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Hydrosocial territories, agro-export and water scarcity : capitalist territorial transformations and water governance in Peru’s coastal valleys
Damonte, Gerardo ; Boelens, Rutgerd - \ 2019
Water International 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 206 - 223.
agro-export - food security - hydrosocial territory - Ica - Peru - rural-urban relationships - Water governance
In recent decades, an agro-export boom has deeply transformed Peru’s coastal valleys, resulting in dramatic territorial changes and social inequality in the Ica Valley. This article explains how politico-economic and socio-institutional forces have triggered the emergence of a new ‘hydrosocial territory’, transforming the Ica Valley into a virtual-water extraction zone that produces luxury export crops for the North and China. In addition, it shows how these territorial reconfigurations have led to ecological damage, water scarcity and increasing rural–urban inequality sustained by a hegemonic development discourse that supports agribusiness-elite territorial dominance and discourages social unrest.
Data from: A 7000-year history of changing plant trait composition in an Amazonian landscape; the role of humans and climate
Sande, M.T. van der; Gosling, W. ; Correa-Metrio, A. ; Prado-Junior, J. ; Poorter, L. ; Oliveira, R.S. ; Mazzei, L. ; Bush, M. - \ 2019
Amazon - charcoal - climate change - erosion - fire - fossil pollen - functional traits - human disturbance - Peru - tropical forest
Tropical forests are shifting in species and trait composition, but the main underlying causes remain unclear because of the short temporal scales of most studies. Here, we develop a novel approach by linking functional trait data with 7000 years of forest dynamics from a fossil pollen record of Lake Sauce in the Peruvian Amazon. We evaluate how climate and human disturbances affect community trait composition. We found weak relationships between environmental conditions and traits at the taxon level, but strong effects for community-mean traits. Overall, community-mean traits were more responsive to human disturbances than to climate change; human-induced erosion increased the dominance of dense-wooded, non-zoochorous species with compound leaves, and human-induced fire increased the dominance of tall, zoochorous taxa with large seeds and simple leaves. This information can help to enhance our understanding of forest responses to past environmental changes, and improve predictions of future changes in tropical forest composition.
The development and intersection of highland-coastal scale frames: a case study of water governance in central Peru
Grainger, Sam ; Hommes, Lena ; Karpouzoglou, Timos ; Perez, Katya ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Dewulf, Art - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 21 (2019)4. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 373 - 390.
highland watershed conservation - Peru - Scale framing - urban water supply - visualisations - water governance
Scale framing makes an important difference to how complex environmental policy issues are defined and understood by different groups of actors. Increasing urban water demand and uncertain future climatic conditions in the Andes present major water governance challenges for the coastal regions of Peru. An understudied dimension of Peruvian water governance is how scale framing shapes the way problems are defined, and solutions are pursued. Here, we aim to strengthen the understanding of scale framing as it relates to highland-coastal interactions in central Peru between 2004 and 2015. By analysing this period of significant water governance reforms, we identify five prominent water-related frame dimensions and three differently scaled policy storylines and reveal how they developed and intersected over time. The storylines, supported by particular visualisations, either foreground ‘urbanshed’-level investment in water supply infrastructure, community-level cultural restoration for improved local agricultural production, or nationwide watershed-level financial mechanisms for highland ecosystem conservation. Our study shows how the intersection of these storylines at different moments during the policy process often had a strengthening effect, creating a coalition of actors who were then able to generate sufficient momentum and support within the Peruvian government for the implementation of conservation-based watershed investments.
Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions in mountain areas-Lessons learned from a 5-country project to upscale best practices
Bernet, Thomas ; Kurbanalieva, Shakhnoza ; Pittore, Katherine ; Zilly, Barbara ; Luttikholt, Louise ; Eyhorn, Frank ; Batlogg, Verena ; Arbenz, Markus - \ 2018
Mountain Research and Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 0276-4741 - p. 278 - 287.
Ethiopia - Kyrgyzstan - Mountain agriculture - Nepal - nutrition - Pakistan - Peru - rural development policy
Many people living in mountain regions in lowand middle-income countries are vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity, which contributes to poor nutritional status. Food and nutrition security require stability of access to affordable, safe, diverse, and nutritious foods. In mountainous areas, affordability and access to diverse foods are challenged by climatic factors constraining agricultural production, poor infrastructure, and geographic isolation. This article describes a nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) project focusing on 5 countries-Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Peru-where 132 microinterventions were implemented by rural service providers (RSPs) who received training and technical support from the project. These microinterventions serve as learning cases for advocacy work to promote the NSA approach at the local, national, and global levels. They are also documented on an Internet platform allowing RSPs and other stakeholders to share best practices and lessons learned at the national and global levels. Preliminary results indicate that this approach is highly effective in addressing nutrition and livelihood issues in remote mountain areas. To scale up the approach and boost its integration into policies at the local, national, and global levels, 2 aspects will be critical. First, more systemic and integrated NSA initiatives need to be implemented that functionally combine production- A nd consumption-related aspects to effectively change nutrition behavior and serve as learning cases for scaling up. Second, effective capacity development of RSPs and encouragement of interaction among them is key to empowering them as change agents.
Interspecies Respect and Potato Conservation in the Peruvian Cradle of Domestication
Angé, Olivia ; Chipa, Adrian ; Condori, Pedro ; Ccoyo, Aniceto Ccoyo ; Mamani, Lino ; Pacco, Ricardo ; Quispe, Nazario ; Quispe, Walter ; Sutta, Mariano - \ 2018
Conservation and Society 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 30 - 40.
affect - agrobiodiversity - Andes - conservation - Cuzco Highlands - ethics - interspecies sociality - non-human charisma - Peru - potato - respect
This paper explores people and tuber affective encounters, as they unfold in a biodiversity conservation programme in the Peruvian Andes. It draws on ethnographic data from the Potato Park, renowned worldwide as one of the most successful in-situ initiatives for the conservation of biocultural diversity. Concerned with interspecies relations, the paper focusses on the circulation of respeto that is both an affect and a normative stance posited locally as necessary for the conservation of the potato. Addressing first expressions of respeto in daily potato practices by highland peasants, the paper then explores its importance within the context of the Park's conservation policy. Agricultural investigations and seed-banking are indeed enmeshed in activities intended to intensify potato-people regard. Throughout the paper, the concept of non-human charisma is used to point out the different kinds of potato appraisals experienced in the Park; as well as how the Park concretely works toward human beings' learning 'how to be affected' by tuber agrobiodiversity. The article finally explains how potato affective agency is extended beyond the Park, to reach the international scene. Exploring the Potato Park from the perspective of respeto, and using charisma as a heuristic tool, it enlightens a mode of conservation initiative; creating flourishing ecologies through affective encounters, that cannot be accounted for with an instrumental approach.
Water footprints and 'pozas' : Conversations about practices and knowledges ofwater efficiency
Domínguez Guzmán, Carolina ; Verzijl, Andres ; Zwarteveen, Margreet - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)1. - ISSN 2073-4441
(poza) irrigation - Ethnography - Knowledge practices - Mango export - Peru - Water footprint
In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other and to discuss what happens when the two logics meet. Rather than treating the Water Footprint as scientific, in the sense that it is separate from traditions or politics, and Motupe poza irrigation as cultural and, therefore, thick with local beliefs and superstitions, we describe both as consisting of intricate entanglements of knowledge and culture. This produces a more or less level playing field for the two water logics to meet and for proponents of each to enter into a conversation with one another; allowing furthermore for the identification of what Water Footprint inventors and promotors can learn from poza irrigators, and vice versa. The article concludes that important water wisdom may get lost when the Water Footprint logic becomes dominant, as is currently about to happen in Peru.
Questioning the effectiveness of planned conflict resolution strategies in water disputes between rural communities and mining companies in Peru
Sosa Landeo, Milagros ; Zwarteveen, Margreet - \ 2016
Water International 41 (2016)3. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 483 - 500.
conflict resolution - mining - Peru - socio-environmental conflicts - Water governance
Disputes between mining companies and surrounding communities over the access to, control of and distribution of water form an important part of the socio-environmental conflicts that large mining operations in Peru are producing. In order to mitigate environmental impacts, solve conflicts and deal with opposition to mining operations, governmental actors and mining companies make use of a combination of legal and technical strategies. This article questions the effectiveness of these strategies, focusing in particular on the longer-term sustainability of water resources, water-based ecosystems and livelihoods. Based on research carried out in the surroundings of the Yanacocha gold mine in Cajamarca, the article shows that although legal and technical conflict resolution strategies are effective in temporarily diffusing tensions, they do not address the underlying political causes of conflicts. Instead of these seemingly objective, neutral and quick solutions, the analysis suggests that solving environmental conflicts around large-scale mining operations requires explicitly admitting and dealing with the fact that these conflicts are always inherently political, situated, complex and power-laden.
Senecio canoi (Compositae), Una especie nueva de los Andes de Perú
Montesinos, Daniel ; Gonzáles, Paúl ; Navarro, Eduardo - \ 2015
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 72 (2015)2. - ISSN 0211-1322
Asteraceae - New species - Peru - Puno - Senecio
Senecio canoi, a new species of Compositae of the high Andes of Southern Peru, Puno department, is described and illustrated. Senecio canoi is a perennial species differing from others in the ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi by having tufted habit, oblong-spathulate leaves with toothed margin, glabrous, and white flowers.
Constuccion social de comuninad y migración en Usibamba : un estudio sobre el impacto de los procesos de globalización en los Andes centrales del Perú
Gilvonio Perez, J.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Pieter de Vries. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049197 - 239
plattelandsgemeenschappen - landbouwsituatie - sociale verandering - modernisering - globalisering - migratie - platteland - dorpen - Peru - andes - economische verandering - rural communities - agricultural situation - social change - modernization - globalization - migration - rural areas - villages - Peru - andes - economic change
The research for the thesis was conducted in the village of Usibamba, located in a high-Andean area called Alto Cunas east from the Mantaro Valley in the Peruvian Central Andes. Special attention was paid to the institutional context and the everyday life conditions in which the social construction of community takes place. The thesis focuses on ongoing changes in agrarian situations relating to processes of modernization, globalization and different kinds of migration experiences (both national and international). The research consisted of surveys, interviews and the selection of case studies as a means to develop an actor oriented ethnography adapted for the study of social transformations in rural areas.
The dynamic of the community was analyzed from the perspective of the everyday experiences of a diversity of social actors. Different kinds of life situations were selected such as being part of a family, a neighborhood and a peasant community, taking up authority positions and engaging in new endeavors, such as migration, that require the establishment of new types of social relationships. The following topics were studied: transformations in property relations, land use and possession, changes in community governance, communal life and local forms of organization, as well as changing notions of what it means to be a villager and a member of the peasant community institution (the comunidad). These latter changes are important factors in the creation of a diversity of social networks and relationships inside and outside the locality as well as in the constitution of a local identity. An additional factor influencing the constitution of such a local identity is the high level of competition between different villages, all differentially affected by experiences with national and international forms of migration. As a result past social networks based on relations of kin were redefined. Presently such networks have become more extended and have led to the production of de-territorialized forms of community practices.
In contrast to other anthropological approaches to the study of Andean communities a constructivist approach is used in order to document and analyze the impacts of globalization processes. In other words these impacts were studied taking as a point of departure experiences and situations internal to the Andean community while taking into account external factors, thus viewing the community as an entity that is continuously being reformulated. This approach made it possible to assess structural modifications in the functioning of the community, changes in the relationship with the state, peasant responses to the globalization of local and regional markets, as well as participation in social networks that extended far outside the locality of Alto Cunas. In short, the socio-cultural process of community construction were studied from the point of view of the livelihoods and lifeworlds of Andean comuneros in a context of globalization that entailed the incorporation of all sorts of values and practices resulting from the migration experience.
The thesis is composed of 6 chapters. In the first chapter the literature on Andean studies is reviewed paying special attention to the chosen theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as to the kinds of preoccupations and representations of Andean reality these frameworks engaged with. An historical analysis of the most important ethnographic researches undertaken by Peruvian and foreign anthropologists is presented within the light of the dominant theoretical currents that were in vogue at the time they were written. Also, reference is made to works analyzing historical transformations in Peru and the Central Andes in particular since the 1970’s. These include works undertaken from an actor perspective. Subsequently the central theoretical ideas are presented. The first chapter ends with some methodological reflections which were developed during field work. Concepts such as livelihoods, lifeworlds, human agency and social networks constitute the theoretical and conceptual framework used in this thesis.
In Chapter 2 a dynamic vision of the locality of Usibamba is presented. Usibamba is a locality in the sense that it is both an administrative entity, a village and district, and a peasant community. Community life is both constituted through a diversity of social events taking place in the midst of the village and the comunidad, as well as in mundane contexts pertaining to family life. These social spaces are full of differences, conflicts and contrasting views, as well as mutual agreements, and mechanisms for reaching consensus. This description of the comunidad contrasts with idyllic representations of the comunidad as constituting a world constituted by forms of reciprocity and mutual support. This chapter thus criticizes essentialist notions of Andean cosmology and (neo)-indigeneism.
In Chapter 3 I study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Here we study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Land in particular is a scarce resource due to demographic growth and as a result property and tenure relations have been subject to change. Neo-liberal privatization models have played an important role in shaping these changes. In order to visualize the process of social construction of community I include in the analysis a number of internal conflicts for resources as part of struggles surrounding what villagers call ‘land division and restructuring ’. These struggles are recurrent and take place after long periods during which land comes to be concentrated in the hands of a restricted number of families. The historical backdrop to these events is the land reform program implemented in Peru since 1969. The deactivation and dissolution of the Communal Enterprise of Usibamba is analyzed as part of a lager process of land restructuring and division that took place under the threat of violent subversive forces (the Shining Path). Together with the rise of a new category of actors - the migrants – this process led to the formation of another arena of dispute and negotiation over communal resources. Finally, I offer a dynamic vision of the significance and role of the community for comuneros.
Chapter 4 centers on the role of the state in local power relations by focusing on the desire of Usibambinos to upgrade the administrative status of their village by converting it into a district. The strivings for the creation of new districts as part of a program of regional administrative decentralization in rural areas in Peru constitutes an internal dynamic that underpins the permanent reorganization of the Peruvian state. In a context of a weak presence or even absence of the state it is important to pay attention to the importance villagers pay to the administrative status of the locality they inhabit. Interestingly, at the same time they refuse to downplay the role of the peasant community, which in fact is one of the objectives of these programs. To be a district signifies inhabiting a privileged political and social space vis-à-vis the state, and with the external world, and it is within such a symbolic space that power relations unfold and that forms of local leadership are forged. The peasant community as a political springboard plays a central role in the strategies that these local leaders develop in order to capture political positions at district level.
Chapter 5 discusses the contrasting notions and visions that diverse social categories entertain about the community. Chapter 6 centers on the process of international labor migration to the United States of America by sheep shepherds. Special attention is paid to their perceptions and decisions to migrate, the skills they acquire during the migration experiences as well as the extension, operation and use of social networks that transcend the village and the communal institution. Also the images and notions of community developed by migrants are discussed. In addition I explore the development of new types of social networks among ‘successful’ migrants who use their savings to move to the valley cities of Chupaca and Huancayo. Also the example of social support relations established by ‘sons of residents’ in order to facilitate access to jobs is analyzed. Finally, the establishment and consolidation of other social networks, outside the locality but based on relations of kin and community is studied by centering on the Transport Enterprise Alto Cunas, founded by former shepherd migrants. The thesis ends with the conclusions.
The rules of the game and the game of the rules : normalization and resistance in Andean water control
Boelens, R.A. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; H. Achterhuis. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085048961 - 573
irrigatiewater - irrigatiesystemen - waterbeheer - gemeenschappen - watergebruik - waterverdeling - waterbeleid - gebergten - Peru - Ecuador - Chili - Zuid-Amerika - waterrechten - andes - staat - irrigation water - irrigation systems - water management - communities - water use - water distribution - water policy - mountains - Peru - Ecuador - Chile - South America - water rights - andes - state - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)