Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Accumulation of intracellular trehalose and lactose in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 during pulsed electric field treatment and subsequent freeze and spray drying
Vaessen, Evelien M.J. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den; Esveld, Erik D.C. ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. - \ 2019
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 115 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438
Disaccharide - Electroporation - Lactic acid bacteria - Probiotics - Survival

Survival of bacteria during drying processes is required for products such as probiotics or starter cultures. In earlier studies high intracellular trehalose concentrations have been related to processing robustness during freezing and drying for several cell types. In this study we evaluated pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment to increase intracellular trehalose in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and subsequent survival during freeze drying and storage in a trehalose matrix. Surprisingly, despite increased intracellular trehalose by PEF pre-treatment no enhanced survival was observed after drying and storage. Additional analysis of intracellular trehalose before and after freeze drying and spray drying revealed that during the drying process intracellular trehalose concentrations increased. Due to this increase the intracellular trehalose concentrations in the PEF pre-treated and control samples did not differ anymore. To explain what happens during the drying processes, results for trehalose were compared to similar experiments with lactose. A remarkable difference was observed between transfer of trehalose and lactose into cells during the freezing step before freeze drying, while both disaccharides gave similar cellular protection when used as freezing and drying matrix. Generated knowledge on transport of disaccharides into bacterial cells during freezing and drying can benefit processing of living bacterial formulations.

Application of lactobacilli and prebiotic oligosaccharides for the development of a synbiotic semi-hard cheese
Langa, S. ; Bulck, E. van den; Peirotén, A. ; Gaya, P. ; Schols, H.A. ; Arqués, J.L. - \ 2019
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 114 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438
Cheese - Lactobacillus - Prebiotic oligosaccharides - Probiotics - Synbiotic

The aim of this study was to test the compatibility of two selected Lactobacillus strains with different prebiotic carbohydrates in order to develop a synbiotic cheese. Initially, the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli with the prebiotic formulations was monitored in optimized growth medium and in milk. Afterwards, semi-hard cheeses were manufactured with the selected combination of Lb. paracasei INIA P272 and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Results showed that the addition of FOS did not affect Lb. paracasei viability in the cheese after 28 days of ripening, but a higher viability of this strain was achieved in the presence of FOS when cheese was tested in a colonic model. Thus, the inclusion of FOS in the cheese could have a beneficial effect by increasing the probiotic strain viability in the host.

A specific synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula restores gut microbiota in non-IgE mediated cow's milk allergic infants: A randomized controlled trial
Wopereis, Harm ; Ampting, Marleen T.J. Van; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, Aysun ; Slump, Rob ; Candy, David C.A. ; Butt, Assad M. ; Peroni, Diego G. ; Vandenplas, Yvan ; Fox, Adam T. ; Shah, Neil ; Roeselers, Guus ; Harthoorn, Lucien F. ; Michaelis, Louise J. ; Knol, Jan ; West, Christina E. - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Allergy 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-7022
Cow's milk allergy - Gut microbiota - Pediatrics - Prebiotics - Probiotics

Background: Altered gut microbiota is implicated in cow's milk allergy (CMA) and differs markedly from healthy, breastfed infants. Infants who suffer from severe CMA often rely on cow's milk protein avoidance and, when breastfeeding is not possible, on specialised infant formulas such as amino-acid based formulas (AAF). Herein, we report the effects of an AAF including specific synbiotics on oral and gastrointestinal microbiota of infants with non-IgE mediated CMA with reference to healthy, breastfed infants. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, infants with suspected non-IgE mediated CMA received test or control formula. Test formula was AAF with synbiotics (prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V). Control formula was AAF without synbiotics. Healthy, breastfed infants were used as a separate reference group (HBR). Bacterial compositions of faecal and salivary samples were analysed by 16S rRNA-gene sequencing. Faecal analysis was complemented with the analysis of pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactic acids. Results: The trial included 35 test subjects, 36 controls, and 51 HBR. The 16S rRNA-gene sequencing revealed moderate effects of test formula on oral microbiota. In contrast, the gut microbiota was substantially affected across time comparing test with control. In both groups bacterial diversity increased over time but was characterised by a more gradual increment in test compared to control. Compositionally this reflected an enhancement of Bifidobacterium spp. and Veillonella sp. in the test group. In contrast, the control-fed infants showed increased abundance of adult-like species, mainly within the Lachnospiraceae family, as well as within the Ruminococcus and Alistipes genus. The effects on Bifidobacterium spp. and Lachnospiraceae spp. were previously confirmed through enumeration by fluorescent in situ hybridization and were shown for test to approximate the proportions observed in the HBR. Additionally, microbial activity was affected as evidenced by an increase of l-lactate, a decrease of valerate, and reduced concentrations of branched-chain SCFAs in test versus control. Conclusions: The AAF including specific synbiotics effectively modulates the gut microbiota and its metabolic activity in non-IgE mediated CMA infants bringing it close to a healthy breastfed profile. Trial registration Registered on 1 May 2013 with Netherlands Trial Register Number NTR3979.

Biotechnology of health-promoting bacteria
Douillard, François P. ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2019
Biotechnology Advances 37 (2019)6. - ISSN 0734-9750
Applied genomics - Gut microbiota - Next-generation therapeutic bacteria - Probiotics

Over the last decade, there has been an increasing scientific and public interest in bacteria that may positively contribute to human gut health and well-being. This interest is reflected by the ever-increasing number of developed functional food products containing health-promoting bacteria and reaching the market place as well as by the growing revenue and profits of notably bacterial supplements worldwide. Traditionally, the origin of probiotic-marketed bacteria was limited to a rather small number of bacterial species that mostly belong to lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Intensifying research efforts on the human gut microbiome offered novel insights into the role of human gut microbiota in health and disease, while also providing a deep and increasingly comprehensive understanding of the bacterial communities present in this complex ecosystem and their interactions with the gut-liver-brain axis. This resulted in rational and systematic approaches to select novel health-promoting bacteria or to engineer existing bacteria with enhanced probiotic properties. In parallel, the field of gut microbiomics developed into a fertile framework for the identification, isolation and characterization of a phylogenetically diverse array of health-promoting bacterial species, also called next-generation therapeutic bacteria. The present review will address these developments with specific attention for the selection and improvement of a selected number of health-promoting bacterial species and strains that are extensively studied or hold promise for future food or pharma product development.

Perspective : Fundamental limitations of the randomized controlled trial method in nutritional research: The example of probiotics
Zeilstra, Dennis ; Younes, Jessica A. ; Brummer, Robert J. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel - \ 2018
Advances in Nutrition 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 561 - 571.
Nutrition - Probiotics - RCT limitations - Study design

Studies on the relation between health and nutrition are often inconclusive. There are concerns about the validity of many research findings, and methods that can deliver high-quality evidence-such as the randomized controlled trial (RCT) method-have been embraced by nutritional researchers. Unfortunately, many nutritional RCTs also yield ambiguous results. It has been argued that RCTs are ill-suited for certain settings, including nutritional research. In this perspective, we investigate whether there are fundamental limitations of the RCT method in nutritional research. To this end, and to limit the scope, we use probiotic studies as an example. We use an epistemological approach and evaluate the presuppositions that underlie the RCT method. Three general presuppositions are identified and discussed. We evaluate whether these presuppositions can be considered true in probiotic RCTs, which appears not always to be the case. This perspective concludes by exploring several alternative study methods that may be considered for future probiotic or nutritional intervention trials.

Lactic acid bacteria for delivery of endogenous or engineered therapeutic molecules
Bron, Peter A. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)AUG. - ISSN 1664-302X
Genetic engineering - Lactic acid bacteria - Lactobacillus - Lactococcus lactis - Probiotics - Therapeutic molecules

Food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered suitable vehicles for the production and/or delivery of health promoting or therapeutic, bioactive molecules. The molecules considered for health-beneficial use include the endogenous effector molecules produced by probiotics (mostly lactobacilli), as well as heterologous bioactives that can be produced in LAB by genetic engineering (mostly using lactococci). Both strategies aim to deliver appropriate dosages of specific bioactive molecules to the site of action. This review uses specific examples of both strategies to illustrate the different avenues of research involved in these applications as well as their translation to human health-promoting applications. These examples pinpoint that despite the promising perspectives of these approaches, the evidence for their effective applications in human populations is lagging behind.

Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles and their impact on health and disease
Liu, Yue ; Defourny, Kyra A.Y. ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Abee, Tjakko - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)JUL. - ISSN 1664-302X
Actinobacteria - EV vaccination - Firmicutes - Membrane vesicles - Pathogenicity - Phage therapy - Probiotics

During recent years it has become increasingly clear that the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a feature inherent to all cellular life forms. These lipid bilayer-enclosed particles are secreted by members of all domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea, being similar in size, general composition, and potency as a functional entity. Noticeably, the recent discovery of EVs derived from bacteria belonging to the Gram-positive phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes has added a new layer of complexity to our understanding of bacterial physiology, host interactions, and pathogenesis. Being nano-sized structures, Gram-positive EVs carry a large diversity of cargo compounds, including nucleic acids, viral particles, enzymes, and effector proteins. The diversity in cargo molecules may point to roles of EVs in bacterial competition, survival, material exchange, host immune evasion and modulation, as well as infection and invasion. Consequently, the impact of Gram-positive EVs on health and disease are being revealed gradually. These findings have opened up new leads for the development of medical advances, including strategies for vaccination and anti-bacterial treatment. The rapidly advancing research into Gram-positive EVs is currently in a crucial phase, therefore this review aims to give an overview of the groundwork that has been laid at present and to discuss implications and future challenges of this new research field.

Effects of early feeding and dietary interventions on development of lymphoid organs and immune competence in neonatal chickens : A review
Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled ; Hodgins, Douglas C. ; Lammers, Aart ; Alkie, Tamiru Negash ; Sharif, Shayan - \ 2018
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 201 (2018). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 1 - 11.
Antimicrobial peptides - Chicken - Dietary supplementation - Early feeding - Feed additives - Heat stress - Immune system - In ovo feeding - Lymphoid organs - Nanoparticles - Phytobiotics - Prebiotics - Probiotics - TLR ligands
With the ongoing intensification of the poultry industry and the continuous need to control pathogens, there is a critical need to extend our understanding of the avian immune system and the role of nutritional interventions on development of immune competence in neonatal chicks. In this review, we will focus on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs during embryonic life and the first 2 weeks post-hatch, and how early feeding practices improve heath and modulate the development and function of the immune system in young chicks. The evidence for the positive impact of the nutrition of breeder hens on embryonic development and on the survival and immunity of their chicks will also be outlined. Additionally, we will discuss the vital role of supplemental feeding either in ovo or immediately post-hatch in chick health and immunity and the importance of these approaches in ameliorating immune system functions of heat-stressed chicks. To conclude, we provide some perspectives on a number of key issues, concerning the mechanisms of nutritional modulation of immunity, that need to be addressed. A thorough investigation of these mechanisms may assist in the formulation of diets to improve the immunity and general health status.
The first microbial colonizers of the human gut : Composition, activities, and health implications of the infant gut microbiota
Milani, Christian ; Duranti, Sabrina ; Bottacini, Francesca ; Casey, Eoghan ; Turroni, Francesca ; Mahony, Jennifer ; Belzer, Clara ; Palacio, Susana Delgado ; Montes, Silvia Arboleya ; Mancabelli, Leonardo ; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea ; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel ; Bode, Lars ; Vos, Willem De; Gueimonde, Miguel ; Margolles, Abelardo ; Sinderen, Douwe Van; Ventura, Marco - \ 2017
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 81 (2017)4. - ISSN 1092-2172
Bifidobacteria - Gut commensals - Gut microbiota - Infants - Metagenomics - Microbiome - Microbiota - Probiotics - Virome
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit. In recent years, various metagenomic studies have tried to dissect the composition and functionality of the infant gut microbiome and to explore the distribution across the different ecological niches of the infant gut biogeography of the corresponding microbial consortia, including those corresponding to bacteria and viruses, in healthy and ill subjects. Such analyses have linked certain features of the microbiota/microbiome, such as reduced diversity or aberrant composition, to intestinal illnesses in infants or disease states that are manifested at later stages of life, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders. Thus, a growing number of studies have reported on how the early human gut microbiota composition/development may affect risk factors related to adult health conditions. This concept has fueled the development of strategies to shape the infant microbiota composition based on various functional food products. In this review, we describe the infant microbiota, the mechanisms that drive its establishment and composition, and how microbial consortia may be molded by natural or artificial interventions. Finally, we discuss the relevance of key microbial players of the infant gut microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria, with respect to their role in health and disease.
Genomic and functional analysis of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT reveals adaptation to the small intestine
Gerritsen, Jacoline ; Hornung, Bastian ; Renckens, Bernadette ; Hijum, Sacha A.F.T. van; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Rijkers, Ger T. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2017
PeerJ 2017 (2017)9. - ISSN 2167-8359
Functional genomics - Gut - Microbiome - Prebiotics - Probiotics - RNAseq - Romboutsia - Small intestine
Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.
Lactobacillus plantarum strains can enhance human mucosal and systemic immunity and prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced reduction in T regulatory Cells
Vos, Paul de; Mujagic, Zlatan ; Haan, Bart J. de; Siezen, Roland J. ; Bron, Peter A. ; Meijerink, Marjolein ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Faas, Marijke M. ; Troost, Freddy J. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 18 p.
Adaptive immunity - Indomethacin - Intestinal mucosal immunity - Lactobacillus plantarum - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug - Probiotics

Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or WCFS1) or placebo for 7 days. To determine whether L. plantarum can enhance immune response, we compared the effects of three stains on systemic and gut mucosal immunity, by among others assessing memory responses against tetanus toxoid (TT)-antigen, and mucosal gene transcription, in human volunteers during induction of mild immune stressor in the intestine, by giving a commonly used enteropathic drug, indomethacin [non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)]. Systemic effects of the interventions were studies in peripheral blood samples. NSAID was found to induce a reduction in serum CD4+ /Foxp3 regulatory cells, which was prevented by L. plantarum TIFN101. T-cell polarization experiments showed L. plantarum TIFN101 to enhance responses against TT-antigen, which indicates stimulation of memory responses by this strain. Cell extracts of the specific L. plantarum strains provoked responses after WCFS1 and TIFN101 consumption, indicating stimulation of immune responses against the specific bacteria. Mucosal immunomodulatory effects were studied in duodenal biopsies. In small intestinal mucosa, TIFN101 upregulated genes associated with maintenance of T- and B-cell function and antigen presentation. Furthermore, L. plantarum TIFN101 and WCFS1 downregulated immunological pathways involved in antigen presentation and shared downregulation of snoRNAs, which may suggest cellular destabilization, but may also be an indicator of tissue repair. Full sequencing of the L. plantarum strains revealed possible gene clusters that mightbe responsible for the differential biological effects of the bacteria on host immunity. In conclusion, the impact of oral consumption L. plantarum on host immunity is strain dependent and involves responses against bacterial cell components. Some strains may enhance specific responses against pathogens by enhancing antigen presentation and leukocyte maintenance in mucosa. In future studies and clinical settings, caution should be taken in selecting beneficial bacteria as closely related strains can have different effects. Our data show that specific bacterial strains can prevent immune stress induced by commonly consumed painkillers such as NSAID and can have enhancing beneficial effects on immunity of consumers by stimulating antigen presentation and memory responses.

Intervention strategies for cesarean section- induced alterations in the microbiota-gut-brain axis
Moya-Pérez, Angela ; Luczynski, Pauline ; Renes, Ingrid B. ; Wang, Shugui ; Borre, Yuliya ; Ryan, C.A. ; Knol, Jan ; Stanton, Catherine ; Dinan, Timothy G. ; Cryan, John F. - \ 2017
Nutrition Reviews 75 (2017)4. - ISSN 0029-6643 - p. 225 - 240.
Cesarean section - Immunity - Metabolism - Microbiota - Prebiotics - Probiotics

Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the earlylife factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices. In fact, these early exposures that impact the intestinal microbiota have been associated with the development of diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes, asthma, allergies, and even neurodevelopmental disorders. The present review summarizes the impact of cesarean birth on the gut microbiome and the health status of the developing infant and discusses possible preventative and restorative strategies to compensate for early-life microbial perturbations.

Immunomodulating effects of probiotics for microbiota modulation, gut health and disease resistance in pigs
Roselli, Marianna ; Pieper, Robert ; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire ; Vries, Hugo de; Bailey, Mick ; Smidt, Hauke ; Lauridsen, Charlotte - \ 2017
Animal Feed Science and Technology 233 (2017). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 104 - 119.
Gut health - Gut microbiota - Immunomodulation - Pig diarrhea prevention - Prebiotics - Probiotics
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer a health benefit on the host, and amongst various mechanisms probiotics are believed to exert their effects by production of antimicrobial substances, competition with pathogens for adhesion sites and nutrients, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity and immune modulation. Through these activities probiotics can support three core benefits for the host: supporting a healthy gut microbiota, a healthy digestive tract and a healthy immune system. More recently, the concept of combining probiotics and prebiotics, i.e. synbiotics, for the beneficial effect on gut health of pigs has attracted major interest, and examples of probiotic and prebiotic benefits for pigs are pathogen inhibition and immunomodulation. Yet, it remains to be defined in pigs, what exactly is a healthy gut. Because of the high level of variability in growth and feed conversion between individual pigs in commercial production systems, measuring the impact of probiotics on gut health defined by improvements in overall productivity requires large experiments. For this reason, many studies have concentrated on measuring the effects of the feed additives on proxies of gut health including many immunological measures, in more controlled experiments. With the major focus of studying the balance between gut microbiology, immunology and physiology, and the potential for prevention of intestinal disorders in pigs, we therefore performed a literature review of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, either alone or in combination with prebiotics, based on in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo porcine experiments. A consistent number of studies showed the potential capacity in terms of immunomodulatory activities of these feed additives in pigs, but contrasting results can also be obtained from the literature. Reasons for this are not clear but could be related to differences with respect to the probiotic strain used, experimental settings, diets, initial microbiota colonization, administration route, time and frequency of administration of the probiotic strain and sampling for analysis. Hence, the use of proxy measurements of enteric health based on observable immunological parameters presents significant problems at the moment, and cannot be considered robust, reliable predictors of the probiotic activity in vivo, in relation to pig gut health. In conclusion, more detailed understanding of how to select and interpret these proxy measurements will be necessary in order to allow a more rational prediction of the effect of specific probiotic interventions in the future.
Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?
Bron, Peter A. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Brummer, Robert Jan ; Cani, Patrice D. ; Mercenier, Annick ; MacDonald, Thomas T. ; Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L. ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2017
The British journal of nutrition 117 (2017)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 93 - 107.
Gastrointestinal disorders - Gut barrier - Gut microbiota - Immunity - Probiotics

Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.

Supplementation with lactobacillus plantarum wcfs1 prevents decline of mucus barrier in colon of accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice
Beek, Adriaan A. van; Sovran, Bruno ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Meijer, Ben ; Hoogerland, Joanne A. ; Mihailova, Violeta ; Ploeg, Corine van der; Belzer, Clara ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Immunology 7 (2016)OCT. - ISSN 1664-3224
Aging - Immunity - Intestinal barrier - Microbiota - Mucus - Probiotics

Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-week bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20 weeks, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10 μm) mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum - but not with L. casei and B. breve - prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.

Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 on post-acidification, metabolite formation and survival of starter bacteria in set-yoghurt
Settachaimongkon, Sarn ; Valenberg, Hein J.F. van; Gazi, Inge ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hooijdonk, Toon C.M. van; Zwietering, Marcel H. ; Smid, Eddy J. - \ 2016
Food Microbiology 59 (2016). - ISSN 0740-0020 - p. 14 - 22.
Dairy - Fermented milk - Lactic acid bacteria - Metabolomics - Probiotics - Stress response

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth and survival of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in co-culture with traditional yoghurt starters and to investigate the impact of preculturing on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. L. plantarum WCFS1 was precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor before inoculation in milk. Adaptive responses of L. plantarum WCFS1 were evaluated by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated that sublethal preculturing did not significantly affect survival of L. plantarum WCFS1. On the other hand, incorporation of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 significantly impaired the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus which consequently reduced the post-acidification of yoghurt during refrigerated storage. A complementary metabolomics approach using headspace SPME-GC/MS and 1H NMR combined with multivariate statistical analysis revealed substantial impact of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 on the metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. This study provides insight in the technological implications of non-dairy model probiotic strain L. plantarum WCFS1, such as its good stability in fermented milk and the inhibitory effect on post-acidification.

Synbiotics-supplemented amino acid-based formula supports adequate growth in cow's milk allergic infants
Burks, A.W. ; Harthoorn, L.F. ; Ampting, M.T.J. Van; Oude Nijhuis, M.M. ; Langford, J.E. ; Wopereis, Harm ; Goldberg, S.B. ; Ong, P.Y. ; Essink, B.J. ; Scott, R.B. ; Harvey, B.M. - \ 2015
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 26 (2015)4. - ISSN 0905-6157 - p. 316 - 322.
Amino acid-based formula - Cow's milk allergy - Growth - Infant - Prebiotics - Probiotics - Randomized double-blind controlled trial - Safety

Background: Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) are at risk for inadequate nutritional intake and growth. Dietary management of CMA, therefore, requires diets that are not only hypoallergenic but also support adequate growth in this population. This study assessed growth of CMA infants when using a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) with prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) and evaluated its safety in the intended population. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, full-term infants with diagnosed CMA received either an AAF (control; n = 56) or AAF with synbiotics (oligofructose, long-chain inulin, acidic oligosaccharides, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) (test; n = 54) for 16 wk. Primary outcome was growth, measured as weight, length and head circumference. Secondary outcomes included allergic symptoms and stool characteristics. Results: Average age (±SD) of infants at inclusion was 4.5 ± 2.4 months. Both formulas equally supported growth according to WHO 2006 growth charts and resulted in similar increases of weight, length and head circumference. At week 16, differences (90% CI) in Z-scores (test-control) were as follows: weight 0.147 (-0.10; 0.39, p = 0.32), length -0.299 (-0.69; 0.09, p = 0.21) and head circumference 0.152 (-0.15; 0.45, p = 0.40). Weight-for-age and length-for-age Z-scores were not significantly different between the test and control groups. Both formulas were well tolerated and reduced allergic symptoms; the number of adverse events was not different between the groups. Conclusions: This is the first study that shows that an AAF with a specific synbiotic blend, suitable for CMA infants, supports normal growth and growth similar to the AAF without synbiotics. This clinical trial is registered as NCT00664768.

Crossing industrial boundaries at the pharma-nutrition interface in probiotics: a life cycle perspective
Bornkessel, S. ; Broring, Stefanie ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2015
PharmaNutrition 4 (2015)1. - ISSN 2213-4344 - p. 29 - 37.
Converging industries - Cross-industry innovation - Functional ingredient - Life cycle concept - Probiotics
The aim of this paper is to advance the research on innovation at the pharma-nutrition interface by analysing the three steps of science, technology and market convergence in the area of probiotics using a life cycle perspective. Results from a bibliometric analysis drawing upon 8245 scientific publications, 2082 patents and 1357 news reports focussing on product launch announcements from 1990 up to 2009 indicate that the proposed curve shapes of the life cycles in the theory based framework can be transferred to the case of probiotics. There is a time shift considering the life cycles showing the same activities of the industrial sectors at different moments of time. The food sector dominates the field of probiotics by driving science, technology and market convergence showing earlier activities in scientific publications, patents as well as product launches, while presenting a higher clockspeed between the different life cycle phases. While the food sector dominates product launches for food products containing probiotics, the pharmaceutical sector dominates the product launches of the supplement market. In addition, a clear trend towards industry convergence can be identified by the growing number of cross-industry activities.
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