Preference of fresh and stored Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes treated wheat straw by goats
Mao, Lei ; Marchal, Leon M. ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Cone, John W. ; Hidalgo, Viviane Endo ; Hendriks, Wouter H. - \ 2020
Livestock Science 236 (2020). - ISSN 1871-1413
Fresh - Fungal treated wheat straw - Goats - Preference - Stored
The successful application of fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as an animal feed ingredient depends on its acceptance by animals. The objective of this study was to test the preference of fresh and stored fungal treated wheat straw (WS) by non-lactating Saanen goats. Three studies were conducted. Wheat straw was aerobically treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CS) and Lentinula edodes (LE) for 7 weeks before being stored at -20°C (fresh CS [CSf], fresh LE [LEf]) until use. The CSf and LEf were also anaerobically stored at 54°C (stored CS [CSs], stored LE [LEs]) for 7 weeks before being frozen at -20°C until use. In study 1, preference for individual feedstuffs was tested and included grass silage (GS), maize silage (MS), CSf, LEf and WS. Goats showed a strong preference for GS and were more reluctant to consume MS. Minor amounts of CSf, LEf and WS were consumed even when the preference time was extended to 2 h. Study 2 compared the preference of CSf, LEf and WS when included at 50% (as is basis) in a GS/MS based feed over 6 days. Goats had a higher (P < 0.05) intake rate of the CSf and LEf than the WS containing feed, with no significant difference observed between CSf and LEf. In study 3, the preference of goats between diets containing (50% as is basis) fresh and stored fungal treated WS was investigated. In an identical study design to study 2, the goats showed a higher intake rate for the CSs and LEs containing feeds. Wheat straw treated with C. subvermispora and L. edodes were significantly less preferred to GS and MS. This feeding study showed that fungal treated WS can be used as a major part in a diet for goat and the storage increases its palatability.
E-liquid flavor preferences and individual factors related to vaping : A survey among dutch never-users, smokers, dual users, and exclusive vapers
Romijnders, Kim A.G.J. ; Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Graaf, Kees de; Vries, Hein de; Talhout, Reinskje - \ 2019
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16 (2019)23. - ISSN 1661-7827
Attitude - Deliberation - Electronic cigarettes - Flavors - Knowledge - Perceived susceptibility - Preference - Smoking - Vaping
Appealing product characteristics, such as flavors, may stimulate e-cigarette use. While switching to e-cigarettes may reduce harm for smokers, concerns exist about e-cigarette use among neversmokers. The role of flavors in the decision to switch to or refrain from vaping is unclear. This study used a bottom–up approach to investigate the relation between flavor preferences and individual factors related to vaping between various user groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among never-users (n = 407), smokers (n = 138), dual users (n = 122), and exclusive vapers (n = 61) in the Netherlands. Demographics, attractiveness of product characteristics, flavor preferences, and individual factors related to vaping (knowledge, trust, perceived susceptibility, attitude, social influence, deliberation, and intention) were assessed. The availability of different flavors was the most attractive characteristic of ecigarettes. Dual users and exclusive vapers had most often used tobacco and menthol/mint flavors when they first started vaping. Compared to dual users, exclusive vapers currently used more fruit and sweet flavors. Never-users who were interested in trying an e-liquid flavor had more knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards e-cigarettes. Smokers who were interested in trying a flavor had a more positive attitude towards e-cigarettes and experienced the social influence towards not using e-cigarettes as less strong than those who did not want to try any flavor. Hence, individual factors related to vaping differed depending on whether never-users and smokers wanted to try an e-liquid flavor. This means that flavors may moderate differences found in individual factors related to vaping, or vice versa.
The One that I Want: Strong personal preferences render the center-stage nudge redundant
Venema, Tina A.G. ; Kroese, Floor M. ; Vet, E. De; Ridder, Denise T.D. De - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Center-stage effect - Effectiveness - Healthy diet goals - Nudge - Preference - Soft drinks
In recent years there has been increased attention for nudging as a tool to alter consumer decisions. While nudges should in theory preserve freedom of choice by respecting consumers’ preferences, empirical scrutiny of this claim is sparse. This research investigates the effectiveness of a center-stage nudge to encourage the consumption of a small portion size of soda. Specifically, in all studies we measure the extent to which strong preferences that are incongruent with the aim of the nudge (i.e. thirst and liking) and nudge congruent preferences (i.e. intentions to reduce soda consumption (study 1); Healthy diet goals (observed in study 2; manipulated in study 3) could be expressed when a choice is nudged. In three studies (n = 119; n = 184; n = 202) it was found that strong preferences are not trumped by the nudge and in fact overrule the effectiveness of a center-stage nudge. These findings contribute to the debate about the ethical considerations that are voiced concerning nudge interventions, and urge choice architects to consider consumers’ prior preferences as an important boundary condition of effective nudge interventions.
Preference and perception of fat in salty and sweet foods
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Costanzo, Andrew ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 64 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 131 - 137.
Fat - Preference - Salt - Saltiness - Sugar - Sweetness - Taste
Introduction Higher liking for fat is a risk factor for obesity. Fat in food is often combined with a sweet or salty taste. This study aims to investigate the role of fat on pleasantness and perception in both a salty and a sweet liquid food product. Methods In a complete factorial design, 47 participants (23 males) tasted creamy tomato soup and custard in four fat concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30%), combined with four salt concentrations (0.04, 0.35, 0.7, 1.5%) in soup, and four sugar concentrations (0.56, 4.5, 9, 18%) in custard. Participants rated pleasantness, saltiness intensity, sweetness intensity and fattiness intensity. The preferred fat concentrations were determined by hedonic ranking. Results Fat and salt separately affected pleasantness in soup (P <.01). Fat, sugar and their interaction affected pleasantness in custard (P <.001). Sugar and salt were a stronger influencer of pleasantness than fat. Preference for fat in soup was variable, whereas the highest concentration of 30% fat was preferred in custard (P <.001). Ratings of fattiness intensity were more responsive to fat concentrations in soup than in custard (P-interaction fat × food base <.001). Conclusion Salt and sugar are stronger influencers on food liking than fat. Across foods, there is no consistent effect of fat on perception or on liking, therefore the attractiveness of fat in foods cannot be generalised. The attraction to high fat levels in custard, while hardly perceiving differences in fat concentrations, remains unclear and needs further investigation.
The changing role of the senses in food choice and food intake across the lifespan
Boesveldt, Sanne ; Bobowski, Nuala ; McCrickerd, Keri ; Maître, Isabelle ; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire ; Forde, Ciarán G. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 68 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 80 - 89.
Cancer - Children - Elderly - Food choice - Food intake - Neurodegenerative disease - Obesity - Preference - Sensory perception
Sensory perception begins before birth and enables us to interpret the biological relevance of stimuli in our near environment. In early life, the senses play a crucial role in informing acceptance and rejection of foods and beverages. Food preferences develop with experience based on associations formed between a foods flavour and the consequence of its consumption. In adulthood the role of the chemical senses is often simplified into simple ‘likes’ and ‘dislikes’, but recent evidence highlights a more functional role in guiding eating behaviours and nutrition. A food's perceptual properties are important for the detection of its nutrient content and through this, guide not only food choice but also habitual energy selection and consumption behaviour. As we age and the prevalence of chronic disease increases, sensory acuity often declines for taste, smell and texture perception, and this can have an impact on food perception, preference and food intake. This creates an opportunity to apply an understanding of sensory influences on choice and intake to stimulate appetite during periods where nutrient intakes may become compromised. This paper summarises current knowledge of the changing role of the senses during infancy and early childhood, through to adulthood, older age and illness. The aim is to highlight opportunities to improve health and wellness through a better understanding of how sensory factors can influence eating behaviours and nutrition at key time points across the lifespan.
Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Spence, Charles - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003503 - p. 1 - 13.
Autonomic nervous system - Brain research - Memory - Multisensory integration - Preference - Sensory branding - Sensory perception - Taster status
This chapter summarizes a number of different ways in which to look at our multisensory perception of foods and its impact on behavior, liking, and even emotion. From the first moments we encounter a food during our childhood we develop associations and even preferences, with particular sensory characteristics. This complex network of associations keeps expanding throughout our lifetime and marks how we perceive and react toward foods. There is now a vast amount of literature helping to explain basic questions such as why red drinks tend to taste sweet, like red fruits, why some odors bring us back to childhood, why certain foods activate fight-or-flight responses, and why we eat more of certain foods than others.