Integrity of organic foods and their suppliers : Fraud vulnerability across chains
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Pagter-de Witte, Leontien de - \ 2020
Foods 9 (2020)2. - ISSN 2304-8158
Banana - Egg - Fraud - Mitigation - Olive oil - Organic - Pork - Vulnerability
Organic foods are frequently targeted by fraudsters. Examination of underlying factors helps to reduce fraud vulnerability and to prevent fraud. In this study, the fraud vulnerability of five actors from each of four chains were examined using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool: the organic banana, egg, olive oil and pork supply chains. The organic chains appeared slightly less vulnerable than conventional chains due to fewer opportunities for fraud and the more adequate controls being present. On the other hand, organic chains were associated with enhanced vulnerability resulting from cultural and behavioral drivers. Generally, actors in the organic olive oil and pork chains were more vulnerable than those from the banana and egg chains. However, high risk actors were not limited to particular chains. Across the whole group of actors in organic chains, three groups in terms of cultural/behavioral drivers were distinguished: a low vulnerability group, a group facing more external threats and a group presenting fraud vulnerability in general and in particular from within their own company. Ethical business culture and criminal history scores of businesses correlated significantly. This implies that the climate in a company is an important factor to consider when estimating the exposure of businesses to food fraud.
Identification of hydroxytyrosyl oleate, a derivative of hydroxytyrosol with anti-inflammatory properties, in olive oil by-products
Plastina, Pierluigi ; Benincasa, Cinzia ; Perri, Enzo ; Fazio, Alessia ; Augimeri, Giuseppina ; Poland, Mieke ; Witkamp, Renger ; Meijerink, Jocelijn - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 279 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 105 - 113.
COX-2 - Hydroxytyrosyl ester - Inflammation - Macrophages - NO - Olive mill waste water - Olive oil - PGE
Hydroxytyrosyl esters with short, medium and long acyl chains were evaluated for their ability to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among the compounds tested, C18 esters, namely hydroxytyrosyl stearate (HtySte) and hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle), were found to decrease NO production in a concentration-dependent manner, while the other compounds, including the parent hydroxytyrosol, were ineffective in the tested concentration range (0.5–5 μM). Further study of the potential immune-modulating properties of HtyOle revealed a significant and concentration-dependent suppression of prostaglandin E2 production. At a transcriptional level, HtyOle inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-1β. Moreover, HtyOle was identified for the first time in olive oil by-products by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. By contrast, HtyOle was not found in intact olives. Our results suggest that HtyOle is formed during oil processing and represents a significant form in which hydroxytyrosol occurs.
Differences in fraud vulnerability in various food supply chains and their tiers
Ruth, S.M. van; Luning, P.A. ; Silvis, I.C.J. ; Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. - \ 2018
Food Control 84 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 375 - 381.
Bananas - Fish - Meat - Milk - Olive oil - Spices
Food fraud results from the interaction of motivated offenders with opportunities, and lack of control measures. The vulnerability to food fraud varies across chain actors (tiers) though, but insights on prime fraud drivers and enablers, as well as chain areas where vulnerabilities might exist are lacking. In the current study the fish, meat, milk, olive oil, organic bananas, and spice supply chains were assessed for their fraud vulnerabilities. The differences and similarities in vulnerabilities across the supply chains, as well as between groups of chain actors were evaluated using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were applied for exploratory data analysis, and differences between chains and actors were assessed by analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Thirteen fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high across all supply chains indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Control measures varied considerably across supply chains and actor groups, with technical (hard) controls generally being more in place than managerial (soft) controls. Approximately half of the fraud factors were impacted by the type of commodity chain, and one out of seven of the fraud factors by the actor group. From the current sample group overall fraud vulnerability appeared highest for the spice chain, which was followed by the olive oil, meat, fish, milk and organic banana chains. Among the actor groups, the wholesale/traders group appeared most vulnerable, followed by retailers and processors. The current results provide new insights in the fraud factors determining fraud vulnerability in various supply chains, and the (dis)similarities in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and actor groups which helps to combat future food fraud.
Investigation of gene–diet interactions in the incretin system and risk of type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kuijsten, A. - \ 2016
Diabetologia 59 (2016)12. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 2613 - 2621.
Coffee - Dairy - Gene–environment interaction - GIPR - Incretins - KCNQ1 - Olive oil - TCF7L2 - WFS1
Aims/hypothesis. The gut incretin hormones glucagon-like
peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide
(GIP) have a major role in the pathophysiology of type 2
diabetes. Specific genetic and dietary factors have been found
to influence the release and action of incretins. We examined
the effect of interactions between seven incretin-related genetic
variants in GIPR, KCNQ1, TCF7L2 and WFS1 and dietary
components (whey-containing dairy, cereal fibre, coffee and
olive oil) on the risk of type 2 diabetes in the European
Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-
Methods. The current case-cohort study included 8086 incident
type 2 diabetes cases and a representative subcohort of 11,035
participants (median follow-up: 12.5 years). Prentice-weighted
Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate
the associations and interactions between the dietary factors
and genes in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Results. An interaction (p= 0.048) between TCF7L2 variants
and coffee intake was apparent, with an inverse association
between coffee and type 2 diabetes present among carriers of
the diabetes risk allele (T) in rs12255372 (GG: HR 0.99 [95%
CI 0.97, 1.02] per cup of coffee; GT: HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.93,
0.98]); and TT: HR 0.93 [95% CI 0.88, 0.98]). In addition, an
interaction (p=0.005) between an incretin-specific genetic risk
score and coffee was observed, again with a stronger inverse
association with coffee in carriers with more risk alleles (0–3
risk alleles: HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.94, 1.04]; 7–10 risk alleles: HR
0.95 [95% CI 0.90, 0.99]). None of these associations were
statistically significant after correction for multiple testing.
Conclusions/interpretation. Our large-scale case-cohort study
provides some evidence for a possible interaction of TCF7L2
variants and an incretin-specific genetic risk score with coffee
consumption in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Further
large-scale studies and/or meta-analyses are needed to confirm
these interactions in other populations.
Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin
Santangelo, C. ; Filesi, C. ; Varì, R. ; Scazzocchio, B. ; Filardi, T. ; Fogliano, V. ; D’Archivio, M. ; Giovannini, C. ; Lenzi, A. ; Morano, S. ; Masella, R. - \ 2016
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 39 (2016)11. - ISSN 0391-4097 - p. 1295 - 1301.
Cytokines - HbA1c - Olive oil - Polyphenols - Type 2 diabetes mellitus - Visfatin
Aim: Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods: Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Results: HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Conclusions: Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.
Acrylamide formation in a cookie system as influenced by the oil phenol profile and degree of oxidation
Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Morales, Francisco J. - \ 2009
European Food Research and Technology 229 (2009)1. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 63 - 72.
Acrylamide cookie - Carbonyl compounds - Olive oil - Phenolic compounds - Sunflower oil - Thermoxidation
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the olive oil phenolic compounds as well as of thermoxidised oil on the formation of acrylamide in a cookies system. Three virgin olive oils having different phenolic profile and a thermoxidised sunflower oil were selected. Cookies were baked at 190 °C for different times (8-16 min) following a basic recipe where type of oil was the variable. Additionally to acrylamide (AA), other parameters such as colour, moisture, antioxidant activity (AOA), and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were measured. Results showed that concentration and composition of phenolic moiety of virgin olive oil significantly affect the acrylamide formation, particularly at prolonged baking time. Virgin olive oil with a higher dihydroxy/monohydroxy ratio was more efficient in the AA mitigation and AA was reduced up to 20%. Colour and AOA were not significantly different among the three types of oils. However, AA is dramatically increased when thermoxidised oil is used with a parallel increase of browning and HMF. It was concluded that lipid oxidation products should be considered as an important factor in acrylamide formation during baking of fat-rich products.