Knowledge, attitudes and practices of cervical cancer prevention among Zambian women and men
Nyambe, Anayawa ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Baboo, Stridutt K. ; Hal, Guido Van - \ 2019
BMC Public Health 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Attitude - Cervical cancer - Knowledge - Practices - Screening - Social ecological model - Theory of triadic influence - Vaccination - Zambia
Background: In Zambia, cervical cancer screening was started in 2006 and the human papillomavirus vaccine was piloted in 2013. Nevertheless, cervical cancer remains the leading cancer. It is assumed that knowledge, social interaction, health behaviors and religion are factors that can influence screening and vaccination practices. This study addresses the question, what is the relationship between knowledge about cervical cancer, attitudes, self-reported behavior, and immediate support system, towards screening and vaccination of cervical cancer of Zambian women and men. The results of this study serve as a basis for future research, an input for improvement and adjustment of the existing prevention program and build on documented health behavior frameworks. Methods: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted from February to May 2016. Two separate questionnaires were used to collect data from women (N = 300) and men (N = 300) residing in Chilenje and Kanyama (two townships in the capital city Lusaka). Respondent's knowledge of cervical cancer was operationalized by grading their ability to correctly identify causes and protective factors if they were aware of cervical cancer. Besides providing descriptive statistics of all study variables, we tested four research hypotheses concerning the link between knowledge, attitudes and practices suggested by the literature, by applying appropriate statistical tests (chi square test, analysis of variance, logistic regression). Results: Less than half of the respondents (36.8%) had heard of cervical cancer, 20.7% of women had attended screening and 6.7% of the total sample had vaccinated their daughter. Knowledge of causes and prevention was very low. There was a strong association between having awareness of cervical cancer and practicing screening (odds ratio = 20.5, 95% confidence interval = [9.214, 45.516]) and vaccination (odds ratio = 5.1, 95% confidence interval = [2.473, 10.423]). Social interactions were also found to greatly influence screening and vaccination behaviors. Conclusions: The low level of knowledge of causes and prevention of cervical cancer suggests a need to increase knowledge and awareness among both women and men. Interpersonal interactions have great impact on practicing prevention behaviors, for instance, vaccination of daughters.
Techne meets Metis : Knowledge and practices for tick control in Laikipia County, Kenya
Mutavi, Faith ; Aarts, Noelle ; Paassen, Annemarie Van; Heitkönig, Ignas ; Wieland, Barbara - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86-87 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 136 - 145.
Knowledge sharing - Metis - Practices - Techne - Tick control - Ticks
Prevention of tick borne diseases is often through tick control practices. This article diagnoses tick control practices, knowledge underlying these practices and how knowledge is shared at the wildlife-livestock interface in Laikipia County, Kenya. It identifies diverse land use and tick control practices by different land and livestock owners from a scientific knowledge-based (techne) and context driven experiential knowledge-based (metis) perspective. Interviews, focus group discussions, observations and documents yielded qualitative data to unravel i) the historical development of tick control in Kenya ii) techne and metis tick control practices within three ranches and among pastoralists in Laikipia County, and iii) status of tick knowledge sharing between stakeholders. Historical tick control measures date back to about 100 years ago, with increasingly strong veterinary measures over the decades under government control. However, the veterinary control system collapsed around 1991 and livestock owners took tick control into their own hands. All respondents indicated having relevant techne available about tick ecology and tick management practices. To adapt to the changing social, economic and institutional context, they further developed metis, integrating the known techne. Metis and techne complemented each other. Our study reveals that metis is developed within stakeholder groups. The data also suggest that metis practices sometimes develop risky effects to animal, human and environmental health. Knowledge on tick control is mainly shared within a social group, not between groups. We esteem, knowledge sharing between different stakeholder groups (ranchers, pastoralists, DVS) may provide opportunities for better informed decision-making based on fruitful combinations of techne and metis for effective and safe tick management.