Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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The usefulness of interactive governance for underground planning
Nouzari, Ehsan ; Hartmann, Thomas ; Spit, Tejo - \ 2019
Nature and Culture 14 (2019)2. - ISSN 1558-6073 - p. 147 - 167.
Communication - Interactive governance - Participation - Procedural satisfaction - Stakeholder involvement - Underground planning

The underground provides many spatial planning opportunities as it offers space for structures, but also functions as a resource for energy. To guide developments and use the capabilities the underground provides, the Dutch national government started a policy process for the Structuurvisie Ondergrond (a master plan). Stakeholders are involved in the policy process because of the many interests linked to underground functions. However, past policy processes related to the underground dealt with lack of stakeholder satisfaction. This article explores a quantitative approach by focusing on (a) statistical testing of four criteria of interactive governance and (b) using said criteria to evaluate the satisfaction of stakeholders in a policy process. This article highlights the usefulness of a more quantitative approach and provides new insights into the relation between interactive governance and the procedural satisfaction of stakeholders. It also provides insights that help to improve interactive governance in terms of process management to achieve greater procedural satisfaction.

Politicizing food security governance through participation : opportunities and opposition
Duncan, Jessica ; Claeys, Priscilla - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1411 - 1424.
Civil society - Committee on world food security - Depoliticisation - Multi-stakeholder processes - Participation - Politicization

Since the 2007/08 food price crisis there has been a proliferation of multi-stakeholder processes (MSPs) devoted to bringing diverse perspectives together to inform and improve food security policy. While much of the literature highlights the positive contributions to be gained from an opening-up of traditionally state-led processes, there is a strong critique emerging to show that, in many instances, MSPs have de-politicizing effects. In this paper, we scrutinize MSPs in relation to de-politicization. We argue that re-building sustainable and just food systems requires alternative visions that can best be made visible through politicized policy processes. Focusing on three key conditions of politicization, we examine the UN Committee on World Food Security as a MSP where we see a process of politicization playing out through the endorsement of the ‘most-affected’ principle, which is in turn being actively contested by traditionally powerful actors. We conclude that there is a need to implement and reinforce mechanisms that deliberately politicize participation in MSPs, notably by clearly distinguishing between states and other stakeholders, as well as between categories of non-state actors.

Regimes de ordenação espacial no Brasil : A fusão de neoliberalismo, populismo de esquerda e visões modernistas na urbanização de favelas no Recife
Nuijten, Monique ; Koster, Martijn ; Vries, Pieter de; Cabral, Augusto Antonio Campelo - \ 2018
Caderno CRH 31 (2018)82. - ISSN 0103-4979 - p. 59 - 73.
Favelas urbanization - Neoliberalism - Participation - Socialism - Urban space

This article shows how regimes of spatial ordering are produced by the entangling of neoliberalism, leftist populism and modernist visions. It focuses on Prometrópole, a slum upgrading project in Recife. In this project, the neoliberal dimension manifests in the idea that the state, private companies and citizens together are responsible for (re)constructing urban space, and that beneficiaries are autonomous citizens, taking responsibility for their new living environment. The leftist political dimension is seen in participatory procedures to involve the residents in the project. The modernist aesthetics informs the project design with the requirement to use the new space according to the standards of “modern civilization”. As our research shows, such a regime of spatial ordering clashes with the livelihoods of the residents. Furthermore, the participatory procedures fail to grant them any real influence in creating their environment. Consequently, these residents drastically reconstruct their estate, reappropriating the urban space and contesting the regime imposed upon them.

Institutionalizing participation in water resource development : Bottom-up and top-down practices in Southern Thailand
Singto, Chakaphon ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Vos, Jeroen - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2073-4441
Micro-politics - Multi-stakeholder processes - Participation - Reservoir projects - Thailand

Substantive stakeholder engagement is increasingly recognized as essential for effective water resource development. Infrastructure development projects and strategies are however typically designed by engineers first before initiating discussions about impacts with stakeholders. In altering this sequence, designing meaningful participatory planning processes needs careful attention. This requires an innovative approach taking into account the institutional and discursive structure of the negotiation arena. This study uses eight features of participation and related micro-politics questions to scrutinize the design process of two water resource development projects in Thailand. The research shows that in one case some of the affected stakeholders were excluded, and in the other case, a lack of trust made one village obstruct the design process from the start. In both cases, the capacity to facilitate the negotiation about alternative designs and compensation was deficient. It is concluded that participation should be institutionalized and facilitated in a way that fosters accountable representation by all stakeholders, builds trust, and recognizes stakeholder interests and knowledge. The approach taken helps to understand the outcomes of the planning process and is useful to design planning processes that foster the accountable representation of all stakeholders and the recognition of their interests and knowledge.

Care-physical activity initiatives in the neighbourhood : Study protocol for mixed-methods research on participation, effective elements, impact, and funding methods
Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Mulderij, Lisanne S. ; Verkooijen, Kirsten T. ; Groenewoud, Stef ; Koelen, Maria A. - \ 2018
BMC Public Health 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Care - Effective elements - Funding models - Health in all policies - Participation - Physical activity - Socioeconomic status

Background: In the Netherlands, people with a low socioeconomic status (SES) live approximately 6 years less and are less engaged in physical activity (PA) than high SES citizens. This contributes to the persistent health inequalities between low and high SES citizens. Care-PA initiatives are deemed effective for stimulating PA and improving health and participation among peoples with a low SES. In those initiatives, multiple sectors (e.g. sports, health insurers, municipalities) collaborate to connect primary care and PA at neighbourhood level. This study focuses on two Dutch municipalities that aim to invest in Health in All Policies (HiAP) and care-PA initiatives to improve the health of people with low SES. The aim is to gain insight into (1) the short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 year) outcomes of participating in care-PA initiatives for low SES citizens in terms of health, quality of life, and societal participation, (2) the effective elements that contribute to these outcomes, (3) the direct and perceived societal costs and benefits of care-PA initiatives, and (4) alternative ways to fund integrated care, prevention, and care-PA initiatives at neighbourhood level. Methods: The study will be built on a mixed-methods design guided by action research to continuously facilitate participatory processes and practical solutions. To assess outcomes, body measurements and questionnaires will be used as part of a pre-test/post-test design. Focus groups and interviews will be conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of outcomes and action elements. Action elements will be explored by using multiple tools: concept mapping, the logic model, and capacity mapping. Direct and perceived societal costs will be measured by administrative data from healthcare insurers (before-after design) and the effectiveness arena. An alternative funding model will be identified based on literature study, expert meetings, and municipal workshops. Discussion: Initiatives addressing multiple factors at different levels in an integral way are a challenge for evaluation. Multi-methods and tools are required, and data need to be interpreted comprehensively in order to contribute to a contextual insight into what works and why in relation to HiAP and care-PA initiatives.

Public participation in science : The future and value of citizen science in the drinking water research
Brouwer, Stijn ; Wielen, Paul W.J.J. van der; Schriks, Merijn ; Claassen, Maarten ; Frijns, Jos - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 2073-4441
Amsterdam - Citizen science - Drinking water quality - Knowledge generation - Participation
This paper explores the value of involving citizens in the generation of knowledge in drinking water research. To this end, the significance of the 'Freshness of Water' citizen science project on the microbiological stability of drinking water was analyzed, supplemented with a series of expert interviews. In this project, citizens of Amsterdam participated in taking samples from their own kitchen tap and testing the water using test strips. The subsequent monitoring of bacteria revealed that the total number of bacterial species in all of the Amsterdam drinking water samples was high. For the participants, the presence of ten thousands of bacterial species in their drinking water, as well as the interpretation that this is perfectly normal and not a health concern, was obviously new. However, instead of causing concern or worry, this transparency clearly functioned as a strong confidence-inducing signal. A majority of the citizen scientists state that, as a result of their participation, their confidence in the quality of drinking water and the water company has increased. This study suggests that citizen science can raise the participant's water awareness and that, with the appropriate support, non-professionals can make a valuable contribution to scientific drinking water research.
A participatory approach for adapting river basins to climate change
Verkerk, Pieter Johannes ; Sánchez, Anabel ; Libbrecht, Steven ; Broekman, Annelies ; Bruggeman, Adriana ; Daly-Hassen, Hamed ; Giannakis, Elias ; Jebari, Sihem ; Kok, Kasper ; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd ; Magjar, Manca ; Arano, Inazio Martinez de; Robert, Nicolas ; Smolar-Žvanut, Nataša ; Varela, Elsa ; Zoumides, Christos - \ 2017
Water 8 (2017)12. - ISSN 2073-4441
Adaptation - Climate change - Fuzzy cognitive mapping - Multi-criteria analysis - Participation - River basin - Water management
Climate change is expected to reduce water availability in the Mediterranean region and water management needs to adapt to future conditions. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a participatory approach for identifying and evaluating management options for river basin climate adaptation and (2) to apply and evaluate the approach in four case-study river basins across the Mediterranean. As part of the approach, a diverse group of stakeholders joined a series of workshops and consultations in four river basins located in Cyprus, Slovenia, Spain and Tunisia. In each river basin, stakeholders expressed their views on challenges in their river basins, as well as options to tackle these challenges. We used the information on challenges, as well as the factors contributing to these challenges to develop a fuzzy cognitive map for each basin. These maps were converted into mathematical models and were used to assess the impact of a total of 102 suggested management options for the four river basins. We linked the options and their estimated impacts with a multi-criteria analysis to identify the most preferred options. The approach was positively evaluated by the participating stakeholders and allowed the link of stakeholders' knowledge and perceptions about their river basin with their preferences for options to adapt the management of their river basins to future conditions.
Community-based biological control of malaria mosquitoes using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda : Community awareness, acceptance and participation
Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Hakizimana, Emmanuel ; Rulisa, Alexis ; Kateera, Fredrick ; Borne, Bart Van Den; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo ; Mutesa, Leon ; Vugt, Michelle van; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Takken, Willem ; Alaii, Jane - \ 2017
Malaria Journal 16 (2017). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 13 p.
Acceptance - Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis - Community knowledge - Larval source management - Malaria - Participation - Rwanda - 017-4036

Background: Targeting the aquatic stages of malaria vectors via larval source management (LSM) in collaboration with local communities could accelerate progress towards malaria elimination when deployed in addition to existing vector control strategies. However, the precise role that communities can assume in implementing such an intervention has not been fully investigated. This study investigated community awareness, acceptance and participation in a study that incorporated the socio-economic and entomological impact of LSM using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in eastern Rwanda, and identified challenges and recommendations for future scale-up. Methods: The implementation of the community-based LSM intervention took place in Ruhuha, Rwanda, from February to July 2015. The intervention included three arms: control, community-based (CB) and project-supervised (PS). Mixed methods were used to collect baseline and endline socio-economic data in January and October 2015. Results: A high perceived safety and effectiveness of Bti was reported at the start of the intervention. Being aware of malaria symptoms and perceiving Bti as safe on other living organisms increased the likelihood of community participation through investment of labour time for Bti application. On the other hand, the likelihood for community participation was lower if respondents: (1) perceived rice farming as very profitable; (2) provided more money to the cooperative as a capital; and, (3) were already involved in rice farming for more than 6 years. After 6 months of implementation, an increase in knowledge and skills regarding Bti application was reported. The community perceived a reduction in mosquito density and nuisance biting on treated arms. Main operational, seasonal and geographical challenges included manual application of Bti, long working hours, and need for transportation for reaching the fields. Recommendations were made for future scale-up, including addressing above-mentioned concerns and government adoption of LSM as part of its vector control strategies. Conclusions: Community awareness and support for LSM increased following Bti application. A high effectiveness of Bti in terms of reduction of mosquito abundance and nuisance biting was perceived. The study confirmed the feasibility of community-based LSM interventions and served as evidence for future scale-up of Bti application and adoption into Rwandan malaria vector control strategies.

Watered-down politics? Inclusive water governance in the Netherlands
Roth, Dik ; Vink, Martijn ; Warner, Jeroen ; Winnubst, Madelinde - \ 2017
Ocean & Coastal Management 150 (2017). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 51 - 61.
Flood risk management - Inclusion - Participation - The Netherlands - Water governance
In the past decades Dutch flood defence infrastructure has met with a growing societal awareness of landscape and cultural values, of the importance of local livelihoods, and increasingly strong claims and demands for active citizen involvement in decision-making and planning processes that change people's life-worlds. These have wrought important political and institutional changes in the flood security domain: participatory and environmental procedures are now part and parcel of flood defence decision making. This article points at the contradictions in Dutch-style inclusive decision-making. Water problems, it is assumed, are better tackled by more inclusive decision-making processes, while more integrated regional land-use planning is explored to accommodate multiple interests. Yet, greater scope for participation seems to go with a strong tendency towards depoliticization. In the process the stakes may become so fuzzy that participants risk losing interest in participating and may ‘exit’ or ‘voice’ in different fora. In some cases, participatory processes were still in train when a decision had already been taken. Echoing the concerns of Chantal Mouffe and others, we will argue that ‘the political’ may also be obscured at the peril of turning out self-defeating. This calls into question whether in the case of the Netherlands ‘inclusive governance’ is always progress. We focus on how these processes have been and are governed, what this means in terms of ‘stakeholder involvement’, and whether ‘inclusiveness’ is always the solution. We review a number of experiences in Dutch coastal, lake and river landscapes — the River Meuse, the Overdiepse polder, and the IJsselmeer — with a special focus on the ‘governance’ aspects in relation to the issue of inclusiveness in the decision-making processes involved.
FCMs as a common base for linking participatory products and models
Vliet, M. Van; Flörke, M. ; Varela-Ortega, C. ; Çakmak, E.H. ; Khadra, R. ; Esteve, P. ; D’Agostino, D. ; Dudu, H. ; Bärlund, I. ; Kok, K. - \ 2016
In: Environmental Modeling with Stakeholders / Gray, S., Paolisso, M., Jordan, R., Gray, S., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319250519 - p. 145 - 169.
Fuzzy cognitive maps - Mathematical model - Participation - Stakeholder - System dynamics

Stakeholder involvement in modeling studies is increasing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are emerging as a promising tool to provide a common base for stakeholders and modelers. FCMs developed by stakeholders from three local Mediterranean case studies are used to construct a stakeholder based FCM. This is done via a workshop in which the locally developed FCMs are merged by regional experts. Graphs and quasi-dynamic output are then compared with an FCM based on a mathematical model (WaterGAP). This model-based FCM was developed in a small workshop by WaterGAP modelers, based on their knowledge of the model. Results show that FCMs indeed have the ability to serve as a common base for linking participatory products and models. The quasi-dynamic output helps to get a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in the two system descriptions. The comparisons showed that FCM is a very promising tool for linking stakeholders and modelers. It can function as a common base for comparison and to illustrate differences between stakeholder perceptions and models in detail. The system dynamics of FCMs can play an important role in the comparison between system perspectives and the dissemination process.

Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda
Ingabire, Chantal Marie ; Hakizimana, Emmanuel ; Kateera, Fredrick ; Rulisa, Alexis ; Borne, Bart Van Den; Nieuwold, Ingmar ; Muvunyi, Claude ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Vugt, Michele Van; Mutesa, Leon ; Alaii, Jane - \ 2016
Malaria Journal 15 (2016)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
Community - Empowerment - Engagement - Intervention mapping - Involvement - Malaria - Participation - Rwanda
Background: Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Methods: Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. Results: The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and increase in community-based health insurance membership, also considered as a predictor of prompt and adequate care. The innovative larval source control intervention contributed to reduction in mosquito density and nuisance bites, increased knowledge and skills for malaria control as well as programme ownership. Conclusion: This community-based programme demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of active community participation in malaria control activities, which largely contributed to community empowerment and reduction of presumed malaria in the area. Further studies should explore how gains may be sustained to achieve the goal of malaria pre-elimination.
Citizen science regarding invasive lionfish in Dutch Caribbean MPAs : Drivers and barriers to participation
Carballo-Cárdenas, Eira C. ; Tobi, Hilde - \ 2016
Ocean & Coastal Management 133 (2016). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 114 - 127.
Citizen science - Invasive lionfish - Marine protected areas - Motivations - Participation

Understanding the drivers and barriers to participation in citizen science initiatives for conservation is important if long-term involvement from volunteers is expected. This study investigates the motivations of individuals from five marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Dutch Caribbean to (not) participate in different initiatives around lionfish. Following an interpretive approach, semi-structured interviews with seventy-eight informants were conducted and analyzed using thematic network analysis. Approximately 60% (n = 48) of informants indicated that they had participated in citizen science initiatives at the outset of the invasion. From this group, almost half said that they still participated in some type of data collection, but only a few did so within a citizen science context. Many informants were initially motivated to participate in lionfish detection and response initiatives due to concern for the environment. Personal meanings attached to both the data collection experiences and to the data influenced informants’ motivations to sustain or cease data collection and/or sharing. In time, the view of lionfish as a threat changed for many informants as this species’ recreational and/or commercial value increased. Enabling and constraining factors for data collection and sharing were identified at the personal, interpersonal, organizational and technical levels. Our findings have implications for the design of future citizen science initiatives focused on invasive species.

An applied methodology for stakeholder identification in transdisciplinary research
Leventon, Julia ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Claringbould, Heleen ; Schwilch, Gudrun ; Hessel, Rudi - \ 2016
Sustainability Science 11 (2016)5. - ISSN 1862-4065 - p. 763 - 775.
Interdisciplinarity - Participation - Soil degradation - Sustainability

In this paper we present a novel methodology for identifying stakeholders for the purpose of engaging with them in transdisciplinary, sustainability research projects. In transdisciplinary research, it is important to identify a range of stakeholders prior to the problem-focussed stages of research. Early engagement with diverse stakeholders creates space for them to influence the research process, including problem definition, from the start. However, current stakeholder analysis approaches ignore this initial identification process, or position it within the subsequent content-focussed stages of research. Our methodology was designed as part of a research project into a range of soil threats in seventeen case study locations throughout Europe. Our methodology was designed to be systematic across all sites. It is based on a snowball sampling approach that can be implemented by researchers with no prior experience of stakeholder research, and without requiring significant financial or time resources. It therefore fosters transdisciplinarity by empowering physical scientists to identify stakeholders and understand their roles. We describe the design process and outcomes, and consider their applicability to other research projects. Our methodology therefore consists of a two-phase process of design and implementation of an identification questionnaire. By explicitly including a design phase into the process, it is possible to tailor our methodology to other research projects.

Governing ecosystem services : National and local lessons from policy appraisal and implementation
Verburg, René ; Selnes, Trond ; Verweij, Pita - \ 2016
Ecosystem Services 18 (2016). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 186 - 197.
Ecosystem services approach - Participation - Policy practice - Stakeholders

The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem, approach and solution frame. At the national level (United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands) TEEB is mainly used to develop integrated decision making. In policy documents the importance of clearly formulated divisions of tasks is emphasised, while the practical implementation is transferred to lower government levels and stakeholders from the private sector. At the local level explorative studies are implemented, while a shared vision is often a major outcome of such processes. Shared visions are directed to incentives and management plans and also point to new societal challenges for future development. The uptake of an ecosystem services approach requires new types of contracts, ample resources, sufficient knowledge and new modes of governance to attract societal involvement. The research suggests that long term engagement of stakeholders in the participatory processes was however not guaranteed due to insufficient resources.

Knowledge co-production in practice : Enabling environmental management systems for ports through participatory research in the Dutch Wadden Sea
Puente-Rodríguez, Daniel ; Slobbe, Erik van; Al, Iris A.C. ; Lindenbergh, D.E.D. - \ 2016
Environmental Science & Policy 55 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 456 - 466.
Coastal zone management - Environmental management systems - Knowledge co-production - Participation - Ports - Science and technology studies - Wadden Sea

Coastal zone management is inconceivable without the mobilization and integration of different types of knowledge - that is, without knowledge co-production practices. This article applies the concept of knowledge co-production to analyze the process of emergence, standardization, and enculturation of environmental management systems (EMSs) within port communities in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Moreover, it is a report from the field in which we reflect on the participatory practices conducted to facilitate the knowledge arrangements required to develop EMSs for a group of ports. The article concludes that this type of knowledge arrangement and co-production practices (involving different types of actors and knowledge) might become mandatory in the near future to stabilize the EMS phenomenon in the practices of ports.

Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas
Katikiro, R.E. ; Macusi, E.D. ; Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M. - \ 2015
Marine Policy 51 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 220 - 229.
Community-based - Legitimate stakeholders - Marine managed areas - MBREMP - Participation - Resistance

This study explores how the history and process of establishing a marine protected area (MPA) under the control of the state has led to limited interest in community-based management amongst local stakeholders. The study contributes to the understanding of historical events that have discouraged the take-off and scale-up of community-based conservation approaches, such as locally-managed marine areas (LMMAs). LMMAs are being promoted increasingly as a desirable approach in marine conservation. However, there are a limited numbers of cases where such initiatives have been used as a strategy for marine management in sub-Saharan Africa, and very few operational examples of such schemes exist in the Western Indian Ocean region. Through semi-structured questionnaires, 193 community members selected randomly from 15 villages of the Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP), Mtwara district, Southern Tanzania, were interviewed about their attitudes towards efforts to promote local management and the conservation of marine resources. The study also involved 17 focus group discussions, 13 in-depth key informant interviews, participant observation, and a review of secondary information. Over 85% of the questionnaire respondents commented that there was insufficient participation by legitimate community representatives in the development of the MBREMP. Almost 90% of the respondents agreed that the management of marine areas has increased significantly, particularly in the last two decades following initiatives by the government, donors and external NGOs. However, 70% of the questionnaire responders had observed that a rapid shift from centralised to community-based management has been hindered by a lack of acceptable community rules and by communities frequently equating conservation with prohibition. Developing LMMAs in areas based on the lessons learned from MPAs could be a better alternative to developing entirely new community-managed areas; however, this can only succeed if limitations including the key principles of community participation and empowerment are addressed.

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