- A.C. Aelst van (1)
- Jedeliza B. Ferrater (1)
- H. Coops (1)
- Sarah Dinteren van (1)
- Finbarr G. Horgan (1)
- J. Graveland (1)
- Harry Gruppen (2)
- Wouter J.C. Bruijn de (2)
- G. Karssen (1)
- M. Moens (1)
- Jean Paul Vincken (2)
- E. Peña de la (1)
Mass spectrometric characterisation of avenanthramides and enhancing their production by germination of oat (Avena sativa)
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Dinteren, Sarah van; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 277 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 682 - 690.
Avena sativa - Avenanthramides - Cereal grain - Germination - LC-MS - Phytoalexin - Plant defence - Poaceae
Avenanthramides are amides, with a phenylalkenoic acid (PA) and an anthranilic acid (AA) subunit, which are secondary metabolites of oat. Oat seeds were germinated, extracted, and the avenanthramides analysed by a combination of UHPLC with ion trap and high resolution ESI-MS. Typical fragmentation pathways with corresponding diagnostic fragments belonging to the PA and AA subunits were identified and summarised in a decision guideline. Based on these findings 28 unique avenanthramides were annotated in the oat seed(ling) extracts, including the new avenanthramide 6f (with a 4/5-methoxy AA subunit). Avenanthramide content increased by 25 times from seed to seedling. Avenanthramides 2p, 2c, and 2f, which are commonly described as the major avenanthramides, represented less than 20% of the total content in the seedlings. Future quantitative analyses should, therefore, include a wider range of avenanthramides to avoid underestimation of the total avenanthramide content.
Structure and biosynthesis of benzoxazinoids : Plant defence metabolites with potential as antimicrobial scaffolds
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Phytochemistry 155 (2018). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 233 - 243.
Antibacterial - Antifungal - Benzoxazinone - Benzoxazolinone - Cereal - Classification - Modification - Plant defence - Poaceae - Synthetic
Benzoxazinoids, comprising the classes of benzoxazinones and benzoxazolinones, are a set of specialised metabolites produced by the plant family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), and some dicots. The family Poaceae in particular contains several important crops like maize and wheat. Benzoxazinoids play a role in allelopathy and as defence compounds against (micro)biological threats. The effectivity of benzoxazinones in these functionalities is largely imposed by the subclasses (determined by N substituent). In this review, we provide an overview of all currently known natural benzoxazinoids and a summary of the current state of knowledge of their biosynthesis. We also evaluated their antimicrobial activity based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values reported in literature. Monomeric natural benzoxazinoids seem to lack potency as antimicrobial agents. The 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one backbone, however, has been shown to be a potential scaffold for designing new antimicrobial compounds. This has been demonstrated by a number of studies that report potent activity of synthetic derivatives of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, which possess MIC values down to 6.25 μg mL−1 against pathogenic fungi (e.g. C. albicans) and 16 μg mL−1 against bacteria (e.g. S. aureus and E. coli). Observations on the structural requirements for allelopathy, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activity suggest that they are not necessarily conferred by similar mechanisms.
Does Nilaparvata lugens gain tolerance to rice resistance genes through conspecifics at shared feeding sites?
Ferrater, Jedeliza B. ; Horgan, Finbarr G. - \ 2016
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 160 (2016)1. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 77 - 82.
Bph3 gene - brown planthopper - contemporaneous feeding - Delphacidae - facilitation - Hemiptera - host plant resistance - oral secretions - Oryza sativa - Poaceae - rice - 016-3963
This study examines the possibility of horizontal and vertical transmission of virulence (the ability to tolerate a given resistant plant or resistance gene) between individuals from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), populations with distinct feeding abilities when their populations share the same feeding sites (virulence acquisition hypothesis). We created optimal conditions for intraspecific interactions on the same rice, Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae), plants between planthoppers from populations with different feeding histories: an ‘avirulent’ population that was continually reared on a susceptible variety, and a ‘virulent’ population that had been selected over several generations on the resistant variety IR62, that possesses the Bph3 gene. We noted that planthoppers attained highest weights on rice plants that had previously been attacked by conspecifics from the IR62-selected population. We also tested the ability of planthoppers to feed on IR62 and the susceptible cv. Taichung Native 1 (TN1) after interacting with individuals from the IR62-selected population on a tolerant rice cultivar (Triveni). Feeding by avirulent planthoppers on both IR62 and TN1 improved after feeding on the same rice plants with virulent planthoppers. Furthermore, the effects were carried over to planthopper progenies. Our preliminary results indicate that feeding by mixed populations that include individuals adapted to feed on resistant varieties potentially accelerates adaptation by N. lugens to rice resistance.
Description of Pratylenchus dunensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae), a root-lesion nematode associated with the dune grass Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link
Peña, E. de la; Moens, M. ; Aelst, A.C. van; Karssen, G. - \ 2006
Nematology 8 (2006)1. - ISSN 1388-5545 - p. 79 - 88.
dutch coastal foredunes - molecular characterization - knot nematode - competition - descriptions - morphology - morphometrics - new species - plant pests - ribosomal DNA - wild relatives - Ammophila arenaria - Elymus farctus - Pratylenchus - Ammophila - Poaceae - Cyperales - monocotyledons - angiosperms - Spermatophyta - plants - eukaryotes - Elymus - invertebrates - animals - Pratylenchidae - nucleotide sequences - plant parasitic nematodes - nematoda - restriction fragment length polymorphism - intergenic DNA - taxonomy - beschrijvingen - morfologie - morfometrie - nieuwe soorten - plantenplagen - ribosomaal DNA - wilde verwanten - Ammophila arenaria - Elymus farctus - Pratylenchus - Ammophila - Poaceae - Cyperales - eenzaadlobbigen - bedektzadigen - Spermatophyta - planten - eukaryoten - Elymus - ongewervelde dieren - dieren - Pratylenchidae - nucleotidenvolgordes - plantenparasitaire nematoden - Nematoda - restrictiefragmentlengtepolymorfisme - intergeen DNA - taxonomie
A root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus dunensis sp. n., is described and illustrated from Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link, a grass occurring abundantly in coastal dunes of Atlantic Europe. The new species is characterised by medium sized (454-579 ¿ m) slender, vermiform, females and males having two lip annuli (sometimes three to four; incomplete incisures only visible with scanning electron microscopy), medium to robust stylet (ca 16 ¿ m) with robust stylet knobs slightly set off, long pharyngeal glands (ca 42 ¿ m), lateral field with four parallel, non-equidistant, lines, the middle ridge being narrower than the outer ones, lateral field with partial areolation and lines converging posterior to the phasmid which is located between the two inner lines of the lateral field in the posterior half of the tail, round spermatheca filled with round sperm, vulva at 78% of total body length and with protruding vulval lips, posterior uterine sac relatively short (ca 19 ¿ m), cylindrical tail (ca 33 ¿ m) narrowing in the posterior third with smooth tail tip and with conspicuous hyaline part (ca 2 ¿ m). Males occur abundantly and present similar characteristics except for smaller dimensions for all morphological characters, but the head region is more truncated in outline than the female, spicule length is ca 15 ¿ m and testis length is ca 195 ¿ m. Nucleotide sequences of the rDNA expansion region D2D3 differed from the morphologically similar species P. penetrans and P. brzeskii that also occur in coastal dunes. These differences are supported by PCR-RFLP of the ITS-rDNA. Pratylenchus dunensis sp. n. was also found parasitising roots of Elymus farctus Viv.
|Verdwijnen van rietgordels in Nederlands; oorzaken, gevolgen en een strategie voor herstel
Graveland, J. ; Coops, H. - \ 1997
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 14 (1997)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 67 - 86.
dijken - kanaaloevers - vegetatie - kanaaloeverbeplantingen - grassen - Poaceae - dykes - canal banks - vegetation - canal plantations - grasses