Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Challenges in assessing the regional feasibility of local water storage
Nikkels, M.J. ; Oel, P.R. van; Meinke, H. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. - \ 2019
Water International (2019). - ISSN 0250-8060
agricultural water management - Local water storage - Netherlands - scale issues - storage feasibility

The regional effects of local water storage are largely unknown. This study identifies, categorizes and discusses the challenges in assessing the potential of local water storage. These are illustrated using a structured method applied to a Dutch case. We conclude that the focus must shift from storage ‘potential’ (the quantity of water that can be stored) to storage ‘feasibility’, which depends on exploitability, purpose and interactions between storage alternatives. Spatial and temporal scale also influence feasibility. Finally, farmers’ investment preferences are a factor, though these are shrouded in uncertainty. This overview is a first step towards improving storage assessment tools and processes.

More than a one-size-fits-all approach–tailoring flood risk communication to plural residents’ perspectives
Snel, Karin A.W. ; Witte, Patrick A. ; Hartmann, Thomas ; Geertman, Stan C.M. - \ 2019
Water International 44 (2019)5. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 554 - 570.
disaster risk reduction - Flood risk communication - lay knowledge - Netherlands

Many urban residences are insufficiently prepared for fluvial, pluvial or coastal floods, owing to a lack of accurate information on flood risk. This article analyzes how risk communication can improve disaster risk reduction by overcoming the expert–layperson gap. Building on interviews in three cities in the Netherlands, it applies Q methodology to identify four perspectives on flood risk communication. To promote greater private residential involvement in flood risk adaptation, communication should address all four rationalities.

OECD water governance principles on the local scale–an exploration in Dutch water management
Keller, Nadine ; Hartmann, Thomas - \ 2019
International Journal of River Basin Management (2019). - ISSN 1571-5124
good governance - Netherlands - OECD - river basin - Water governance - water management

The past two decades have witnessed increasing global concern about the need for sustainable water and land management in an era of rapid change, and persistent water insecurity. Good water governance is a prerequisite to improve water management all over the world. The OECD Water Governance Initiative developed Water Governance Principles to enhance the process from water policy design to implementation. This contribution aims to examine how the OECD Water Governance Principles fit actual water governance on the local scale. Therefore a Dutch case is employed here to almost serve as a benchmark test for the framework of the OECD water governance principles.

Sky view factor calculations and its application in urban heat island studies
Dirksen, M. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Theeuwes, N.E. ; Pagani, G.A. - \ 2019
Urban Climate 30 (2019). - ISSN 2212-0955
Netherlands - Sky view factor - UHI - Urban planning

The sky view factor (SVF) is essential to describe the urban climatology at scales below 100m. This proxy for net radiation depends on the height of the obstacles in its surroundings. The SVF was calculated from a rasterized point cloud height dataset (with 6 − 10 points per m2). The resulting SVF depends on grid-resolution, search radius and number of directions. Previous research related the diurnal maximum urban heat island (UHI) of the canopy layer to the diurnal temperature range, solar irradiance, wind speed, vegetation fraction and SVF. The goal of this study is to determine the sensitivity of the SVF and the impact on the UHI. Within the Netherlands a test area of 70km2 was selected, including: urban areas, meadows and forests. There is a high sensitivity for grid-resolution. Therefore the impact of the SVFs grid resolution on the maximum UHI is explored. Results show that the fourth largest city within the Netherlands, Utrecht, has a mean diurnal maximum UHI of 3.1 °C using a 1m SVF resolution. But, with a 3m SVF resolution the UHI is on average 0.6 °C lower. This highlights the significance of a fine grid resolution which can capture houses, alleys and trees.

Immunogenicity in Rabbits of Virus-Like Particles from a Contemporary Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) Isolated in The Netherlands
Miao, Qiuhong ; Qi, Ruibing ; Veldkamp, Luut ; Ijzer, Jooske ; Kik, Marja L. ; Zhu, Jie ; Tang, Aoxing ; Dong, Dandan ; Shi, Yonghong ; Oers, Monique M. van; Liu, Guangqing ; Pijlman, Gorben P. - \ 2019
Viruses 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 1999-4915
baculovirus expression - immunogenicity - insect cells - Netherlands - rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) - virus-like particles - VP60

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) is an emerging pathogen in wild rabbits and in domestic rabbits vaccinated against RHDV (GI.1). Here we report the genome sequence of a contemporary RHDV2 isolate from the Netherlands and investigate the immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in insect cells. RHDV2 RNA was isolated from the liver of a naturally infected wild rabbit and the complete viral genome sequence was assembled from sequenced RT-PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP60 capsid gene demonstrated that the RHDV2 NL2016 isolate clustered with other contemporary RHDV2 strains. The VP60 gene was cloned in a baculovirus expression vector to produce VLPs in Sf9 insect cells. Density-gradient purified RHDV2 VLPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy as spherical particles of around 30 nm in diameter with a morphology resembling authentic RHDV. Immunization of rabbits with RHDV2 VLPs resulted in high production of serum antibodies against VP60, and the production of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) was significantly elevated in the immunized rabbits compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that the recombinant RHDV2 VLPs are highly immunogenic and may find applications in serological detection assays and might be further developed as a vaccine candidate to protect domestic rabbits against RHDV2 infection.

The sound of the sand from the Dutch shores
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Hettinga, Frans ; Dekker, Pieter ; Fitzpatrick, Dara - \ 2019
Applied Acoustics 154 (2019). - ISSN 0003-682X - p. 1 - 10.
Acoustics - Beach - Broad Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy - Netherlands - Provenance - Resonance - Sound spectroscopy

In this study, we examine sand from the Dutch shores to link its unique acoustic traits to the source of the sand. Sand from nine locations along the beaches of the Netherlands, over a stretch of 187 km, were collected and subjected to Broad Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy analysis (BARDS). Sand sampling positions with respect to the distance to the high water line were compared as well. Temporal acoustic profiles, resulting from gas released from the sand particles in an acidic solution over time, were used to compare the sands from the various locations and positions along the shore. These BARDS patterns were compared with those of model sand samples composed of CaCO 3 , CaCO 3 /quartz mixtures, and ground sea shell/quartz mixtures to understand the phenomena. BARDS analysis allowed accurate measurements of the unique acoustic traits of the sands, which appeared good indicators of the source of the sand. The results show that both the composition and morphology of the sand determine the acoustic profiles. The proportion of seashells in the sand plays an important role in the acoustic signatures of the sands of the Dutch shores. The carbonate components of the shells and the shells’ morphology result in dissolution of the carbonates under acidic conditions and subsequent release of CO 2 in specific patterns. These specific patterns allow us to establish the source of the sand – with help of multivariate statistical methods. Evidently, the current study shows that ‘listening’ to the sound of sand reveals interesting information about its identity and origin.

High prevalence of intra-familial co-colonization by extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in preschool children and their parents in Dutch households
Liakopoulos, Apostolos ; Bunt, Gerrita van den; Geurts, Yvon ; Bootsma, Martin C.J. ; Toleman, Mark ; Ceccarelli, Daniela ; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Mevius, Dik J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)FEB. - ISSN 1664-302X
Co-carriage - ESBL/AmpC - Escherichia coli - Household - Insertion sequence - Netherlands - Plasmid
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR) Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious infection control challenge for public health. The emergence of the ESCR phenotype is mostly facilitated by plasmid-mediated horizontal extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC gene transfer within Enterobacteriaceae. Current data regarding the plasmid contribution to this emergence within the Dutch human population is limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to gain insight into the role of plasmids in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC genes inside Dutch households with preschool children and precisely delineate co-colonization. In 87 ESCR Enterobacteriaceae from fecal samples of parents and preschool children within 66 Dutch households, genomic localization, plasmid type and insertion sequences linked to ESBL/AmpC genes were determined. Chromosomal location of ESBL/AmpC genes was confirmed when needed. An epidemiologically relevant subset of the isolates based on household co-carriage was assessed by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for genetic relatedness. The narrow-host range I1a and F plasmids were the major facilitators of ESBL/AmpC-gene dissemination. Interestingly, we documented a relatively high occurrence of chromosomal integration of typically plasmid-encoded ESBL/AmpC-genes. A high diversity of non-epidemic Escherichia coli sequence types (STs) was revealed; the predominant STs belonged to the pandemic lineages of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli ST131 and ST69. Intra-familiar co-carriage by identical ESCR Enterobacteriaceae was documented in 7 households compared to 14 based on sole gene typing, as previously reported. Co-carriage was more frequent than expected based on pure chance, suggesting clonal transmission between children and parents within the household.
Measuring Progress on Climate Change Adaptation Policy by Dutch Water Boards
Kamperman, Hans ; Biesbroek, Robbert - \ 2017
Water Resources Management 31 (2017)14. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 4557 - 4570.
Climate change adaptation - Netherlands - Water boards - Water management plans - Water policy

The Netherlands is particularly vulnerable for the impacts of climate change on the water system. Regional water authorities, or water boards, are given an important role to design and implement specific adaptation policies and measures to manage these impacts. From the early 2000s onwards water boards are starting to adapt to climate change impacts, yet no systematic assessments exist to assess whether or not progress is being made and what explains similarities and differences across water boards. This paper aims to address these critical questions by analyzing the progress of all Dutch water boards for the period 2005–2016. We systematically collected and analyzed three consecutive water management plans for all 23 water boards in the Netherlands. We use content analysis methods to analyze progress by looking into their vulnerability and three levels of adaptation: recognition, groundwork and adaptation action. The results show that over time the number of reported climate change adaptation initiatives by the water boards is increasing, but most climate change adaptation is still at the recognition or groundwork level. Our findings reveal a diversity of efforts to adapt to climate change among Dutch water boards. We conclude that while (inter)national water and climate change adaptation policies have called for more adaptation action at regional levels, the unequal progress across the Netherlands suggests that existing ‘soft’ policy measures to push for adaptation might not be sufficient to ensure progress on adaptation across all water boards.

Sharing the cost of dike maintenance in the south- western Netherlands : Comparing ‘calamitous polders’ in three ‘states’, 1715–1795
Cruijningen, Piet van - \ 2017
Environment and history 23 (2017)3. - ISSN 0967-3407 - p. 363 - 383.
Institutions - Netherlands - State formation - Water management

For early modern societies, distributing the costs of flood defences between the stakeholders in an equitable way was difficult. Institutions were abused by powerful groups to shift the financial burden to poorer groups. According to Epstein, such elite abuse of institutions was possible because in pre-modern states political and economic power were not separated, which made it possible for elite groups to hijack the decision-making process. By studying how three ‘states’ in the South-Western Netherlands distributed the high costs of dike maintenance, this paper partly confirms Epstein’s thesis. No separation existed between political and economic power in the province of Zeeland and here this caused a stalemate because cities represented in the provincial government protected their elites’ interests. In Holland and the territories of the States-General, however, taking quick and efficient measures for the repair and financing of sea defences was possible. Here the powerful cities had less significant interests in the areas concerned and were prepared to leave decision- making to technical and financial experts.

Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands
Asseldonk, M. van; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2017
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 138 (2017). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 139 - 146.
Daly - Netherlands - Pigs - Serological surveillance - Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equaled the cost of averted human disease burden and cost-of-illness minus the costs of a T. gondii surveillance program. The surveillance program comprised serological testing of blood samples taken at slaughter. Break-even points were determined given alternative levels of the effectiveness of the intervention program (10% up to 90% in steps of 10%), the value of an averted DALY (20,000, 50,000 and 80,000 Euro), and threshold of sample prevalence for a farm to be under intervention (5% up to 50% out of 20 samples in steps of 5%). Since test characteristics are a determining factor in the break-even analysis, and literature is inconclusive concerning sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of the serological test kit used, two alternative sets of assumptions were analysed. The estimated maximum costs of an intervention if only benefits for domestic consumers were accounted amounted approximately 2981 Euro (se = 98.9% and sp = 92.7%) versus 4389 Euro (se = 65.2% and sp = 97.4%) per year per fattening pig farm under intervention assuming an effectiveness of 50%, 50,000 Euro per averted DALY and threshold T. gondii sample prevalence of 5% for a farm to be under intervention. Since almost 80% of the gross domestic production is exported corresponding break-even values increased up to 12,034 Euro and 18,366 Euro if benefits for consumers abroad were included as well. Empirical research to strengthen the knowledge about the efficacy of a farm intervention measures is recommended.

Ideal versus reality? The domesticity ideal and household labour relations in Dutch industrializing regions, circa 1890
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
The History of the Family (2017). - ISSN 1081-602X - p. 82 - 102.
domesticity - Labour relations - Netherlands - nineteenth century - women’s work
For long, international comparisons of female labour force participation (FLFP) have been based on aggregate source material, most notably censuses. However, the lion’s share of today’s historians agree that censuses have systematically underreported women’s work activities. Consequently, scholars relying on this source have found a nineteenth-century Dutch male breadwinner society while others have found that the Dutch female labour force was quite extensive. This discrepancy in the historiography is in need of closer scrutiny. The current study shows that by the end of the nineteenth century, in industrial regions married women indeed withdrew from the registered labour market but instead engaged in other types of labour relations that could easily be combined with homemaking duties and that remained invisible in the census. Furthermore, this article argues that the fact that married women provided an income did not necessarily contradict the growing ideal of domesticity. The alternative types of work married women took up were rather a way of reconciling this ideal with keeping the household on a respectable level of existence.
Warfare tourism experiences and national identity : The case of Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek, the Netherlands
Gieling, Joost ; Ong, Chin Ee - \ 2016
Tourism Management 57 (2016). - ISSN 0261-5177 - p. 45 - 55.
Experience - National identity - Netherlands - Second World War - Social identity theory - Warfare tourism
This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists’ motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of motives for Dutch warfare heritage tourism and the ways in which this specific variant of heritage tourism evokes different emotions and satisfaction evaluations in visitors. Specifically, we found that visitors who identified strongly as ‘being Dutch’ (the ‘in-group’) have stronger self-enhancement motives compared to those who identify less strongly, and that edutainment features strongly in the museum experience. Visitors seeking initiative/recognition express feelings of disappointment suggesting that the museum's symbolic function as a place of national in-group identity could be more highlighted. We demonstrate that an affirmative and engaged experience can manifest at nationally symbolic sites through positive historical narratives and entertainment, and through ‘in-group’ self-enhancement activities.
Taking national planning seriously : A challenged planning agenda in the Netherlands
Janssen-Jansen, Leonie - \ 2016
Administration 64 (2016)3-4. - ISSN 0001-8325 - p. 23 - 43.
Governance - Implementation - Netherlands - Planning - Spatial strategy

The Dutch planning system has been widely feted as a coordinated, 'plan-led' and evidence-informed system that has been successfully implemented, resulting in sensitive land management, an absence of urban sprawl and the protection of 'green areas'. However, at least since the 1970s, the reality has been somewhat different. This paper reviews Dutch planning history over the past fifty years to highlight in particular the challenge of implementation. The paper also reviews the current challenges facing Dutch planners and provides some international reflection from Dutch experiences for Irish planners.

Records of five bryozoan species from offshore gas platforms rare for the Dutch North Sea
Beukhof, Esther ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Cuperus, J. ; Blauwe, Hans de; Lust, Jerry - \ 2016
Marine Biodiversity Records 9 (2016). - ISSN 1755-2672 - 9 p.
Bryozoa - North Sea - Netherlands - Offshore - Gas platform - Cribrillina punctata - Arachnidium fibrosum - Electra monostachys - Scruparia ambigua - Scruparia chelata
This study reports on bryozoan species collected at three offshore gas platforms in the Dutch part of the North Sea. Four out of thirteen observed species are considered as rare in the Netherlands, whereas Cribrilina punctata is a
new species for Dutch waters.
Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields
Powell, J.P. ; Reinhard, S. - \ 2016
Weather and Climate Extremes 12 (2016). - ISSN 2212-0947 - p. 69 - 79.
Extreme climate events - Netherlands - Panel data - Wheat yields

Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to continue occurring at historically high levels for farming locations throughout the Netherlands, the effects of those events on wheat yields are estimated while controlling for the other major input factors affecting yields. Econometric techniques are applied to an unbalanced panel data set of 334 farms for a period of up to 12 years. Analyzes show that the number of days with extreme high temperatures in Dutch wheat growing regions has significantly increased since the early 1900s, while the number of extreme low temperature events has fallen over that same period. The effects of weather events on wheat yields were found to be time specific in that the week in which an event occurred determined its effect on yields. High temperature events and precipitation events were found to significantly decrease yields.

The effect of milk quota abolishment on farm intensity : Shifts and stability
Groeneveld, Anouschka ; Peerlings, Jack ; Bakker, Martha ; Heijman, Wim - \ 2016
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences (2016). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 25 - 37.
Agricultural policy - Dairy farming - Farm intensification - Manure - Milk quota abolishment - Netherlands - Shifts

We investigate whether milk quota abolition in the Netherlands is likely to lead to a shift towards more intensive farms, and whether the legislation introduced by the Dutch government to prevent this from happening is likely to be effective. To this end, a mathematical programming model is developed and applied to ten Dutch dairy farms of varying size. The mathematical programming model allows us to calculate shadow prices, which we use to evaluate the stability or likelihood of a shift in the farmer decisions in our model. Our results suggest a strong increase in intensity for the largest farm type when milk quotas are abolished, while further intensification is limited for the smaller farm types. Although most farm types increase the number of cows on the farm, for the smaller ones this can only be achieved when the costs of expanding decrease considerably. The new legislation introduced by the Dutch government to prevent strong intensification appears to be successful.

Effects of budget constraints on conservation network design for biodiversity and ecosystem services
Remme, Roy P. ; Schröter, Matthias - \ 2016
Ecological Complexity 26 (2016). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 45 - 56.
Biodiversity conservation - Budget allocation - Cost-effectiveness - Modelling - Netherlands - Priority setting

Limited budgets and budget cuts hamper the development of effective biodiversity conservation networks. Optimizing the spatial configuration of conservation networks given such budget constraints remains challenging. Systematic conservation planning addresses this challenge. Systematic conservation planning can integrate both biodiversity and ecosystem services as conservation targets, and hence address the challenge to operationalize ecosystem services as an anthropocentric argument for conservation. We create two conservation scenarios to expand the current conservation network in the Dutch province of Limburg. One scenario focuses on biodiversity only and the other integrates biodiversity and ecosystem services. We varied conservation budgets in these scenarios and used the software Marxan to assess differences in the resulting network configurations. In addition, we tested the network's cost-effectiveness by allocating a conservation budget either in one or in multiple steps. We included twenty-nine biodiversity surrogates and five ecosystem services. The inclusion of ecosystem services to expand Limburg's conservation network only moderately changed prioritized areas, compared to only conserving biodiversity. Network expansion in a single time-step is more efficient in terms of compactness and cost-effectiveness than implementing it in multiple time-steps. Therefore, to cost-effectively plan conservation networks, the full budget should ideally be available before the plans are implemented. We show that including ecosystem services to cost-effectively expand conservation networks can simultaneously encourage biodiversity conservation and stimulate the protection of conservation-compatible ecosystem services.

Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece
Zafeiraki, Effrosyni ; Costopoulou, Danae ; Vassiliadou, Irene ; Leondiadis, Leondios ; Dassenakis, Emmanouil ; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2016
Chemosphere 144 (2016). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 2106 - 2112.
Commercially produced eggs - Free-range eggs - Greece - Home produced eggs - LC-MS/MS - Netherlands - PFASs

Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were collected from the Netherlands (n = 95) and Greece (n = 76). The egg yolks were analysed for 11 PFASs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. PFAS levels in yolk were higher in home produced eggs from the Netherlands (median 3.1, range -1) and Greece (median 1.1, range -1) compared to the eggs collected from supermarkets. In these eggs, all PFAS levels were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng g-1, except for a small amount of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 1 sample in each country (1.1 ng g-1 and 0.9 ng g-1 for the Netherlands and Greece respectively).PFOS was the predominant PFAS, making up on average 85% of ∑PFASs. The highest PFOS concentration was detected in a Dutch home produced egg sample (24.8 ng g-1). The contamination pattern was similar in both countries with the long-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) being most frequently detected, while short-chain PFASs were rarely found. The most likely cause of the contamination of home produced eggs is ingestion of soil through pecking. Although regular consumption of home produced eggs will lead to an increased PFOS exposure, it is not expected that it will lead to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake established by EFSA.

Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece
Zafeiraki, Effrosyni ; Costopoulou, Danae ; Vassiliadou, Irene ; Leondiadis, Leondios ; Dassenakis, Emmanouil ; Traag, Wim ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)12. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 2048 - 2057.
bottled water - drinking tap water - Greece - Netherlands - PFASs - surface water

In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes
Rogers, Karyne M. ; Ruth, Saskia Van; Alewijn, Martin ; Philips, Andy ; Rogers, Pam - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)38. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8372 - 8380.
authenticity - barn - carbon - diet - egg albumen - free range - isotope - Netherlands - New Zealand - nitrogen - organic - supermarket

Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ15N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum δ15N value of 4.8‰ to account for an organic plant derived diet. Monitoring of New Zealand egg isotopes over the past 7 years suggests that organic eggs should have a minimum δ15N value of 6.0‰, and eggs falling below this value should be investigated further by certification authorities.

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