs, whereas other publications included monitoring and management costs, or all costs and benefits. Only a few publications were found in the food safety category and all were relatively recent studies. This suggests that cost-effectiveness analysis of monitoring strategies in food safety is just starting and more research is needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hazards in foods.
Participatory Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms in Integrated Landscape Initiatives
Kusters, Koen ; Buck, Louise ; Graaf, Maartje de; Minang, Peter ; Oosten, Cora van; Zagt, Roderick - \ 2018
Environmental Management 62 (2018)1. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 170 - 181.
Evaluation - Landscape approach - Monitoring - Multi-stakeholder platform - Planning

Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stak4eholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.

Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia
Teklu, Berhan M. ; Hailu, Amare ; Wiegant, Daniel A. ; Scholten, Bernice S. ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)14. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 13207 - 13216.
Lake Ziway - Monitoring - Pesticides - Physicochemical parameters - Risk assessment - Water quality

The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water quality data was gathered to study the dynamics of pesticide concentrations and physicochemical parameters for the years from 2009 to 2015. Results indicate that for some physicochemical parameters, including pH, potassium and iron, over 50 % of the values were above the maximum permissible limit of the Ethiopian standard for drinking water. The insecticide spiroxamine poses a high chronic risk when the water is used for drinking water, while the estimated intake of diazinon was approximately 50 % of the acceptable daily intake. Higher-tier risk assessment indicated that the fungicide spiroxamine poses a high acute risk to aquatic organisms, while possible acute risks were indicated for the insecticides deltamethrin and endosulfan. Longer-term monitoring needs to be established to show the water quality changes across time and space, and the current study can be used as a baseline measurement for further research in the area as well as an example for other surface water systems in Ethiopia and Africa.

European farm scale habitat descriptors for the evaluation of biodiversity
Herzog, F. ; Lüscher, G. ; Arndorfer, M. ; Bogers, M. ; Balázs, K. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Dennis, P. ; Falusi, E. ; Friedel, J.K. ; Geijzendorffer, I.R. ; Gomiero, T. ; Jeanneret, P. ; Moreno, G. ; Oschatz, M.L. ; Paoletti, M.G. ; Sarthou, J.P. ; Stoyanova, S. ; Szerencsits, E. ; Wolfrum, S. ; Fjellstad, W. ; Bailey, D. - \ 2017
Ecological Indicators 77 (2017). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 205 - 217.
Agri-environment scheme - Agricultural biodiversity - Ecological focus area - Essential biodiversity variables - Habitat map - Landscape diversity - Monitoring - Policy evaluation

Habitat descriptors are cost effective biodiversity indicators demanded by stakeholders and required for regional and global biodiversity monitoring. We mapped 195 farms of different types in twelve case study regions across Europe and tested 18 habitat descriptors for scientific validity, information content and ease of interpretation. We propose a core set consisting of (i) four descriptors to measure structural composition and configuration of farms (Habitat Richness, Habitat Diversity, Patch Size, and Linear Habitats), (ii) three descriptors addressing specific habitat types (Crop Richness, Shrub Habitats, and Tree Habitats) and (iii) one interpreted descriptor (Semi-Natural Habitats). As a set, the descriptors make it possible to evaluate the habitat status of a farm and to track changes occurring due to modified land use and/or management, including agri-environmental measures. The farm habitat maps can provide ground truth information for regional and global biodiversity monitoring.

The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) for rapid characterisation of households to inform climate smart agriculture interventions: Description and applications in East Africa and Central America
Hammond, James ; Fraval, Simon ; Etten, Jacob van; Suchini, Jose Gabriel ; Mercado, Leida ; Pagella, Tim ; Frelat, Romain ; Lannerstad, Mats ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Teufel, Nils ; Valbuena, Diego ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 151 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 225 - 233.
Farm household - Monitoring - Multiple indicators - Smallholder farming

Achieving climate smart agriculture depends on understanding the links between farming and livelihood practices, other possible adaptation options, and the effects on farm performance, which is conceptualised by farmers as wider than yields. Reliable indicators of farm performance are needed in order to model these links, and to therefore be able to design interventions which meet the differing needs of specific user groups. However, the lack of standardization of performance indicators has led to a wide array of tools and ad-hoc indicators which limit our ability to compare across studies and to draw general conclusions on relationships and trade-offs whereby performance indicators are shaped by farm management and the wider social-environmental context. RHoMIS is a household survey tool designed to rapidly characterise a series of standardised indicators across the spectrum of agricultural production and market integration, nutrition, food security, poverty and GHG emissions. The survey tool takes 40–60 min to administer per household using a digital implementation platform. This is linked to a set of automated analysis procedures that enable immediate cross-site bench-marking and intra-site characterisation. We trialled the survey in two contrasting agro-ecosystems, in Lushoto district of Tanzania (n = 150) and in the Trifinio border region of Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras (n = 285). The tool rapidly characterised variability between farming systems at landscape scales in both locations identifying key differences across the population of farm households that would be critical for targeting CSA interventions. Our results suggest that at both sites the climate smartness of different farm strategies is clearly determined by an interaction between the characteristics of the farm household and the farm strategy. In general strategies that enabled production intensification contributed more towards the goals of climate smart agriculture on smaller farms, whereas increased market orientation was more successful on larger farms. On small farms off-farm income needs to be in place before interventions can be promoted successfully, whereas on the larger farms a choice is made between investing labour in off-farm incomes, or investing that labour into the farm, resulting in a negative association between off-farm labour and intensification, market orientation and crop diversity on the larger farms, which is in complete opposition to the associations found for the smaller farms. The balance of indicators selected gave an adequate snap shot picture of the two sites, and allowed us to appraise the ‘CSA-ness’ of different existing farm strategies, within the context of other major development objectives.

Market consultation for a multi-level monitoring system with robots to support poultry farmers
Timmerman, M. ; Emous, R.A. Van; Riel, J.W. Van; Vroegindeweij, B.A. ; Lokhorst, C. - \ 2017
- p. 542 - 549.
Farm automation - Market research - Monitoring - Poultry - Robotics - Support system

Monitoring health and welfare of poultry is a highly demanding task for a farmer in time, health and complexity, and it is usually combined with routine actions such as collecting floor eggs, removing dead animals and checking feeding and drinking lines. The expectation is that a robot also can execute such tasks and could do it 24 hours 7 days a week if needed. A concept of a multi-layer monitoring support system has been designed to assist the poultry farmer. The multi-layer support system consists of a static system for flock observation (existing PLF technology), and robot(s) for in-between bird observation of health and behaviour and for performing routine daily tasks. Poultry farmers, researchers and companies have been consulted in two workshops to identify the needs and wishes for such a system. The results of the consultations could be grouped into the following six main categories: 1) bird monitoring (e.g. behaviour, health); 2) data sharing (e.g. production, health); 3) eggs (e.g. selection, collection of floor eggs); 4) vaccination (e.g. treatment, evaluation); 5) quality control (e.g. manure consistency, litter); and 6) selection of birds (e.g. collecting dead birds, identifying non-productive birds). The overall results showed that there is a market demand of poultry farmers for such a multi-level monitoring system. A first economic survey showed that broiler farmers were willing to invest €0.58 per bird place with an desired payback time of 2 years and other poultry farmers were willing to invest €1.04 per bird place with a desired payback time of 4 years.

Megacities 2050: From urbanization risks towards sustainable urban development
Vasenev, V.I. ; Cheng, Z. ; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Dovletyarova, E.A. ; Hajiaghayeva, R.A. ; Plyushchikov, V.G. - \ 2017
In: Megacities 2050: Environmental Consequences of Urbanization. - Cham : Springer (Springer Geography ) - ISBN 9783319705569 - p. 3 - 5.
Ecosystem services - Environmental management - Green infrastructure - Megapolis - Monitoring - Urban ecosystems - Urban soils
Urbanization is a long-term global trend, responsible for substantial environmental changes. At the same time, urban ecosystems are vulnerable and their adaptation to the ever-changing environment is necessary to sustain essential functionality and important ecosystem services. Sustainable urban development demands the integration of innovative green technologies and nature-based solutions in urban management, which is only possible through a collaboration and participation of all stakeholders including scientists, landscape designers, civil engineers, policy makers, and all citizens.
Highlights from the 2016 joint call for transnational projects
Keulen, H. van; Bunthof, C.J. ; Ní Choncubhair, Órlaith ; Kelly, Raymond - \ 2017
Zwolle : FACCE ERA-GAS - 16 p.
ERA-GAS - FACCE - Greenhouse gases - Agriculture - Silviculture - ERA-NET Cofund - Monitoring - Mitigation - Food security - Climate change
Report PLATFORM Workshop "Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment of P2P Networks and Projects", 8-9 June 2017, Copenhagen
Mogensen, P. ; Gøtke, N. ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2017
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 28 p.
PLATFORM - Bioeconomy - ERA-NET - Impact assessment - Monitoring - Evaluation - p2p partnerships - P2P
PLATFORM Workshop on Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment of P2P Networks and Projects, 8-9 June 2017, Copenhagen
Bunthof, Christine - \ 2017
PLATFORM - P2P - Bioecnomy - Monitoring - Evaluation - Impact Assessment
To assist the bioeconomy ERA-NETs on their task on monitoring and evaluation of research projects, PLATFORM organised a lunch-to-lunch workshop on monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. The question of monitoring and evaluation of the added value of ERA-NETs is gaining increased attention from funding organisations. For the ERA-NETs Cofund monitoring and evaluation of their funded research projects is a prerequisite in H2020. Furthermore an impact assessment is initiated by te European Commission through ERA-LEARN2020 and this pilot was set-up together with PLATFORM. The audience target group consisted of current and future ERA-NET monitoring and evaluation task leaders in bioeconomy ERA-NETs. Through these workshops, and through master classes and the annual events, the PLATFORM project brings together the bioeconomy P2P community to share knowledge, learn, network and to increase coherence.
The analysis of tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, pleuromutilins, and sulfonamides in chicken feathers using UHPLC-MS/MS in order to monitor antibiotic use in the poultry sector
Jansen, Larissa J.M. ; Bolck, Yvette J.C. ; Rademaker, Janneau ; Zuidema, Tina ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. - \ 2017
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409 (2017)21. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 4927 - 4941.
Antibiotics - Feathers - LC-MS/MS - Monitoring - Validation
In The Netherlands, all antibiotic treatments should be registered at the farm and in a central database. To enforce correct antibiotic use and registration, and to enforce prudent use of antibiotics, there is a need for methods that are able to detect antibiotic treatments. Ideally, such a method is able to detect antibiotic applications during the entire lifespan of an animal, including treatments administered during the first days of the animals’ lives. Monitoring tissue, as is common practice, only provides a limited window of opportunity, as residue levels in tissue soon drop below measurable quantities. The analysis of feathers proves to be a promising tool in this respect. Furthermore, a qualitative confirmatory method was developed for the analyses of six major groups of antibiotics in ground chicken feathers, aiming for a detection limit as low as reasonably possible. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. All compounds comply with the criteria and, as a matter of fact, 58% of the compounds could also be quantified according to regulations. Additionally, we demonstrated that a less laborious method, in which whole feathers were analyzed, proved successful in the detection of applied antibiotics. Most compounds could be detected at levels of 2 μg kg−1 or below with the exception of sulfachloropyridazine, tylosin, and tylvalosin. This demonstrates the effectiveness of feather analysis to detect antibiotic use to allow effective enforcement of antibiotic use and prevent the illegal, off-label, and nonregistered use of antibiotics.
Postregistration monitoring of pesticides is urgently required to protect ecosystems
Vijver, Martina G. ; Hunting, Ellard R. ; Nederstigt, Tom A.P. ; Tamis, Wil L.M. ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Bodegom, Peter M. van - \ 2017
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36 (2017)4. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 860 - 865.
Ecology - Environmental risk assessment - Monitoring - Pesticides - Water

Current admission policies for pesticides follow a controlled experimental tiered risk assessment approach, giving results that are difficult to extrapolate to a real-world situation. Later analyses of compounds such as DDT and neonicotinoid pesticides clearly show that the actual chemical impacts frequently affect many more components of an ecosystem than a priori suggested by risk assessment. Therefore, to manage the actual risks for ecosystems imposed by manufactured compounds, it is proposed that current admission policies for chemicals be enriched by using postregistration monitoring. Such monitoring is essential to identify unexpected direct and indirect impacts on organisms by accounting for multiple propagation routes and exposures. Implementation of postregistration monitoring could build on existing monitoring networks. This approach would tackle the current policy impasse of compartment-based regulations versus exposure-based regulations, and, more importantly, would provide a safety lock for risk assessment across compartments and more likely ensure the protection of our natural environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:860–865.

Current remote sensing approaches to monitoring forest degradation in support of countries measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+
Mitchell, Anthea L. ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Mora, Brice - \ 2017
Carbon Balance and Management 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1750-0680
Above-ground biomass - Carbon emissions - Degradation - Disturbance - Forests - Measurement reporting and verification - Monitoring - REDD+ - Time-series

Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed. The review assesses two main approaches to monitoring forest degradation: first, where detection is indicated by a change in canopy cover or proxies, and second, the quantification of loss (or gain) in above ground biomass (AGB). The discussion only considers degradation that has a visible impact on the forest canopy and is thus detectable by remote sensing. The first approach encompasses methods that characterise the type of degradation and track disturbance, detect gaps in, and fragmentation of, the forest canopy, and proxies that provide evidence of forestry activity. Progress in these topics has seen the extension of methods to higher resolution (both spatial and temporal) data to better capture the disturbance signal, distinguish degraded and intact forest, and monitor regrowth. Improvements in the reliability of mapping methods are anticipated by SAR-optical data fusion and use of very high resolution data. The second approach exploits EO sensors with known sensitivity to forest structure and biomass and discusses monitoring efforts using repeat LiDAR and SAR data. There has been progress in the capacity to discriminate forest age and growth stage using data fusion methods and LiDAR height metrics. Interferometric SAR and LiDAR have found new application in linking forest structure change to degradation in tropical forests. Estimates of AGB change have been demonstrated at national level using SAR and LiDAR-assisted approaches. Future improvements are anticipated with the availability of next generation LiDAR sensors. Improved access to relevant satellite data and best available methods are key to operational forest degradation monitoring. Countries will need to prioritise their monitoring efforts depending on the significance of the degradation, balanced against available resources. A better understanding of the drivers and impacts of degradation will help guide monitoring and restoration efforts. Ultimately we want to restore ecosystem service and function in degraded forests before the change is irreversible.

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