Food systems everywhere: Improving relevance in practice
Brouwer, Inge D. ; McDermott, John ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2020
Global Food Security 26 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
Environment - Food system transformation - Governance - Nutrition - Systems analysis
Food systems approaches are increasingly used to better understand transitions in diets, sustainable resource use and social inclusion. Moreover, food systems frameworks are also widely used in many recent policy and foresight studies. We assess 32 highly-cited international studies, identifying and comparing differences in the frameworks used for food systems analysis, and discrepancies in the procedures to identify strategies for and performances of food system transformation. We show that the relevance of existing food systems analysis for identifying critical trade-offs and understanding relevant policies and practices for achieving synergies remains limited. While many studies are largely descriptive, some offer more practical insights into and evidence of entry points for food system transformation as well as opportunities for improving multiple food system outcomes (i.e. nutrition and health, environmental sustainability and resilience, social inclusion). We distinguish four different pathways for food system transformation and outline their analytical underpinnings, their views on multi-stakeholder governance, and how they deal with critical trade-offs between multiple food system objectives. We conclude that food systems approaches must be useful to decision makers and performance can only be improved if decision makers have a better understanding of these underlying interactions and dynamics of food systems change.
The distribution of food security impacts of biofuels, a Ghana case study
Brinkman, Marnix ; Levin-Koopman, Jason ; Wicke, Birka ; Shutes, Lindsay ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Faaij, André ; Hilst, Floor van der - \ 2020
Biomass and Bioenergy 141 (2020). - ISSN 0961-9534
Biofuel mandate - CGEmodel - Developing country - Food security - Household - Nutrition
The demand for biofuels is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. However, there are major concerns on the impact of increased biofuel production on food security. As biofuel affects food security in various ways, it is important to assess the impacts on the four pillars of food security, availability, access, utilisation and stability. The objective of this study is to ex-ante quantify impacts of biofuel production on the four pillars of food security for urban and rural households in a developing country. We illustrate this for Ghana, which proposed a 10% biodiesel and 15% ethanol mandate for 2030 and which faces food security issues. We used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model MAGNET in combination with a household and a nutrition module to quantify 13 food security indicators. The results show that the largest food security effects of the biofuel mandate are negative impacts on food prices and import dependency. However, the projected food security impacts of the biofuel mandate in 2030 are relatively small compared to the projected food security effects of economic development in Ghana towards 2030. Our approach enables ex-ante quantification of the effects of biofuel on the four pillars of food security and the differentiation of the effects between urban and rural households. Although improvements can be made, the approach means a big step forward compared to the state-of-the-art knowledge on food security impacts of biofuel production and it could contribute to identify options to minimise negative and optimise positive food security effects.
Resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry versus the ventilator-VCO2 derived method in critically ill patients : The DREAM-VCO2 prospective comparative study
Koekkoek, W.A.C. ; Xiaochen, G. ; Dijk, D. van; Zanten, A.R.H. van - \ 2020
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 39 (2020). - ISSN 2405-4577 - p. 137 - 143.
Indirect calorimetry - Mechanical ventilation - Nutrition - Respiratory quotient - Resting energy expenditure
Background & aims: Both overfeeding and underfeeding of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are associated with worse outcomes. Predictive equations of nutritional requirements, though easily implemented, are highly inaccurate. Ideally, the individual caloric target is based on the frequent assessment of energy expenditure (EE). Indirect calorimetry is considered the gold standard but is not always available. EE estimated by ventilator-derived carbon dioxide consumption (EEVCO2) has been proposed as an alternative to indirect calorimetry, but there is limited evidence to support the use of this method. Methods: We prospectively studied a cohort of adult critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation and artificial nutrition. We aimed to compare the performance of the EEVCO2 with the EE measured by indirect calorimetry through the calculation of bias and precision (accuracy), agreement, reliability and 10% accuracy rates. The effect of including the food quotient (nutrition intake derived respiratory quotient) in contrast to a fixed respiratory quotient (0.86), into the EEVCO2 formula was also evaluated. Results: In 31 mechanically ventilated patients, a total of 414 paired measurements were obtained. The mean estimated EEVCO2 was 2134 kcal/24 h, and the mean estimated EE by indirect calorimetry was 1623 kcal/24 h, depicting a significant bias of 511 kcal (95% CI 467–560, p < 0.001). The precision of EEVCO2 was low (lower and upper limit of agreement −63.1 kcal and 1087. o kcal), the reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.613; 95% CI 0.550–0.669, p < 0.001) and the 10% accuracy rate was 7.0%. The food quotient was not significantly different from the respiratory quotient (0.870 vs. 0.878), with a small bias of 0.007 (95% CI 0.000–0.015, p = 0.54), low precision (lower and upper limit of agreement −0.16 and 0.13), poor reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.148; 95% CI 0.053–0.240, p = 0.001) and a 10% accuracy rate of 77.5%. Estimated mean EEVCO2, including the food quotient, was 2120 kcal/24 h, with a significant bias of 496 kcal (95% CI 451–542; p < 0.001) and low precision (lower and upper limit of agreement −157.6 kcal and 1170.3 kcal). The reliability with EE estimated by indirect calorimetry was good (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.610, 95% CI 0.550–0.661, p < 0.001), and the 10% accuracy rate was 9.2%. Conclusions: EEVCO2, compared with indirect calorimetry, overestimates actual energy expenditure. Although the reliability is acceptable, bias is significant, and the precision and accuracy rates are unacceptably low when the VCO2 method is used. Including the food quotient into the EEVCO2 equation does not improve its performance. Predictive equations, although inaccurate, may even predict energy expenditure better compared with the VCO2-method. Indirect calorimetry remains the gold standard method.
Using food loss reduction to reach food security and environmental objectives – A search for promising leverage points
Kuiper, Marijke ; Cui, Hao David - \ 2020
Food Policy (2020). - ISSN 0306-9192
Computable General Equilibrium - Environment - Food Loss and Waste - Food Security - Nutrition
We identify promising leverage points for food loss reductions from a food system perspective with a global economy-wide model capturing price and income feedbacks of changes at different points in the supply chain. Using new FAO food loss estimates we model loss reduction as a zero-cost productivity increase at primary and processing stages, simultaneously deriving the response of food security (national availability, accessibility and utilisation of food) and sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, agricultural land use) at global and regional levels. To help focus data collection and intervention efforts we identify interventions by region, supply chain stage and sector contributing most to improving nutrition and sustainability. While the loss rates show no clear relation to regional income, strongest impacts on food security and environment are in low income regions. Decomposing indicator responses to the exogenous loss reduction shocks we find a focus on domestic primary stages achieving strong and unambiguous positive impacts on both food security and environment. Since foreign loss reductions may harm food insecure agricultural households through import substitution, the most food insecure countries should be part of any global loss reduction efforts. Fruit and vegetables and animal products are found to have the strongest impact on both food security and environment. A marginal impact on GHG emissions remains once non-agricultural expansion following the productivity increase is accounted for, showing the importance of an economy-wide perspective.
Importance of insects as food in Africa
Huis, Arnold Van - \ 2020
In: African Edible Insects As Alternative Source of Food, Oil, Protein and Bioactive Components / Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030329518 - p. 1 - 17.
Edible insects - Farming insects - Food security - Harvesting insects - Insects as food - Nutrition - Sub-saharan africa
In Africa, about 470 insect species are recorded as edible, of which caterpillars are most consumed followed by grasshoppers, beetles, and termites. Most of those are collected from nature. There are several insect species, such as locusts and grasshoppers, that are pests of crops but which can be eaten at the same time. There are some edible insect species which are harvested in large number contributing to food security. Three of those species are discussed: the mopane caterpillar, the African bush cricket, and the shea caterpillar. However, when we would like to promote insects as food then harvesting from nature is not an option anymore, as overexploitation already occurs. Then we need to rear the insects. That can be done in semi-domesticated systems such as for the palm weevil or by farming insects as mini-livestock such as for crickets. We discuss the nutritional value of edible insects, and how they can contribute to food security. We also give examples of how insects can be processed and marketed. We conclude with the prospects of how edible insects can assure food security and improve the livelihood of the African people.
Designing healthier and acceptable diets using data envelopment analysis
Kanellopoulos, A. ; Gerdessen, J.C. ; Ivancic, Ante ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2020
Public Health Nutrition 23 (2020)13. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2290 - 2302.
Benchmark - DEA - Diet model - Efficiency - Nutrition - public health
Objective: The objective of this research is to propose methodology that can be used to benchmark current diets based on their nutrient intakes and to provide guidelines for improving less healthy diets in a way that is acceptable for the studied population.
Design: We discuss important limitations of current diet models that use optimization techniques to design healthier and acceptable diets. We illustrate how data envelopment analysis could be used to overcome such limitations, and we describe mathematical models that can be used to calculate not only healthier but also acceptable diets.
Setting: We used data from the Nutrition Questionnaires plus dataset of habitual diets of a general population of adult men and women in The Netherlands (n 1735).
Participants: Adult population.
Results: We calculated healthier diets with substantial higher intakes of protein, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and vitamins, and substantially lower intakes of Na, saturated fats and added sugars. The calculated diets are combinations of current diets of individuals that belong to the same age/gender group and comprise of food itemintakes in proportions observed in the sample.
Conclusions: The proposed methodology enables the benchmarking of existing diets and provides a framework for proposing healthier alternative diets that resemble the current diet in terms of foods intake as much as possible.
Insects as food and feed, a new emerging agricultural sector: A review
Huis, A. van - \ 2020
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 6 (2020)1. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 27 - 44.
Black soldier fly - Consumer attitudes - Edible insects - Environment - Food safety - Health - Industrial production - Insects as food and feed - Nutrition - Processing
During the last five years the scientific knowledge on insects as food and feed has been growing exponentially. At the same time, the industrial sector is increasingly engaged in rearing, processing and marketing of edible insects. Considerable attention is given to the black soldier fly as it can convert organic waste streams and transform it into several feed, food and industrial products. The farming of insects has an environmental impact which is lower than that of livestock species. The profitability of industrial production of insects as feed depends very much on the availability and applicability of cheap non-utilised side-streams. Microbial communities and their relationship with insects deserve full attention as it may help in the conversion of organic side streams of low economic value. Nutrition and health benefits for animals and humans need further exploration, also considering that insects have the largest anti-microbial peptide reservoir of all animals. Plant health can also be promoted by using chitincontaining leftover substrates as fertiliser. As insects have only recently been considered as food or feed, legislation trails developments. Therefore, politicians need to be assured that rearing and processing techniques are such that insect products are guaranteed free of chemical and microbial contaminants. Consumers are becoming more and more aware that insects as food are a viable option. Insects need to be processed into ingredients, that can be applied for safe and appetising products. The insect sector is maturing fast, but still faces many challenges, which can only be met when all stakeholders closely cooperate.
Iron, zinc and phytic acid retention of biofortified, low phytic acid, and conventional bean varieties when preparing common household recipes
Hummel, Marijke ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Taleon, Victor ; Londoño, Luis ; Brychkova, Galina ; Gallego, Sonia ; Raatz, Bodo ; Spillane, Charles - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2072-6643
Anti-nutritionals - Beans - Biofortification - Cooking - Lpa - Micronutrients - Nutrition - Phaseolus vulgaris - Plant - Retention - SDG2
Biofortification is an effective method to improve the nutritional content of crops and nutritional intake. Breeding for higher micronutrient mineral content in beans is correlated with an increase in phytic acid, a main inhibitor of mineral absorption in humans. Low phytic acid (lpa) beans have a 90% lower phytic acid content compared to conventional beans. This is the first study to investigate mineral and total phytic acid retention after preparing common household recipes from conventional, biofortified and lpa beans. Mineral retention was determined for two conventional, three biofortified and two lpa bean genotypes. Treatments included soaking, boiling (boiled beans) and refrying (bean paste). The average true retention of iron after boiling was 77.2– 91.3%; for zinc 41.2–84.0%; and for phytic acid 49.9–85.9%. Soaking led to a significant decrease in zinc and total phytic acid after boiling and refrying, whereas for iron no significant differences were found. lpa beans did not exhibit a consistent pattern of difference in iron and phytic acid retention compared to the other groups of beans. However, lpa beans had a significantly lower retention of zinc compared to conventional and biofortified varieties (p < 0.05). More research is needed to understand the underlying factors responsible for the differences in retention between the groups of beans, especially the low retention of zinc. Combining the lpa and biofortification traits could further improve the nutritional benefits of biofortified beans, by decreasing the phytic acid:iron and zinc ratio in beans.
A suboptimal diet is associated with poorer cognition: The NUDAD project
Fieldhouse, Jay L.P. ; Doorduijn, Astrid S. ; Leeuw, Francisca A. de; Verhaar, Barbara J.H. ; Koene, Ted ; Wesselman, Linda M.P. ; Schueren, Marian de van der; Visser, Marjolein ; Rest, Ondine van de; Scheltens, Philip ; Kester, Maartje I. ; Flier, Wiesje M. van der - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2072-6643
Dementia - Food intake - Mild cognitive impairment - Neuropsychological functioning - Nutrition
Nutrition is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, and is therefore highly relevant in the context of prevention. However, knowledge of dietary quality in clinical populations on the spectrum of AD dementia is lacking, therefore we studied the association between dietary quality and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls. We included 357 participants from the NUDAD project (134 AD dementia, 90 MCI, 133 controls). We assessed adherence to dietary guidelines (components: vegetables, fruit, fibers, fish, saturated fat, trans‐fat, salt, and alcohol), and cognitive performance (domains: memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive functioning). In the total population, linear regression analyses showed a lower vegetable intake is associated with poorer global cognition, visuospatial functioning, attention and executive functioning. In AD dementia, lower total adherence to dietary guidelines and higher alcohol intake were associated with poorer memory, a lower vegetable intake with poorer global cognition and executive functioning, and a higher trans‐fat intake with poorer executive functioning. In conclusion, a suboptimal diet is associated with more severely impaired cognition—this association is mostly attributable to a lower vegetable intake and is most pronounced in AD dementia.
Towards concerted government efforts? Assessing nutrition policy integration in Uganda
Namugumya, Brenda Shenute ; Candel, Jeroen J.L. ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. - \ 2020
Food Security 12 (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 355 - 368.
Governance - Integrated nutrition strategies - Nutrition - Policy integration - Uganda
To tackle malnutrition more effectively, Sub-Saharan African governments have developed overarching, integrative policy strategies over the past decade. Despite their popularity, little is known about their follow-up and ultimately their success (or failure). Consequently, tracking the progress of such political commitment has gained global importance. Various studies provide insights into changes in nutrition-related policies. Nevertheless, it is generally acknowledged that we have limited understanding of how nutrition concerns are explicitly addressed in policies of different ministries. This study uses a novel policy integration perspective to investigate the extent to which eight ministries in Uganda integrated nutrition concerns across their policy outputs between 2001 and 2017. The approach used assumes nutrition policy integration is a dynamic process occurring in different policy dimensions. We performed a qualitative content analysis to assess 103 policy outputs for changes in subsystems involved, policy goals, and instruments used. Overall, we found a shift towards increased integrated government action on nutrition over time. The 2011–2015 analysis period was a critical juncture where increased integration of nutrition was observed in all policy integration dimensions across all ministries. However, considerable variations in actor networks, goals, and instruments exist across sectors and over time. The sustainability of nutrition integration efforts remains contentious, because of which continuous monitoring will be essential.
Data from a survey of sensor technologies for food intake measurement
Driedonks-van Dongen, Ellen ; Rijgersberg, Hajo ; Daniels, Freek ; Ummels, Meeke - \ 2020
Wageningen University & Research
Consumer science - Food - Nutrition - Sensors
A survey of potential non-invasive sensing technologies suitable for measuring food intake and meal properties.
Exploring solution spaces for nutrition-sensitive agriculture in Kenya and Vietnam
Timler, Carl ; Alvarez, Stéphanie ; DeClerck, Fabrice ; Remans, Roseline ; Raneri, Jessica ; Estrada Carmona, Natalia ; Mashingaidze, Nester ; Abe Chatterjee, Shantonu ; Chiang, Tsai Wei ; Termote, Celine ; Yang, Ray Yu ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Brouwer, Inge D. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Tittonell, Pablo A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. - \ 2020
Agricultural Systems 180 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
Agrobiodiversity - Dietary diversity - FarmDESIGN - Nutrition - Synergies - Trade-offs
Smallholder agriculture is an important source of livelihoods in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In these regions the highest concentrations of nutritionally vulnerable populations are found. Agricultural development needs to be nutrition-sensitive, and contribute simultaneously to improving household nutrition, farm productivity and environmental performance. We explored the windows of opportunities for farm development and the potential of crop diversification options for meeting household dietary requirements, whilst concurrently improving household economic performance in contrasting smallholder farm systems in Kenya and Vietnam. Farm and household features and farmer perspectives and priorities were integrated into a farm-household model that allowed quantification of a diverse set of nutritional, labour and productive indicators. Using a multi-objective optimization algorithm, we generated ‘solution spaces’ comprising crop compositions and management configurations that would satisfy household dietary needs and allowed income gains. Results indicated site-specific synergies between income and nutritional system yield for vitamin A. Diversification with novel vegetables could cover vitamin A requirements of 10 to 31 extra people per hectare and lead to greater income (25 to 185% increase) for some households, but reduced leisure time. Although the Vietnamese sites exhibited greater nutrient system yields than those in Kenya, the household diets in Kenya had greater nutrient adequacy due to the fact that the Vietnamese farmers sold greater proportions of their on-farm produced foods. We conclude that nutrition-sensitive, multi-method approaches have potential to identify solutions to simultaneously improve household income, nutrition and resource management in vulnerable smallholder farming systems.
Evaluation of nutritional composition, physico-chemical and sensory properties of ‘Robo’ (A Nigerian traditional snack) produced from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seeds
Adeyeye, S.A.O. ; Bolaji Olushola, T. ; Abegunde, T.A. ; Adebayo-Oyetoro, A.O. ; Tiamiyu, H.K. ; Idowu-Adebayo, F. - \ 2020
Food Research 4 (2020)1. - ISSN 2550-2166 - p. 216 - 223.
Nutrition - Sensory - Snack - Watermelon - ‘Robo’
This study evaluated the nutritional composition, physico-chemical and sensory properties of ‘Robo’ (a Nigerian traditional snack) produced from watermelon seeds in order to improve the utilization of watermelon seeds in producing value-added products, acceptable to the consumers. Watermelon seeds were dehulled, dried and used to prepared ‘Robo’ in the laboratory and control samples were prepared from melon seeds. The proximate analysis, amino acid profile, vitamin, mineral and heavy metal profile and consumer acceptance of the ‘Robo’ samples were determined using standard methods. The results showed that there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the proximate composition of the ‘Robo’ samples from watermelon and melon seeds. There were significant differences (p≤0.05) in amino acid, vitamin and mineral profile of ‘Robo’ samples from watermelon and melon seeds. The amino acid concentration in g/100 g crude protein of ‘Robo’ for lysine, arginine and leucine were 4.58±0.01, 1.82±0.00 and 4.92±0.01 respectively for ‘Robo’ produced from watermelon seeds while 4.91±0.01, 2.01±0.00 and 5.16±0.01 respectively were recorded for ‘Robo’ produced from melon seeds. The study showed that the ‘Robo’ samples contained high amounts of vitamin B-complex and minerals and low amounts of heavy metals. In conclusion, the ‘Robo’ samples from watermelon seeds and control samples had high sensory scores and were well acceptable to the consumers. With these research findings, watermelon seeds could be used for the production of ‘Robo’ as a promising raw material. This will create ready-made market for the underutilized watermelon seeds and as well as creating more income to watermelon farmers.
Colorectal cancer survivors’ beliefs on nutrition and cancer; correlates with nutritional information provision
Veen, Merel R. van; Mols, Floortje ; Smeets, Lian ; Kampman, Ellen ; Beijer, Sandra - \ 2020
Supportive Care in Cancer 28 (2020)3. - ISSN 0941-4355 - p. 1255 - 1263.
Colorectal cancer survivor - Health professionals - Information provision - Nutrition
Purpose: To investigate CRC survivors’ beliefs on nutrition and cancer and the association with nutritional information provision by (kind and number) of health professionals and to inquire about foods that CRC survivors believed either had a positive or negative influence on their cancer. Methods: A total of 326 CRC survivors of an ongoing prospective cohort study filled out questionnaires 1 month after surgery on whether they had received nutritional information from health professionals. Also, their beliefs that nutrition influences (1) feelings of well-being, (2) complaints after treatment, (3) recovery and (4) cancer recurrence were investigated. Prevalence ratios were calculated (using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis) to study associations between information provision and the four beliefs adjusted for age, gender and cancer stage. Results: Sixty-two percent of respondents received information about nutrition from one or more health professionals. Most respondents who received information strongly believe nutrition influences feelings of well-being (59%) and recovery after cancer (62%). Compared with those who did not receive information, respondents who received information from three professionals showed the strongest beliefs on the influence of nutrition on complaints after treatment (PR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6–7.4), recovery after treatment (PR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.3) and recurrence (PR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3–6.2). Conclusion: Nutritional information provision by health professionals positively influences the beliefs of CRC survivors on the influence of nutrition on cancer outcomes: stronger beliefs occur when respondents received information from three health professionals.
Parental unemployment and child health in China
Pieters, Janneke ; Rawlings, Samantha - \ 2020
Review of Economics of the Household 18 (2020)1. - ISSN 1569-5239 - p. 207 - 237.
Child Health - China - Nutrition - Unemployment
This paper studies the causal effect of maternal and paternal unemployment on child health in China, analyzing panel data for the period 1997–2004, when the country underwent economic reforms leading to massive layoffs. Using a FE-IV strategy, we find that paternal unemployment reduces child health, while maternal unemployment has beneficial child health impacts. Analysis of channels shows that paternal and maternal unemployment have different effects on income, time use, and children’s diets. Though many estimates are imprecise, a key finding is that paternal unemployment significantly reduces children’s fat intake and dietary diversity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence on the causal effect of parental unemployment on the nutrient intake of children aged 0–17. In all, our estimates are consistent with the notion that traditional gender roles can explain why mothers’ and fathers’ unemployment affect child health differently.
Reusing drain water to lower the emission of nutrients in the cultivation of Phalaenopsis
Kromwijk, A. ; Blok, C. ; Os, E. Van; Beerling, E. - \ 2019
Acta Horticulturae 1262 (2019). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 101 - 108.
Emission reduction - Fertilizers - Greenhouse horticulture - Nutrition - Ornamental orchids - Recirculating systems - Water reuse
Phalaenopsis is the top-selling ornamental pot plant in the Netherlands, and the area under its production was 242 ha in 2014. Previously, production systems of Phalaenopsis (open or free to drain systems) resulted in high emission of nutrients to the ground and surface water, approximately 1500 kg N ha-1 year-1, in the Netherlands. Little is known of the response of Phalaenopsis to water reuse systems, as orchids have been exempt from recirculation obligations owing to their salt sensitivity. Regulations aimed to reduce nitrogen (N) emissions to a maximum of 150 kg ha-1 year-1 in 2018, with the ultimate goal being 0 kg ha-1 year-1, in 2027. Wageningen University and the Research Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture were commissioned by the government as well as the Phalaenopsis grower association of the Netherlands to develop a system that could achieve the current goal of a maximum of 150 kg N ha-1 year-1. A recirculation system with UV disinfection and the reuse of drain water was utilized at the experimental site in Bleiswijk. Two recirculation treatments were tested with the aim to maintain the current production and quality levels while also lowering the emissions to the standard of 2018, with the possibility of further improvements to achieve the desired standards for 2027. The aim of the first reuse treatment was to discard small amounts of drain water to keep sodium at a maximum of 1.2 mmol L-1. In the second treatment, as much drain water was reused as possible. Emissions of N were reduced to 182 and 60 kg ha-1 year-1, respectively. Plant growth parameters including leaf number, total leaf area, and number of spikes and flowers, showed no significant differences. In this experiment reuse of drain water reduced emissions considerably without any adverse effects on plant growth or disease incidence.
No independent associations between preconception paternal dietary patterns and embryonic growth; the Predict Study
Oostingh, Elsje C. ; Vos, Iris de; Ham, Annelies C. ; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M. ; Willemsen, Sten P. ; Eggink, Alex J. ; Steegers, Eric A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M. - \ 2019
Clinical Nutrition 38 (2019)5. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 2333 - 2341.
3D ultrasound - Crown-rump length - Embryonic volume - Nutrition - Periconception period - Virtual reality
Background & aim: Several studies show the importance of periconceptional maternal dietary patterns on human embryonic growth. Healthy paternal nutrition has been associated with better semen quality and fecundability, however, evidence on the impact on pregnancy outcome is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between preconception paternal dietary patterns and first trimester embryonic growth using the parameters longitudinal crown-rump length (CRL) and embryonic volume (EV). Methods: A total of 638 couples were enrolled in the Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort and received longitudinal three dimensional transvaginal ultrasound scans from 7+0 up to 12+0 weeks of gestation. Virtual reality software was used to perform offline measurements of the embryonic CRL and EV. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) were used to estimate habitual food intake in couples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify paternal and maternal dietary patterns. Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to analyze associations between paternal and maternal dietary patterns and embryonic growth parameters. Results: The paternal dietary patterns retrieved were identified as “Whole wheat grains and Vegetables”, “Sauces and Snacks Refined Grains”, “Fish and Legumes” and explained 27.5% of the total variance of the dietary intake. No significant additional effects, independent of maternal dietary patters and other maternal and paternal potential confounders, were shown of these paternal dietary patterns on embryonic growth in spontaneous or IVF/ICSI pregnancies. Conclusion: No significant effects of paternal dietary patterns independent of maternal dietary patters and other parental potential confounders on embryonic growth parameters could be established in spontaneous or IVF/ICSI pregnancies. The biological importance of paternal nutrition on semen quality, however, supports the need of periconceptional tailored nutritional counselling of couples trying to conceive.
|DPA shows comparable chemotherapy sensitizing effects as EPA upon cellular incorporation in tumor cells
Dijk, Francina J. ; Dijk, Miriam Van; Dorresteijn, Bram ; Norren, Klaske Van - \ 2019
Oncotarget 10 (2019)57. - ISSN 1949-2553 - p. 5983 - 5992.
Cancer - Chemotherapy - DPA - Fish oil - Nutrition
Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells towards chemotherapy. Most enhancing effects are described for ω-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA; less evidence is available with the intermediate DPA. We studied the chemotherapy enhancing effects of EPA, DPA and DHA in murine colon C26 adenocarcinoma cells and showed that DPA displayed similar chemosensitizing effects as EPA. Moreover, EPA supplementation increased cellular DPA content. In a C26 tumor-bearing mouse model, we studied the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA in tumor and skeletal muscle after a diet with different ω-3 PUFA sources. Although little DPA was present in the fatty acid food sources, in those that contained considerable EPA concentrations, DPA levels were higher in tumor and muscle tissue. From these studies, we conclude that EPA and DPA show chemosensitizing effects and that intake of EPA or EPA-containing nutrition leads to increased cellular DPA content by elongation. These findings support the use of ω-3 PUFA containing nutritional supplementations in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatment.
Gaining insights in the nutritional metabolism of amphibians: analysing body nutrient profiles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis
Brenes-Soto, Andrea ; Dierenfeld, E.S. ; Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. - \ 2019
PeerJ 7 (2019). - ISSN 2167-8359
Metabolism - Nutrition - Xenopus laevis - Body composition - Amino acids - Fatty acids
Whole bodies of Xenopus laevis (n = 19) were analysed for chemical composition and morphometrics. The nutrient profile (macronutrients, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals) was evaluated by sex; interactions among variables with body weights and lengths, and comparisons made with different species of marine and fresh water fish. Significant differences were found in morphometric measurements, water content, several minerals and fatty acids between sexes of X. laevis. Amino acid profiles differed in methionine, proline and cysteine, which could underlie different metabolic pathways in frogs when compared to fish. In addition, fatty acid profiles revealed more monounsaturated and n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in frogs than in fish, more similar to values reported for terrestrial than aquatic vertebrates. Important interactions were also found between body measurements and fat, calcium, and phosphorus, as well as between essential and non-essential amino acids. The results indicate that frogs might have particular biochemical pathways for several nutrients, dependent on sex and linked to body weight, which ultimately could reflect specific nutrient needs
Nutritional care: The 'poor child' of clinical care in children with cerebral palsy
Snik, D.A.C. ; Jongerius, P.H. ; Roos, N.M. de; Verschuren, O. - \ 2019
Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine 12 (2019)2. - ISSN 1874-5393 - p. 133 - 138.
body composition - cerebral palsy - malnutrition - Nutrition - nutritional management
There is a considerable risk of malnutrition for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) due to insufficient nutritional intake. The most important causes of insufficient intake are feeding problems which are highly prevalent in children with CP (depending on definition, age and heterogeneity of the researched population). Considering these facts, nutritional status should have the full attention of healthcare professionals but this is not yet the case. Evidence from research in clinical practice suggests that: 1) there is no consensus regarding who should perform the measurement and how often, 2) no standardised nutritional assessment is implemented, and 3) there is suboptimal communication and management about feeding and nutritional status in most healthcare networks. To overcome these problems, validated and practical tools for the screening and assessment of nutritional status should be a topic of research and subsequently made available and implemented in clinical practice. Because body composition is an objective indicator of available energy stores, research should focus on optimising measurement methods to determine body composition using anthropometric measures or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Furthermore, there is a definite need among health care providers for explicit and clear agreements on organisation and communication about nutritional care for children with CP.