- Lucas A. Garibaldi (1)
- Tibor Bukovinszki (1)
- Jacobus C. Biesmeijer (1)
- Herbert H.T. Prins (1)
- Juliana Hipólito (1)
- Felix J.J.A. Bianchi (1)
- Frank Jauker (1)
- Georg K.S. Andersson (1)
- David Kleijn (3)
- Esther Klop (1)
- Felix L. Wäckers (1)
- Shudong Luo (1)
- Thijs P.M. Fijen (2)
- Néstor Pérez-Méndez (1)
- Fabrice Requier (1)
- Orianne Rollin (1)
- Joke Verheijen (1)
- Wopke Werf van der (1)
- E.J. Woltering (1)
- Haijun Xiao (1)
- Yi Zou (1)
- S. Zwerver (1)
Complementarity and synergisms among ecosystem services supporting crop yield
Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Requier, Fabrice ; Fijen, Thijs P.M. ; Hipólito, Juliana ; Kleijn, David ; Pérez-Méndez, Néstor ; Rollin, Orianne - \ 2018
Global Food Security 17 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 38 - 47.
Biodiversity - Ecosystem functioning - Pest control - Pollination - Regulatory services - Soil fertility
Understanding how ecosystem services interact to support crop yield is essential for achieving food security. Here we evaluate the interactions among biotic pest regulation, pollination, and nutrient cycling. We found only 16 studies providing 20 analyses of two-way interactions. These studies show that multiple services limit crop yield simultaneously. Complementary effects (no interactions) between ecosystem services were the most common, followed by synergistic effects (positive interactions), while evidence for negative interactions was weak. Most studies evaluated two levels of service delivery, thus did not quantify the functional response of crop yield. Although this function is expected to be non-linear, most studies assume linear relations. We conclude that the lack of evidence for negative interactions has important implications for agricultural management.
Exploring the relationships between landscape complexity, wild bee species richness and reproduction, and pollination services along a complexity gradient in the Netherlands
Bukovinszki, Tibor ; Verheijen, Joke ; Zwerver, S. ; Klop, Esther ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wäckers, Felix L. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Kleijn, David - \ 2017
Biological Conservation 214 (2017). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 312 - 319.
Abundance - Floral resources - Landscape intensification - Pollination - Reproduction - Wild bees
Pollinator communities exhibit variable responses to changing landscape composition. A general expectation is that a decreasing cover of semi-natural habitats negatively affects pollinator reproduction, population size and pollination services, but few studies have investigated the simultaneous effects of landscape complexity on different aspects of pollinator communities and functioning. In 20 agricultural landscape plots the size of an average Dutch farm, we studied how changing landscape complexity affected wild bee abundance, species richness and reproduction. To measure pollination, we placed potted strawberry plants as phytometers in landscapes. Landscape complexity was characterized as the area of semi-natural habitats. In addition, we estimated floral resource abundance in each landscape plot. We expected that i) bee species richness, reproduction and pollination would be positively related to area of semi-natural habitats and flower abundance, and that ii) species richness and reproduction would be positively related to pollination. An increase in semi-natural habitats in landscapes increased both the abundance of cavity-nesting bees colonizing trap nests, and the growth rates of experimental Bombus terrestris L. colonies, but not the species richness of wild bees measured by pan traps. There was only a tendency for higher pollination levels of strawberry plants with higher cover of semi-natural habitats. There was no relationship between species richness and bee reproduction in a landscape and the pollination services. Estimated flower abundance in landscape had a positive effect on bumblebee colony growth only and not on the other variables. Our results suggest that, by improving habitat quality on their farms through establishing more semi-natural habitats or enhancing the flower availability in semi-natural habitats, farmers can promote reproduction of a number of functionally important bee species and the pollination services they provide. Bee species richness, however, seems to be more difficult to enhance and requires more than just creating more of the same type of habitats or flowers.
Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China
Zou, Yi ; Xiao, Haijun ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Jauker, Frank ; Luo, Shudong ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2017
BMC Ecology 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1472-6785
Canola - Compensation - Ecosystem services - Honey bee - Pollination - Pollinator diversity - Wild bee
Background: Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Results: Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Conclusions: Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.
How to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of flower visitation rates by pollinators
Fijen, Thijs P.M. ; Kleijn, David - \ 2017
Basic and Applied Ecology 19 (2017). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 11 - 18.
Crop systems - Minimum observation duration - Observation protocol - Pollination - Species richness - Time of day - Visitation rate - Weather
Regional declines in insect pollinators have raised concerns about crop pollination. Many pollinator studies use visitation rate (pollinators/time) as a proxy for the quality of crop pollination. Visitation rate estimates are based on observation durations that vary significantly between studies. How observation duration relates to the accuracy of the visitation rate estimate is, however, unknown. We studied this relationship using six day-long observations (06:00. h-19:00. h) in leek-seed production fields (totalling 78. h). We analysed beyond which point in time observing longer did not significantly improve the accuracy of the visitation rate estimate (minimum observation duration). We furthermore explored the relationship between the minimum observation duration and visitation rate, time of day and temperature. We found that the minimum observation duration (mean. ±. SD: 24. ±. 11.9. min) was significantly related to visitation rate, where the observation time required to obtain accurate estimates decreased with increasing visitation rate. Minimum observation duration varied greatly between days and between fields but not within days. Within days, the visitation rates differed significantly only between the hour-intervals 06:00. h-07:00. h (lowest visitation rate) and 09:00. h-11:00. h (highest rate). Minimum observation duration decreased up to around 22. °C beyond which it remained fairly stable. Surprisingly, even after three day-long observations on the same plant we found new pollinator species visiting the flowers, suggesting that species-richness estimates based on plant observations alone probably underestimate true species richness. Because especially between-day variation in visitation rate on single plants can be large, reliable estimates of the pollinator visitation rate during the plant's flowering time require observations on multiple days. Standardising the number of pollinators rather than the time to observe (standardised pollinator timing approach: time to n-pollinator visits) may provide more consistent accurate assessments of visitation rate, especially for studies that use gradients in visitation rates to examine the contribution of pollinators to crop pollination.
Woltering, E.J. - \ 2016
In: Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780123948076 - p. 292 - 299.
Abscission - ACC - Ethylene - Ethylene sensitivity - Flower petals - Interorgan signaling - Ion leakage - Membrane integrity - Pollination - Programmed cell death - Proteases - Senescence - Vase life
Current knowledge indicates that flower petal senescence is a form of programmed cell death called vacuolar cell death. In this process the cell first degrades most of the cytoplasm and organelles using an array of degradative enzymes present in the vacuole for reuse of the nutrients. The final step in this process is disruption of the vacuolar membrane by which the hydrolytic enzymes are released to 'finish' what is left of the cell. In ethylene-sensitive flowers, ethylene triggers the cell death process, and flower life can be greatly extended by blocking production or perception of ethylene. This has led to development of very effective chemical treatments with broad application and molecular genetic strategies of potential commercial value. In ethylene-insensitive flowers, the senescence program may be similar to that of ethylene-induced senescence. However, the hormonal or developmental events that trigger the cell death processes in ethylene-insensitive species have not been identified. Many genes and transcriptional regulators with putative roles in senescence have been identified using transcriptomic approaches. Testing their functions in transgenic plants is necessary to design new concepts and treatments for prolonging the life of flowers.