- Jeffrey A. Harvey (1)
- Salvatore Arpaia (1)
- Ferdinando Baldacchino (1)
- Paolo Banzato (1)
- C.M.J. Bloemhard (1)
- Marcel Dicke (1)
- M.M. Dinu (1)
- Louise E.M. Vet (1)
- Jetske G. Boer de (1)
- Wim H. Putten van der (1)
- Jack H. Vossen (1)
- G.W.H. Hol (2)
- R. Holstein-Saj Van (1)
- Gerben J. Messelink (1)
- Joop J.A. Loon van (2)
- Lisa J.M. Heumen van (1)
- Arne Janssen (1)
- Martine Kos (1)
- V. Kurm (1)
- Viola Kurm (1)
- Jenny Lazebnik (2)
- Juan M. Alba (1)
- Els M. Zande van de (1)
- G.J. Messelink (1)
- Stefania Moliterni (1)
- Thibault P.M. Costaz (1)
- Ana Pineda (2)
- W.H. Putten van der (1)
- Merijn R. Kant (1)
- Lucia Salis (1)
- R.C. Schuurink (1)
- Marianne Tibboel (1)
- Ward Tollenaar (1)
- Nina Xiaoning Zhang (1)
Effects of temperature and food source on reproduction and longevity of aphid hyperparasitoids of the genera Dendrocerus and Asaphes
Boer, Jetske G. de; Salis, Lucia ; Tollenaar, Ward ; Heumen, Lisa J.M. van; Costaz, Thibault P.M. ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Kos, Martine ; Vet, Louise E.M. - \ 2019
BioControl 64 (2019)3. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 277 - 290.
Aphidius colemani - Fourth trophic level - Hymenoptera - Megaspilidae - Myzus persicae - Pteromalidae
Hyperparasitoids of aphid parasitoids commonly occur in (sweet pepper) greenhouses, and can pose a threat to effective biological control of aphids. Here, we studied life history characteristics of laboratory colonies of Dendrocerus spp. Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae) and Asaphes spp. Walker (Pteromalidae) that originated from a commercial sweet pepper greenhouse. We aimed to clarify how these two hyperparasitoid taxa can coexist inside greenhouses. Hyperparasitoids of both taxa have a long lifespan that was extended significantly by food sources that are naturally available in a greenhouse environment, including aphid honeydew and sweet pepper flowers. Differences in sensitivity to decreased or increased temperatures did not appear to explain seasonal patterns in abundance of Dendrocerus spp. and Asaphes spp. in sweet pepper greenhouses. Instead, Dendrocerus spp. may have an advantage early in the season because it thrives on aphid honeydew, while Asaphes spp. may do better later in the season because of its long lifespan and extensive reproductive period.
Data from: Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences
Kurm, V. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Pineda, Ana ; Hol, G.W.H. - \ 2018
induced systemic resistence - low abundant soil microbes - PGPR - Arabidopsis thaliana - Myzus persicae - Pseudomonas fluorescens
Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe-reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. - Methods: To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under influence of the various soil dilution treatments. - Key Results: Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. - Conclusions: Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas, affect the resistance of A. thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and belowground organisms.
Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences
Kurm, Viola ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Pineda, Ana ; Hol, G.W.H. - \ 2018
Annals of Botany 121 (2018)2. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 311 - 319.
Arabidopsis thaliana - induced systemic resistance - low-abundance soil microbes - Myzus persicae - PGPR
Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. Methods: To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under the influence of the various soil dilution treatments. Key Results: Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. Conclusions: Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas affect the resistance of A. Thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and belowground organisms.
Phytophagy of omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus affects performance of herbivores through induced plant defences
Zhang, Nina Xiaoning ; Messelink, Gerben J. ; Alba, Juan M. ; Schuurink, R.C. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Janssen, Arne - \ 2018
Oecologia 186 (2018)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 101 - 113.
Frankliniella occidentalis - Myzus persicae - Plant hormones - Tetranychus urticae
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore. In contrast, no effect was found on the reproduction of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. Juvenile survival and developmental time of T. urticae and M. persicae, and larval survival of F. occidentalis were not affected by plant feeding by M. pygmaeus. Larvae of F. occidentalis feeding on leaves previously exposed to M. pygmaeus required longer to develop into adults. Defence-related plant hormones were produced locally and systemically after exposure to M. pygmaeus. The concentrations of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and jasmonic acid–isoleucine in the attacked leaves were significantly higher than in the corresponding leaves on the uninfested plants, and jasmonic acid concentrations showed the same trend, suggesting that jasmonic-acid-related defence pathways were activated. In contrast, similar concentrations of salicylic acid were found in the attacked leaves of M. pygmaeus-infested plants and uninfested plants. Our results show that plant feeding by omnivorous predators decreases the performance of herbivores, suggesting that it induces plant defences.
Exploring opportunities to induce epizootics in greenhouse aphid populations
Dinu, M.M. ; Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Holstein-Saj, R. Van; Messelink, G.J. - \ 2017
In: 3rd International Symposium on Organic Greenhouse Horticulture International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611603 - p. 371 - 375.
Banker plants - Biological control - Myzus persicae - Pandora neoaphidis - Sitobion avenae
Aphids are a huge problem in organic greenhouse production systems of sweet pepper, eggplant and cucumber in northern Europe. Biological control with arthropod natural enemies is often not effective, resulting in large crop losses yearly. Entomopathogenic fungi of the order Entomophthorales are known for their ability to cause epizootics and reduce host populations dramatically in a short time. These abilities make them potentially more effective biological control agents of pest species than commercially available entomopathogens of the order Hypocreales (e.g., fungi of the genus Beauveria, Metarhizium, Lecanicillium and Isaria). However, a major stumbling block to utilizing these fungi as biological control agents has been the difficulties encountered in growing them in vitro, which is one of the reasons why the biocontrol industry did not develop commercial products based on these fungi. Another approach in utilizing these fungi could be to try inducing epizootics by introducing inoculum of infected aphids into the crop. Here we present our attempts to induce such epizootics with banker plants of wheat with grain aphids infected by the entomophthoralean fungi Pandora neoaphidis. The system of introducing "Pandora bankers" has now been applied by 8 organic greenhouse growers in The Netherlands with various results. The requirements for causing a successful epizootic with this fungus will be discussed.
Inoculation of susceptible and resistant potato plants with the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans : effects on an aphid and its parasitoid
Lazebnik, Jenny ; Tibboel, Marianne ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2017
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 163 (2017)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 305 - 314.
Aphididae - Aphidius colemani - Braconidae - genetic modification - Hemiptera - Hymenoptera - Myzus persicae - non-target effects - plant-pathogen-insect interactions - plant–insect interactions - Solanum tuberosum - trophic interactions
Plants are exposed to microbial pathogens as well as herbivorous insects and their natural enemies. Here, we examined the effects of inoculation of potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), with the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (Peronosporales: Pythiaceae) on an aphid species commonly infesting potato crops and one of the aphid's major parasitoids. We observed the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and its natural enemy, the biocontrol agent Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on potato either inoculated with water or P. infestans. Population growth of the aphid, parasitism rate of its natural enemy, and other insect life-history traits were compared on several potato genotypes, the susceptible cultivar Désirée and genetically modified (GM) isogenic lines carrying genes conferring resistance to P. infestans. Effects of P. infestans inoculation on the intrinsic rate of aphid population increase and the performance of the parasitoid were only found on the susceptible cultivar. Insect traits were similar when comparing inoculated with non-inoculated resistant GM genotypes. We also tested how GM-plant characteristics such as location of gene insertion and number of R genes could influence non-target insects by comparing insect performance among GM events. Different transformation events leading to different positions of R-gene insertion in the genome influenced aphids either with or without P. infestans infection, whereas effects of position of R-gene insertion on the parasitoid A. colemani were evident only in the presence of inoculation with P. infestans. We conclude that it is important to study different transformation events before continuing with further stages of risk assessment of this GM crop. This provides important information on the effects of plant resistance to a phytopathogen on non-target insects at various trophic levels.
Effects of a genetically modified potato on a non-target aphid are outweighed by cultivar differences
Lazebnik, Jenny ; Arpaia, Salvatore ; Baldacchino, Ferdinando ; Banzato, Paolo ; Moliterni, Stefania ; Vossen, Jack H. ; Zande, Els M. van de; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2017
Journal of Pest Science 90 (2017)3. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 855 - 864.
Environmental risk assessment - Genetic modification - Greenhouse - Myzus persicae - Non-target testing - Phytophthora infestans - Solanum tuberosum
Insect–plant interactions may be unintentionally affected when introducing genetically modified (GM) crops into an agro-ecosystem. Our aim was to test the non-target effects of a late blight-resistant GM potato on Myzus persicae in greenhouse and climate room experiments and understand how position and number of R gene insertions can affect non-targets in GM events. We also aimed to compare results to baseline differences among three conventional potato varieties varying in resistance to late blight. Aphid development and survival were affected by some GM events in the first generation, though effects disappeared in the second generation. Effects were not dependent on the presence of a marker gene or the insertion of a second resistance gene. Positional effects of gene insertion influenced aphid performance on certain GM events. However, aphid fitness varied considerably more between conventional potato varieties than between Désirée and the GM events. Comparing different GM events to the non-transformed variety is relevant, since unintended effects of insertion can occur. Our protocols can be recommended for in planta risk assessments with aphids. Ecological perspective is gained by selecting several measured endpoints and by comparing the results with a baseline of conventional cultivars.