Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Detection of novel QTLs for late blight resistance derived from the wild potato species Solanum microdontum and Solanum pampasense
    Meade, Fergus ; Hutten, Ronald ; Wagener, Silke ; Prigge, Vanessa ; Dalton, Emmet ; Kirk, Hanne Grethe ; Griffin, Denis ; Milbourne, Dan - \ 2020
    Genes 11 (2020)7. - ISSN 2073-4425 - p. 1 - 18.
    Breeding - Late blight - Marker-assisted selection - Phytophthora infestans - Potato - QTL

    Wild potato species continue to be a rich source of genes for resistance to late blight in potato breeding. Whilst many dominant resistance genes from such sources have been characterised and used in breeding, quantitative resistance also offers potential for breeding when the loci underlying the resistance can be identified and tagged using molecular markers. In this study, F1 populations were created from crosses between blight susceptible parents and lines exhibiting strong partial resistance to late blight derived from the South American wild species Solanum microdontum and Solanum pampasense. Both populations exhibited continuous variation for resistance to late blight over multiple field-testing seasons. High density genetic maps were created using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, enabling mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance that were consistently expressed over multiple years in both populations. In the population created with the S. microdontum source, QTLs for resistance consistently expressed over three years and explaining a large portion (21–47%) of the phenotypic variation were found on chromosomes 5 and 6, and a further resistance QTL on chromosome 10, apparently related to foliar development, was discovered in 2016 only. In the population created with the S. pampasense source, QTLs for resistance were found in over two years on chromosomes 11 and 12. For all loci detected consistently across years, the QTLs span known R gene clusters and so they likely represent novel late blight resistance genes. Simple genetic models following the effect of the presence or absence of SNPs associated with consistently effective loci in both populations demonstrated that marker assisted selection (MAS) strategies to introgress and pyramid these loci have potential in resistance breeding strategies.

    Potato consumption, by preparation method and meal quality, with blood pressure and body mass index: The INTERMAP study
    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S. ; Pertiwi, Kamalita ; Stamler, Jeremiah ; Chan, Queenie ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Horn, Linda Van; Daviglus, Martha L. ; Elliott, Paul ; Oude Griep, Linda M. - \ 2020
    Clinical Nutrition 39 (2020)10. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 3042 - 3048.
    Blood pressure - BMI - Nutrient quality - Potato

    Background and aims: Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2696 participants aged 40–59 y in the US and UK samples of the International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Nutrient quality of individual food items and the overall diet was assessed with the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index. Results: No associations with BP or BMI were found for total potato intake nor for boiled, mashed, or baked potatoes or potato-based mixed dishes. In US women, higher intake of fried potato was associated with 2.29 mmHg (95% CI: 0.55, 3.83) higher systolic BP and with 1.14 mmHg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.17) higher diastolic BP, independent of BMI. Higher fried potato consumption was directly associated with a +0.86 kg/m2 difference in BMI (95% CI: 0.24, 1.58) in US women. These associations were not found in men. Higher intakes of fried potato meals with a lower nutritional quality (NRF index≤ 2) were positively associated with systolic (3.88 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.63, 5.53) and diastolic BP (1.62 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.48, 2.95) in US women. No associations with BP were observed for fried potato meals with a higher nutritional quality (NRF index> 2). Conclusions: Fried potato was directly related to BP and BMI in women, but non-fried potato was not. Poor-nutrient quality meals were associated with intake of fried potatoes and higher BP, suggesting that accompanied dietary choices are key mediators of these associations.

    Morphological and physiological responses of the potato stem transport tissues to dehydration stress
    Aliche, Ernest B. ; Prusova-Bourke, Alena ; Ruiz-Sanchez, Mariam ; Oortwijn, Marian ; Gerkema, Edo ; As, Henk Van; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2020
    Planta 251 (2020)2. - ISSN 0032-0935
    Drought - MRI - Phloem - Potato - Sugar transport - Xylem

    Main conclusion: Adaptation of the xylem under dehydration to smaller sized vessels and the increase in xylem density per stem area facilitate water transport during water-limiting conditions, and this has implications for assimilate transport during drought. Abstract: The potato stem is the communication and transport channel between the assimilate-exporting source leaves and the terminal sink tissues of the plant. During environmental stress conditions like water scarcity, which adversely affect the performance (canopy growth and tuber yield) of the potato plant, the response of stem tissues is essential, however, still understudied. In this study, we investigated the response of the stem tissues of cultivated potato grown in the greenhouse to dehydration using a multidisciplinary approach including physiological, biochemical, morphological, microscopic, and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. We observed the most significant effects of water limitation in the lower stem regions of plants. The light microscopy analysis of the potato stem sections revealed that plants exposed to this particular dehydration stress have higher total xylem density per unit area than control plants. This increase in the total xylem density was accompanied by an increase in the number of narrow-diameter xylem vessels and a decrease in the number of large-diameter xylem vessels. Our MRI approach revealed a diurnal rhythm of xylem flux between day and night, with a reduction in xylem flux that is linked to dehydration sensitivity. We also observed that sink strength was the main driver of assimilate transport through the stem in our data set. These findings may present potential breeding targets for drought tolerance in potato.

    Carbon partitioning mechanisms in POTATO under drought stress
    Aliche, Ernest B. ; Theeuwen, Tom P.J.M. ; Oortwijn, Marian ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2020
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 146 (2020). - ISSN 0981-9428 - p. 211 - 219.
    Carbon partitioning - Drought - Gene expression - Potato - Sugar metabolism

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important food crop consumed all over the world, but it is generally sensitive to drought conditions. One of the major physiological processes affected by drought stress is carbon partitioning: the plant's choice of where to allocate its photoassimilates. Our aim was to investigate the molecular factors and possible bottlenecks affecting carbon partitioning during drought. We studied potato cultivars with contrasting drought responses in the greenhouse in the years 2013–2015, and further investigated the expression of genes involved in carbon partitioning and metabolite levels. Our results indicate that one of the most severe effects of drought stress on potato is the arrest of stolon differentiation and formation of tubers. We also identified some physiological traits like stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content as affecting carbon assimilation, partitioning and eventual tuber yield. The gene expressions and biochemical analyses highlight the various tissues prioritized by the plant for assimilate transport during drought stress, and give indications of what distinguishes drought tolerance and sensitivity of cultivated potato. Some of the key genes studied (like Sucrose synthase and Sucrose transporters) may be inclusive breeding targets for drought tolerance in potato.

    Farmers’ willingness to adopt late blight-resistant genetically modified potatoes
    Steur, Hans De; Loo, Ellen J. Van; Maes, Jasmien ; Gheysen, Godelieve ; Verbeke, Wim - \ 2019
    Agronomy 9 (2019)6. - ISSN 2073-4395
    Adoption - Attitude - Belgium - Farmer - Genetic modification - GM - Potato

    The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops remains highly contested in the European Union (EU). While research has mainly focused on public and consumer opinions, few studies have investigated farmers’ reactions towards such crops. This study aims to determine farmers’ willingness to adopt a late blight-resistant (LBR) GM potato cultivar (Bintje) in Flanders, Belgium (n = 384). The findings demonstrate that more than half (54.7%) of the farmers have the intention to adopt this GM potato if it becomes available. Farmers’ willingness to adopt is mainly influenced by ethical concerns about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) (negative) and perceived economic benefits of LBR GM potatoes (positive). Knowledge about GM technology decreases the likelihood of being indifferent, as compared to being willing to adopt or being opposed. As such, efforts to improve knowledge alone would not be considered an effective strategy to improve adoption rates among farmers. Socio-economic concerns about GMOs, environmental benefit perceptions of LBR GM potatoes, and socio-demographic and farm variables were not significant as potential determinants of farmers’ likelihood to adopt this GM potato. Our findings lend support to a potentially favorable climate to introduce this GM potato in Flanders, Belgium, an EU region where opt-out measures to restrict cultivation of approved GM crops were not taken.

    Food, nutrition and health in the Netherlands
    Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. - \ 2019
    In: Nutritional and Health Aspects of Food in Western Europe Elsevier - ISBN 9780128131725 - p. 85 - 108.
    Dutch cheese - Grass land - Health and life style - Herring - Hotchpot - Onion - Polder - Potato - Spice trade - Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) - Whaling

    This chapter provides information on farming, horticulture and fishery in the Netherlands, including its history, and its specific traditional and current food products and related health characteristics. A short description is given on the Dutch agricultural landscape as a result of geological events (depositions of sand, river clay and sea clay) and of human activities (reclaiming large land areas-polders-from inland and sea water areas). In addition, the Dutch North Sea gives ample opportunities for fishing of finfish and shellfish. This sea also opened gates for worldwide (food) trade since several centuries, with great impact in the Dutch Cuisine. Farmer’s food products and the Dutch Cuisine have been described from examples of traditional and local foods in terms of origin, way of production and health characteristics. Nutrition-related conditions have been summarized with regard to life-style; measures for their prevention are described according to the Netherlands Voedingscentrum and illustrated in its Wheel of Five. Finally, some future outlooks have been given on selected Dutch food production systems, and nutrition and health issues.

    Dataset for: Presence of seed-borne pest and pathogens on/in the seed produced by farmers in the province of Cotopaxi
    Navarrete Cueva, Israel ; Andrade, Jorge ; Almekinders, Conny ; Struik, Paul - \ 2019
    Kansas State University
    seed degeneration - nematodes - fungi - viruses - seed tubers - seed damaging insects - Potato - Rhizoctonia - Streptomyces scabies - Fusarium - Silver scurf - Powdery scabs - Andean potato weevil - Potato tuber moth - White grub - Wireworm - Flea beetle - PVS - PVY - PVX - PLRV - APMoV - Globodera pallida - Tylenchus spp. - Pratylenchus spp. - Aphelenchoides spp. - Heterodera spp. - Meloidogyne spp. - Paratylenchus Spp. - Saprophytes - Tylenchorhynchus spp.
    Seed degeneration (PSD) threats potato production in developing countries. PSD is defined as the accumulation of pest and pathogens in/on the seed tuber due to the successive cycles of vegetative propagation leading potentially to a yield and quality reduction (Thomas-Sharma et al., 2016; Pl. Path. [vol 65, issue 1]). However, the understanding of PSD in the Andes is deficient due to the limited comprehension of the spatial distribution of potato seed- and soil- borne pests and pathogens. For this reason, 260 farmers´ seed lots and fields were surveyed in the province of Cotopaxi-Ecuador from September to October 2018. The survey was implemented using a stratified sampling design (stratum = Cantons of Latacunga, Pujilí, Salcedo and Saquisilí). The sample size was defined based on the seed replacement rate reported by farmers in a pilot study previously implemented. In each place, farmers kindly provided a sample of (1 to 10) potato seed tubers depending on their willingness. In addition to it, a soil sample was collected from the closest field to the house after farmers provided oral consent. Symptoms and damages on the seed tubers caused by insects and fungi were visually inspected following the methodology suggested by James (1971, [Canadian pl. dis. survey {vol. 51}]) and the photography guide of the main pests and pathogens of the potato crop in Ecuador (Montesdeoca et al., 2013)(Reported in sheet coined "Insects and Fungi"). Virus identification was carried out on plantlets coming from the tubers assessed previously. This was performed by using the kits and the protocol for DAS-ELISA manufactured and suggested by CIP (2007). Six viruses were identified: PVX, PVS, PVY, APLV, PLRV, and APMoV (Reported in sheet coined "Virus"). Forty three soil samples out of the 260 were selected depending on the farmers’ field altitude and landscape location (Reported in sheet coined "nematodes"). These were sent to the laboratory of Plant Protection of the National Agriculture Research Center (INIAP) for nematodes identification. Nematodes were identified according to the methodologies of Oostenbrink (1960) and Fenwick (1940). It is expected that this database contributes to a deeper knowledge about the presence of seed-borne pests and pathogens in the tropical highlands of Ecuador and to design better seed system interventions.;The dataset contains data about presence of seed-borne pest and pathogens on/in the seed produced by farmers in the province of Cotopaxi.
    Synergy or trade-off? A framework and application to benchmark yield, quality and revenue of potato production
    Wang, N. ; Reidsma, P. ; Wang, Z.Q. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2019
    Field Crops Research 240 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 116 - 124.
    Potato - Quality - Revenue - Trade-off - Yield - Yield gap analysis

    The concept of yield gap is well-known to benchmark yields of crops. However, quality is another major aspect that influences farm revenues and drives management. Increasing yield may not be economically viable if this is at the expense of degrading quality such that revenue is negatively influenced. This study aimed to answer the question whether yield and quality could be maximized at the same time. A framework was developed to assess crop performance based on yield, quality, and revenue. The framework includes seven steps from identifying the important quality traits to quantifying quality gaps and yield gaps and their influence on revenue. The framework enriches the yield gap notion by adding quality aspects. The concept of optimum quality (Qp) was introduced as the quality value (range) of a particular quality trait that is most desired for a specific market. The framework was applied to a case study concerning potato production for a French Fries factory in China. Three quality traits of potato were assessed (i.e., dry matter percentage, tuber size classes, and number of tubers in 10 kg). No trade-off between yield and quality was found for the tested quality traits. The results indicated that there was large scope to improve quality for some of the quality traits. The relative revenue gap (Eg-f) was large (43%), and was attributed to both the relative yield gap (Yg-f, 26%), and quality aspects (i.e., low dry matter percentage and high small tuber weight percentage). Enhancing yield towards its current maximum level (55 ton fresh matter ha−1) was associated with improvement in quality and revenue.

    High light accelerates potato flowering independently of the FT-like flowering signal StSP3D
    Plantenga, Faline D.M. ; Bergonzi, Sara ; Bachem, Christian W.B. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Heuvelink, Ep ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 160 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 35 - 44.
    Daily light integral (DLI) - Flowering - Potato - StSP3D - StTPS1 - Sucrose

    Little is known on the environmental control of potato flowering. With recent developments in potato breeding, and the growing interest in true potato seed production, more knowledge on potato flowering is required. This research aims to elucidate the effect of the daily light integral (DLI: the accumulated light throughout a day) on potato flower initiation time and investigate which mechanisms underlie this control. We grew potato plants in climate chambers to compare flower initiation under different DLIs in short and long days. We measured the time until the first appearance of the flower buds and the number of leaves formed before the inflorescence. Furthermore, gene expression changes of the potato flowering time gene StSP3D were measured, and potato plants silenced in StSP3D were used to determine whether DLI mediated flowering time was regulated through StSP3D. Additionally, we determined sucrose and starch concentrations and measured the transcription levels of StTPS1, a gene involved in sugar mediated flowering control. Increasing DLI clearly accelerated flowering in potato. The role of carbohydrates (sucrose and starch) and StTPS1 in DLI-accelerated flowering was inconclusive. Although StSP3D was upregulated under high DLI, transgenic lines silenced in StSP3D also showed accelerated flowering under higher DLIs. We therefore conclude that high DLI accelerates potato flowering and this acceleration happens independently of StSP3D upregulation.

    Multi-allelic QTL analysis of protein content in a bi-parental population of cultivated tetraploid potato
    Klaassen, Michiel T. ; Bourke, Peter M. ; Maliepaard, Chris ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2019
    Euphytica 215 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-2336
    Alleles - Haplotypes - Potato - Protein content - QTL analysis - Tetraploid

    Protein content is a key quality trait for the potato starch industry. The objective of this study was to identify allele-specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tuber protein content in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) at the tetraploid level. We analysed 496 full-sib F1 clones in a 3-year field trial to dissect the complex genetic architecture of soluble tuber protein content. Genotypic data from a 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used for SNP dosage scoring, constructing homologue specific linkage maps and assembly of a dense integrated chromosomal linkage map. From the integrated map, probabilistic multi-locus identity-by-descent (IBD) haplotypes (alleles) were estimated and used to detect associations between the IBD haplotypes and the phenotypic trait values. Moderate levels of trait heritability were estimated between 40 and 74% that correspond with previous studies. Our contemporary naive analysis identified potential additive QTLs on chromosomes 2, 3, 5 (top arm) and 9 across the years. Moreover, cofactor QTL analysis identified two masked QTLs on chromosomes 1 and 5 (lower arm). The QTLs on chromosomes 2, 5 (lower arm) and 9 are reported here for the first time. The QTLs that we identified on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 (top arm) show overlap with previous studies for protein content in potato. Collectively the naive QTLs explained 12 to 17% of the phenotypic variance. The underlying alleles of the QTLs provided both positive and negative effects on the phenotype. Our work uncovers the complex genetic architecture of this trait and describes potential breeding strategies for improvement. As protein has emerged as a high-value component from industrial potato starch production, the dissection of the genetic architecture and subsequent improvement of this trait by breeding has great economic and environmental relevance.

    Potatoes and livelihoods in Chencha, southern Ethiopia
    Tadesse, Yenenesh ; Almekinders, Conny J.M. ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2019
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 88 (2019). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 105 - 111.
    Agronomy - Asset - Consumption pattern - Food security - Log-linear analysis - Potato - Production - Wealth category

    Potato is highly productive crop and can provide a cheap and nutritionally-rich staple food. Its potential as a cash generator and source of food is much under-utilized in many emerging economies. In this paper we study the impact of an intervention that introduced improved potato technologies in Chencha, Ethiopia on the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. We collected information through in-depth interviews in order to explore possible pathways of impact on farmers’ livelihoods; and used this information as the basis for designing a household survey. The results show changes in agronomic practices and consumption; these changes were most pronounced among wealthy farmers who participated in the intervention. Farmers used the additional income from potato in different ways: wealthier farmers improved their houses and increased their livestock, whereas poor farmers mainly invested in furniture, cooking utensils, tools and in developing small businesses like selling and buying cereals, milk and weaving products in the local markets. Some wealthy farmers, who did not participate in the project, also derived some indirect benefits from the intervention. This underscores: i) interventions that promote uniform farming technologies in themselves are not always sufficient to improve the livelihoods of poor farmers, and ii) the need to broaden the scope of interventions so as to take into account the resources available to farmers in different wealth categories, and the diversity of strategies that they employ for improving their livelihoods. Our approach allows to understand and describe the different developmental effects of a single technological intervention on the different aspects of farmers’ livelihoods.

    Evidence for selection pressure from resistant potato genotypes but not from fungicide application within a clonal Phytophthora infestans population
    Stellingwerf, J.S. ; Phelan, S. ; Doohan, F.M. ; Ortiz, V. ; Griffin, D. ; Bourke, A. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Cooke, D.E.L. ; Kildea, S. ; Mullins, E. - \ 2018
    Plant Pathology 67 (2018)7. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 1528 - 1538.
    Host resistance - Phytophthora infestans - Population genetics - Potato - SSR genotyping
    Insight into pathogen population dynamics provides a key input for effective disease management of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Phytophthora infestans populations vary from genetically complex to more simple with a few clonal lineages. The presence or absence of certain strains of P. infestans may impact the efficacy of fungicides or host resistance. Current evidence indicates that genetically, the Irish populations of P. infestans are relatively simple with a few clonal lineages. In this study, P. infestans populations were genetically characterized based on samples collected at the national centre for potato breeding during the period 2012-16. The dominance of clonal lineages within this P. infestans population was confirmed and the potential selection pressure of fungicide treatment (2013-15) and host resistance (2016) on this clonal P. infestans population was then investigated. It was found that fungicide products did not notably affect the genetic structure of sampled populations relative to samples from untreated control plants. In contrast, samples taken from several resistant potato genotypes were found to be more often of the EU_13_A2 lineage than those taken from control King Edward plants or potato genotypes with low resistance ratings. Resistant potato varieties Sarpo Mira and Bionica, containing characterized R genes, were found to strongly select for EU_13_A2 strains.
    Diagnosis of management of bacterial wilt and late blight in potato in Ethiopia : A systems thinking perspective
    Damtew, E. ; Tafesse, Shiferaw ; Lie, R. ; Mierlo, B. van; Lemaga, B. ; Sharma, K. ; Struik, P.C. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2018
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86-87 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 12 - 24.
    Bacterial wilt - Complex problems - Disease management - Late blight - Potato - Systems thinking
    Potato is one of the most important food crops for smallholder farmers in the Ethiopian highlands. Diseases, particularly bacterial wilt (caused by Ralstonia solanacearum) and late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans), are among the major constraints of potato production, despite continuous efforts to control them. Bacterial wilt and late blight are complex problems with multiple technical and institutional features, involving multiple actors with different perceptions and understanding, not only of the problem but also of possible solutions. Appreciating such complexity, this study adopted a systems thinking perspective. It aimed to explore actors’ understanding of the complex problem situation and its implication for the management of the diseases at a collective level. Using a multi-stakeholder workshop and in-depth interviews, a qualitative study was conducted with actors that are directly or indirectly involved in the management of the two diseases. Results showed that actors essentially overlooked key systemic problems in the management of the two diseases. This is mainly reflected in actors’ tendency to give event-level responses, shift responsibilities and engage in a mutual blaming to the problem of bacterial wilt and late blight. Lack of a preventive disease management culture, limited recognition of interdependencies among activities of actors, power inequalities, and top-down and linear approaches in information and knowledge sharing are identified as key structural problems that are underrated by the actors. We contend that the most appropriate way forward towards the management of both diseases is designing and implementing management strategies that, on the one hand, are preventive of disease epidemics, and, on the other hand, foster horizontal information sharing, learning and collective action among the local actors in the system. Digital platforms, particularly mobile-based technologies, can play a role in catalyzing new forms of information sharing, broader learning, and collaboration among farmers and local actors.
    Two different R gene loci co-evolved with Avr2 of Phytophthora infestans and confer distinct resistance specificities in potato
    Aguilera-Galvez, C. ; Champouret, N. ; Rietman, H. ; Lin, X. ; Wouters, D. ; Chu, Z. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Vossen, J.H. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Wolters, P.J. ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. - \ 2018
    Studies in Mycology 89 (2018). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 105 - 115.
    Avr gene - Co-evolution - Late blight - Phytophthora infestans - Potato - R gene - Resistance - Solanum
    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease in potato. For sustainable management of this economically important disease, resistance breeding relies on the availability of resistance (R) genes. Such R genes against P. infestans have evolved in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species from North, Central and South America, upon co-evolution with cognate avirulence (Avr) genes. Here, we report how effectoromics screens with Avr2 of P. infestans revealed defense responses in diverse Solanum species that are native to Mexico and Peru. We found that the response to AVR2 in the Mexican Solanum species is mediated by R genes of the R2 family that resides on a major late blight locus on chromosome IV. In contrast, the response to AVR2 in Peruvian Solanum species is mediated by Rpi-mcq1, which resides on chromosome IX and does not belong to the R2 family. The data indicate that AVR2 recognition has evolved independently on two genetic loci in Mexican and Peruvian Solanum species, respectively. Detached leaf tests on potato cultivar ‘Désirée’ transformed with R genes from either the R2 or the Rpi-mcq1 locus revealed an overlapping, but distinct resistance profile to a panel of 18 diverse P. infestans isolates. The achieved insights in the molecular R – Avr gene interaction can lead to more educated exploitation of R genes and maximize the potential of generating more broad-spectrum, and potentially more durable control of the late blight disease in potato.
    Reduced efficacy of fluazinam against Phytophthora infestans in the Netherlands
    Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Lucca, F. ; Förch, M.G. ; Den Bosch, G.B.M. van; Topper, C.G. ; Evenhuis, A. - \ 2018
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 151 (2018)4. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 947 - 960.
    AUDPC - Clonal lineage - Control strategy - Fungicides - Late blight - Potato - Shirlan
    Phytophthora infestans is the causal organism of potato late blight, the most important disease in potato, the second most important arable crop in Europe. The P. infestans population in Europe is well known for its sudden changes in composition. Currently it is composed of a wide variety of genotypes, some of which are dominant clonal lines while others are rare or even unique to a year or location. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. Since its introduction in the Netherlands in 1992, fluazinam has been used in late blight control strategies in ware and starch potatoes. It has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against a range of diseases including potato late blight. Fluazinam interrupts the pathogen cell’s energy production process by an uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation. It is considered to have a low resistance risk. Until recently, reduced efficacy against fluazinam was not detected in P. infestans surveys in Europe. In this paper we present the finding of a new clonal lineage (EU_33_A2) of P. infestans in the Netherlands and the reduced efficacy of fluazinam to control one of the EU_33_A2 isolates in field experiments carried out in 2011 and 2015 under high disease pressure. The potential effects of this finding on practical late blight control strategies are discussed.
    Folate Biofortification of Potato by Tuber-Specific Expression of Four Folate Biosynthesis Genes
    Lepeleire, Jolien De; Strobbe, Simon ; Verstraete, Jana ; Blancquaert, Dieter ; Ambach, Lars ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Stove, Christophe ; Straeten, Dominique Van Der - \ 2018
    Molecular Plant 11 (2018)1. - ISSN 1674-2052 - p. 175 - 188.
    Biofortification - Folate - Malnutrition - Metabolic engineering - Potato - Vitamin B9
    Insufficient dietary intake of micronutrients, known as "hidden hunger", is a devastating global burden, affecting two billion people. Deficiency of folates (vitamin B9), which are known to play a central role in C1 metabolism, causes birth defects in at least a quarter million people annually. Biofortification to enhance the level of naturally occurring folates in crop plants, proves to be an efficient and cost-effective tool in fighting folate deficiency. Previously, introduction of folate biosynthesis genes GTPCHI and ADCS, proven to be a successful biofortification strategy in rice and tomato, turned out to be insufficient to adequately increase folate levels in potato tubers. Here, we provide a proof of concept that additional introduction of HPPK/DHPS and/or FPGS, downstream genes in mitochondrial folate biosynthesis, enables augmentation of folates to satisfactory levels (12-fold) and ensures folate stability upon long-term storage of tubers. In conclusion, this engineering strategy can serve as a model in the creation of folate-accumulating potato cultivars, readily applicable in potato-consuming populations suffering from folate deficiency. Biosynthesis of folates (vitamin B9) in plants originates in the cytosol and in plastids and is finalized in mitochondria, yielding polyglutamylated folate species. Engineering of the limiting steps in the cytosolic and plastidial branches, a successful strategy for biofortification of rice kernels and tomato fruit, provided unsatisfactory results upon implementation in potato tubers. Here, additional engineering of the first and final steps in the mitochondrial branch of folate biosynthesis, HPPK/DHPS and FPGS respectively, resulted in adequate enhancement of folate levels in potato tubers, yielding a 12-fold increase. This presents a valuable tool in fighting the global burden of folate malnutrition.
    Physical mapping of QTL for tuber yield, starch content and starch yield in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by means of genome wide genotyping by sequencing and the 8.3 K SolCAP SNP array
    Schönhals, Elske Maria ; Ding, Jia ; Ritter, Enrique ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Cara, Nicolás ; Tacke, Eckhard ; Hofferbert, Hans Reinhardt ; Lübeck, Jens ; Strahwald, Josef ; Gebhardt, Christiane - \ 2017
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
    Potato - Solanum tuberosum - tuber - yield - starch content - complex trait - genome wide genotyping - SNP - GWAS - candidate gene
    Background Tuber yield and starch content of the cultivated potato are complex traits of decisive importance for breeding improved varieties. Natural variation of tuber yield and starch content depends on the environment and on multiple, mostly unknown genetic factors. Dissection and molecular identification of the genes and their natural allelic variants controlling these complex traits will lead to the development of diagnostic DNA-based markers, by which precision and efficiency of selection can be increased (precision breeding). Results Three case-control populations were assembled from tetraploid potato cultivars based on maximizing the differences between high and low tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC) and starch yield (TSY, arithmetic product of TY and TSC). The case-control populations were genotyped by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and the 8.3 k SolCAP SNP genotyping array. The allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between cases and controls. RADseq identified, depending on data filtering criteria, between 6664 and 450 genes with one or more differential SNPs for one, two or all three traits. Differential SNPs in 275 genes were detected using the SolCAP array. A genome wide association study using the SolCAP array on an independent, unselected population identified SNPs associated with tuber starch content in 117 genes. Physical mapping of the genes containing differential or associated SNPs, and comparisons between the two genome wide genotyping methods and two different populations identified genome segments on all twelve potato chromosomes harboring one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TY, TSC and TSY. Conclusions Several hundred genes control tuber yield and starch content in potato. They are unequally distributed on all potato chromosomes, forming clusters between 0.5–4 Mbp width. The largest fraction of these genes had unknown function, followed by genes with putative signalling and regulatory functions. The genetic control of tuber yield and starch content is interlinked. Most differential SNPs affecting both traits had antagonistic effects: The allele increasing TY decreased TSC and vice versa. Exceptions were 89 SNP alleles which had synergistic effects on TY, TSC and TSY. These and the corresponding genes are primary targets for developing diagnostic markers.
    Can precision agriculture increase the profitability and sustainability of the production of potatoes and olives?
    Evert, Frits K. van; Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel ; Fountas, Spyros ; Kempenaar, Corné - \ 2017
    Sustainability 9 (2017)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Olive - Potato - Social profit - Variable rate application
    For farmers, the application of Precision Agriculture (PA) technology is expected to lead to an increase in profitability. For society, PA is expected to lead to increased sustainability.The objective of this paper is to determine for a number of common PA practices how much they increase profitability and sustainability. For potato production in The Netherlands, we considered variable rate application (VRA) of soil herbicide, fungicide for late blight control, sidedress N, and haulm killing herbicide. For olive production in Greece, we considered spatially variable application of P and K fertilizer and lime. For each of the above scenarios, we quantified the value of outputs, the cost of inputs, and the environmental costs. This allowed us to calculate profit as well as social profit, where the latter is defined as revenues minus conventional costs minus the external costs of production. Social profit can be considered an overall measure of sustainability. Our calculations show that PA in potatoes increases profit by 21% (420 € ha-1) and social profit by 26%. In olives, VRA application of P, K, and lime leads to a strong reduction in nutrient use and although this leads to an increase in sustainability, it has only a small effect on profit and on social profit. In conclusion, PA increases sustainability in olives and both profitability and sustainability in potatoes.
    Chemical Eradication of the Ring Rot Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato Storage Crates
    Stevens, L.H. ; Lamers, J.G. ; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Mendes, O. ; Berg, W. van den; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A. ; Jilesen, C.J.T.J. ; Spoorenberg, P.M. ; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2017
    Potato Research 60 (2017)2. - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 145 - 158.
    Bacterium - Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus - Disinfection - Potato - Quarantine organism - Sodium-p-toluenesulfochloramide

    Four commercially available disinfection products were tested for their efficacy against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), causative agent of bacterial ring rot, on wooden potato storage crates. Each of these products represented a different class of biocide, i.e. organic acids (benzoic acid), peroxygenous compounds (potassium peroxysulfate), quaternary ammonium compounds (didecyldimethylammoniumchloride) and hypochlorite-generating compounds (sodium-p-toluenesulfochloramide). The target objects consisted of small wooden panels that were smeared with potato tuber pulp homogenized with a high inoculum of Cms. By dipping the inoculated panels into the product solutions and subsequent determination of the densities of colony-forming units, the relative efficacy of the products was established. The two products that exhibited the highest relative efficacy were studied for their disinfection performance when applied as cleaning agent in a conventional automated crate washer. The results showed that jet cleaning in a crate washer for 2 min using the authorised dose of the product containing sodium-p-toluenesulfochloramide is an effective method for disinfecting Cms-contaminated wooden potato crates.

    Collinearity between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wild relatives assessed by comparative cytogenetic mapping
    Gaiero Guadagina, Paola ; De Belt, José Van; Vilaró, Francisco ; Schranz, M.E. ; Speranza, Pablo ; Jong, Hans de - \ 2017
    Genome 60 (2017)3. - ISSN 0831-2796 - p. 228 - 240.
    Introgressive hybridisation - Macrosynteny - Multicolour BAC-FISH - Potato - Solanum chacoense - Solanum commersonii
    A major bottleneck to introgressive hybridization is the lack of genome collinearity between the donor (alien) genome and the recipient crop genome. Structural differences between the homeologs may create unbalanced segregation of chromosomes or cause linkage drag. To assess large-scale collinearity between potato and two of its wild relatives (Solanum commersonii and Solanum chacoense), we used BAC-FISH mapping of sequences with known positions on the RH potato map. BAC probes could successfully be hybridized to the S. commersonii and S. chachoense pachytene chromosomes, confirming their correspondence with linkage groups in RH potato. Our study shows that the order of BAC signals is conserved. Distances between BAC signals were quantified and compared; some differences found suggest either small-scale rearrangements or reduction/amplification of repeats. We conclude that S. commersonii and S. chacoense are collinear with cultivated Solanum tuberosum on the whole chromosome scale, making these amenable species for efficient introgressive hybridization breeding.
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