- Bastiaan G. Meerburg (2)
- Claire Garros (1)
- A.J. Haverkort (1)
- Johan P.M. Ploegaert (1)
- David R. George (1)
- Bruce Schoelitsz (1)
- J.M. Steyn (1)
- Willem Takken (1)
- Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp (1)
- J.E. Waals van der (1)
Livestock pests and vector-borne diseases - A much neglected subject
Takken, Willem ; Bouyer, Jérémy ; Smallegange, Renate C. ; Garros, Claire - \ 2018
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases ) - ISBN 9789086863150 - p. 11 - 14.
Arthropods - Control - Livestock - Pests - Prevention - Vector-borne disease
Worldwide the livestock industry, from small farmers to large industrialized farms, is affected by arthropods and arthropod-borne diseases at various scales, which cause huge losses and are a constraint to socio-economic development. Farmers make considerable efforts to prevent and control pest and disease incidence, often requiring the use of vaccines, if available, drugs and pesticides. Examples of current problems are presented, to set the stage for the detailed and state-of-the-art presentations of specific cases of livestock pests and their associated diseases and modern methods of prevention and control.
Biosecurity : Methods to reduce contact risks between vectors and livestock
Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Schoelitsz, Bruce - \ 2018
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases ) - ISBN 9789086863150 - p. 453 - 464.
Biosecurity - Framework - Livestock - Pest management - Pests
In order to prevent direct contact between livestock and pest animals and thus decrease the risk of pathogen transmission, the implementation of preventive or sometimes even curative measures is required. The concept of biosecurity refers to implementation of such measures, but it is difficult to quantify the results as the situation between farms may vary substantially. In this chapter we investigate the position of biosecurity and the evolution of this concept, especially in relation to pest management. We stress the need for such a strategy not only because of the potential transmission of (zoonotic) pathogens to livestock, which can have significant consequences for livestock health and the food chain, but also because of structural damage to buildings and crops. As there are large differences in both farm conditions and between vectors, implementation of a pest management strategy can come with serious difficulties. Thus, we present a generic framework that helps to develop a more tailor-made approach for a pest management strategy on farms, which will hopefully contribute to more effective interventions.
Structured design of an automated monitoring tool for pest species
Mul, Monique F. ; Ploegaert, Johan P.M. ; George, David R. ; Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2016
Biosystems Engineering 151 (2016). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 126 - 140.
Arthropods - Dermanyssus gallinae - Laying hens - Methodical design - Pests - Poultry Red Mite - 017-3972
Pests and diseases in agricultural systems cause severe production losses with associated economic impact. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable method to limit these losses. For improved implementation of IPM, fully automated monitoring tools are needed to provide instantaneous pest monitoring data and associated real time, user-friendly treatment advice for producers. The application of the Reflexive Interactive Design approach to design an automated pest monitoring tool including an automated pest detection sensor is described with Poultry Red Mite (PRM) as a model target. Three different concepts were designed for the automated mite detection sensor based on a combination of solutions to carry out the key functions. The functioning of the main solutions in the three concepts was tested with live mites to ensure that solutions aligned with the behaviour and biology of PRM in vivo. The best solutions were combined into two different prototypes, which were subsequently tested in the laboratory and on-farm. The most successful prototype of the automated mite detection sensor was situated under the bird's perch, had a through-beam sensor and was able to remove mites from the through-beam sensor area once recorded. Involvement of various multidisciplinary actors, users and varied user networks in the design process was vital for its rapid progress, the quality of the final product and the limited number of set-backs encountered. It is expected that this same design structure, with the addition of an evaluation step, is applicable to the design of automated monitoring tools for other pest species.
Grower perceptions of biotic and abiotic risks of potato production in South Africa
Waals, J.E. van der; Steyn, J.M. ; Franke, A.C. ; Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2016
Crop Protection 84 (2016). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 44 - 55.
Abiotic risks - Climate change - Grower knowledge - Pathogens - Pests - Potatoes - South Africa - Technology transfer
Growers' surveys took place in all sixteen potato growing regions of South Africa in 2013 and 2014. The agro-ecological climate of these regions is diverse and potato is produced in rainy or dry seasons, in winter or summer seasons, or year round. Growers were asked how often in ten years crops suffered more than 25% yield losses due to extreme weather events related to precipitation events such as hail, floods and droughts, and to temperature-related events such as frost and heat waves. Simultaneously they were asked their opinion about occurrence and severity of diseases caused by potato viruses, fungi and bacteria and pests such as nematodes, tuber moths, aphids and leaf miners. Weather related hazards resulted in losses over 25% virtually each year in the Gauteng growing region due to hail, frosts and floods; losses occurred less than once every five years, for example due to extremely high temperatures, in the Sandveld area where growers take a risk by producing potatoes in hot summers. Regarding the biotic factors, every pest or pathogen assessed was reported to occur on at least one farm in each growing region. Countrywide the lowest frequency of 50% was recorded for powdery scab whereas the insects tuber moths, leaf miners and aphids were reported most frequently, by between 88% and 98% of the growers. The complex of silver scurf and black dot resulted in the greatest yield losses in all growing regions, followed closely by tuber moth, early blight and the blackleg/soft rot disease complex. Yield losses due to potato virus Y, potato leaf roll virus and aphids were not reported as being very severe. When the growers' perceptions of severity of biotic factors were accumulated, significant differences between the regions appeared, with the Eastern Cape most prone with an accumulated score of 700 due to an array of pests and diseases, and the North-West with a score of only 50 mainly attributed to root knot nematodes. Growers were also asked how frequently biocides were applied to potato to control soil-borne organisms (nematicide and seed treatment), foliar fungi or insects. There were no significant correlations between frequency of biocide applications and severity of the disease as reflected in yield losses, most likely because growers use biocide applications as insurance against pests and diseases. This is common among crop farmers around the world. Although potato production in South Africa appears to carry more risks than production elsewhere, South African commercial potato growers are economically competitive when compared to growers in other areas of the globe, with comparable planting conditions and risks.