Membrane separation technology for the recovery of nutraceuticals from food industrial streams
Nazir, Akmal ; Khan, Kashif ; Maan, Abid ; Zia, Rabia ; Giorno, Lidietta ; Schroën, Karin - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology 86 (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 426 - 438.
Food industrial streams - Fouling - Membrane filtration - Nutraceuticals - Recovery
Background: Nutraceuticals are bioactive components that deliver health benefits on top of their innate nutritional value. With an increasing demand of nutraceuticals in the food as well as pharmaceutical sector, a continuous and inexpensive supply of nutraceuticals is much required. Scope and approach: Almost every food industry produces variable amount of waste or byproducts, which could serve as a potential source for a variety of bioactive compounds for the growing nutraceutical market. Among different techniques, which can be applied to separate nutraceuticals, membrane separation technology has been well recognized for its mild processing conditions and other benefits that cannot be achieved with conventional techniques. In the present manuscript, we have given an overview of various membrane processes that can be considered, together with examples from fruit, dairy, cereal, seafood, and slaughterhouse processing waste. However, some pre- and post-treatments are also relevant, which are slightly touched upon, as are the actual applications. Key findings and conclusions: Membrane technology can be used in dual fashion, i.e., industrial food waste treatment in combination with recovery of nutraceuticals, which will lead to a sustainable production of nutraceuticals. Moreover, the membrane technology offers a great flexibility in operation thus making it possible to work with variable feeds.
Responses of forest ecosystems in Europe to decreasing nitrogen deposition
Schmitz, Andreas ; Sanders, Tanja G.M. ; Bolte, Andreas ; Bussotti, Filippo ; Dirnböck, Thomas ; Johnson, Jim ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pollastrini, Martina ; Prescher, Anne Katrin ; Sardans, Jordi ; Verstraeten, Arne ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 244 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 980 - 994.
Air pollution - Emission reduction - Forest monitoring - Nitrogen deposition - Recovery
Average nitrogen (N) deposition across Europe has declined since the 1990s. This resulted in decreased N inputs to forest ecosystems especially in Central and Western Europe where deposition levels are highest. While the impact of atmospheric N deposition on forests has been receiving much attention for decades, ecosystem responses to the decline in N inputs received less attention. Here, we review observational studies reporting on trends in a number of indicators: soil acidification and eutrophication, understory vegetation, tree nutrition (foliar element concentrations) as well as tree vitality and growth in response to decreasing N deposition across Europe. Ecosystem responses varied with limited decrease in soil solution nitrate concentrations and potentially also foliar N concentrations. There was no large-scale response in understory vegetation, tree growth, or vitality. Experimental studies support the observation of a more distinct reaction of soil solution and foliar element concentrations to changes in N supply compared to the three other parameters. According to the most likely scenarios, further decrease of N deposition will be limited. We hypothesize that this expected decline will not cause major responses of the parameters analysed in this study. Instead, future changes might be more strongly controlled by the development of N pools accumulated within forest soils, affected by climate change and forest management. We find limited indication for response of Europe's forests to declining N deposition. Reactions have been reported for soil solution NO3 − and potentially foliar N concentrations but not for other indicators.
Recent findings of wild european flat oysters ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) in belgian and dutch offshore waters : New perspectives for offshore oyster reef restoration in the southern north sea
Kerckhof, Francis ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Rumes, Bob ; Degraer, Steven - \ 2018
Belgian Journal of Zoology 148 (2018)1. - ISSN 0777-6276 - p. 13 - 24.
Benthos - Coastal - Endangered species - Invertebrates - Recovery - Restoration - Subtidal
The European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, is an emblematic and ecologically important species that was fished to virtual extinction in Belgian and Dutch waters in the 19th century. We report on recent findings of live specimens in Belgian and Dutch waters, an indication for the presence of O. edulis in these waters. Though small, these relict populations provide possibilities for natural recovery of O. edulis reefs in Belgian and Dutch waters, provided the oyster’s habitat requirements are restored (e.g., exclusion of bottom disturbance). We suggest investigating whether a natural, yet slow, recovery using fisheries closures and gravel bed restoration is a feasible alternative to the currently envisaged human-mediated re-introduction of O. edulis in the North Sea. We identify and address the challenge of O. edulis detection and identification as an important issue blurring the true presence and distribution of oysters.
Seagrass ecosystem trajectory depends on the relative timescales of resistance, recovery and disturbance
O'Brien, Katherine R. ; Waycott, Michelle ; Maxwell, Paul ; Kendrick, Gary A. ; Udy, James W. ; Ferguson, Angus J.P. ; Kilminster, Kieryn ; Scanes, Peter ; McKenzie, Len J. ; McMahon, Kathryn ; Adams, Matthew P. ; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena ; Collier, Catherine ; Lyons, Mitchell ; Mumby, Peter J. ; Radke, Lynda ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Dennison, William C. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 166 - 176.
Colonizing - Opportunistic - Persistent - Recovery - Resilience - Resistance - Seagrass - Trajectory
Seagrass ecosystems are inherently dynamic, responding to environmental change across a range of scales. Habitat requirements of seagrass are well defined, but less is known about their ability to resist disturbance. Specific means of recovery after loss are particularly difficult to quantify. Here we assess the resistance and recovery capacity of 12 seagrass genera. We document four classic trajectories of degradation and recovery for seagrass ecosystems, illustrated with examples from around the world. Recovery can be rapid once conditions improve, but seagrass absence at landscape scales may persist for many decades, perpetuated by feedbacks and/or lack of seed or plant propagules to initiate recovery. It can be difficult to distinguish between slow recovery, recalcitrant degradation, and the need for a window of opportunity to trigger recovery. We propose a framework synthesizing how the spatial and temporal scales of both disturbance and seagrass response affect ecosystem trajectory and hence resilience.
Distribution and persistence of Verticillium dahliae in the xylem of Norway maple and European ash trees
Keykha Saber, Mojtaba ; Thomma, Bart P.H.J. ; Hiemstra, Jelle A. - \ 2018
European Journal of Plant Pathology 150 (2018)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 323 - 339.
Acer platanoides - Fraxinus excelsior - Real-time PCR - Recovery - Verticillium wilt
Verticillium dahliae colonizes the xylem vessels of susceptible host plants. Hence it can be expected that the distribution of the fungus as well as disease progress will be influenced by the anatomy of the xylem of that host. Here, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of V. dahliae in relation to recovery from disease symptoms in young European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) trees that differ in vascular anatomy. Quantifying the amount of V. dahliae DNA at different heights in the stem of inoculated trees at different time points after inoculation showed that, in the year of inoculation, the speed of colonization of these two species by V. dahliae was similar. Nevertheless, in the year after inoculation disease incidence and also quantities of V. dahliae detected in maple trees were significantly higher than in ash trees, suggesting that the xylem of ash trees is much less supportive for growth and survival of V. dahliae than that of maple trees. Moreover, in this second year V. dahliae could not be re-isolated from the wood of ash trees that had recovered from disease and was only rarely detected by PCR, only in xylem of the previous year and never in the current xylem. In contrast, V. dahliae easily was detected in the wood of diseased ash and maple trees. Furthermore, despite the presence of a layer of parenchyma cells between growth rings in ash trees, in symptomatic ash trees V. dahliae was present in the xylem of the new growth ring. We also observed that V. dahliae can move downward from the point of inoculation into the root collar, which possibly provides a way for infection of new growth rings by circumventing the physical barriers within the stem xylem.
A long-term copper exposure in a freshwater ecosystem using lotic mesocosms : Invertebrate community responses
Joachim, Sandrine ; Roussel, Hélène ; Bonzom, Jean Marc ; Thybaud, Eric ; Mebane, Christopher A. ; Brink, Paul Van den; Gauthier, Laury - \ 2017
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36 (2017)10. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2698 - 2714.
Copper - Emerging insects - Macroinvertebrates - Mesocosms - Recovery - Tolerance - Zooplankton
A lotic mesocosm study was carried out in 20-m-long channels, under continuous, environmentally realistic concentrations of copper (Cu) in low, medium, and high exposures (nominally 0, 5, 25, and 75μgL-1; average effective concentrations <0.5, 4, 20, and 57μgL-1 respectively) for 18mo. Total abundance, taxa richness, and community structure of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and emerging insects were severely affected at Cu treatment levels of 25 and 75μgL-1. Some taxa were sensitive to Cu, including gastropods such as Lymnaea spp. and Physa sp., crustaceans such as Chydorus sphaericus, Gammarus pulex, and Asellus aquaticus, rotifers such as Mytilina sp. and Trichocerca sp., leeches such as Erpobdella sp., and the emergence of dipteran insects such as Chironomini. Other taxa appeared to be tolerant or favored by indirect effects, as in Chironimidae larvae, the emergence of Orthocladiinae, and the zooplankter Vorticella sp., which increased in the 25 and 75μgL-1 treatments. After approximately 8mo of Cu exposure, the macroinvertebrate community in the high treatment was decimated to the point that few organisms could be detected, with moderate effects in the medium treatment, and very slight effects in the low-Cu treatment. Subsequently, most taxa in the high-Cu exposure began a gradual and partial recovery. By the end of the study at 18 mo, macroinvertebrate taxa richness was similar to control richness, although overall abundances remained lower than controls. After 18mo of copper exposure, a no-observed-effect concentration at the community level for consumers was set at 5μgL-1 (4μgL-1 as average effective concentration), and a lowest-observed-effect concentration at 25μgL-1(20μgL-1 as average effective concentration).
Fine-scale temporal characterization of trends in soil water dissolved organic carbon and potential drivers
Sawicka, K. ; Monteith, D.T. ; Vanguelova, E.I. ; Wade, A.J. ; Clark, J.M. - \ 2016
Ecological Indicators 68 (2016). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 36 - 51.
Acid deposition - Acidification - Additive model - DOC - Recovery - Trend
Long-term monitoring of surface water quality has shown increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) across a large part of the Northern Hemisphere. Several drivers have been implicated including climate change, land management change, nitrogen and sulphur deposition and CO2 enrichment. Analysis of stream water data, supported by evidence from laboratory studies, indicates that an effect of declining sulphur deposition on catchment soil chemistry is likely to be the primary mechanism, but there are relatively few long term soil water chemistry records in the UK with which to investigate this, and other, hypotheses directly. In this paper, we assess temporal relationships between soil solution chemistry and parameters that have been argued to regulate DOC production and, using a unique set of co-located measurements of weather and bulk deposition and soil solution chemistry provided by the UK Environmental Change Network and the Intensive Forest Monitoring Level II Network. We used statistical non-linear trend analysis to investigate these relationships at 5 forested and 4 non-forested sites from 1993 to 2011. Most trends in soil solution DOC concentration were found to be non-linear. Significant increases in DOC occurred mostly prior to 2005. The magnitude and sign of the trends was associated qualitatively with changes in acid deposition, the presence/absence of a forest canopy, soil depth and soil properties. The strongest increases in DOC were seen in acidic forest soils and were most clearly linked to declining anthropogenic acid deposition, while DOC trends at some sites with westerly locations appeared to have been influenced by shorter-term hydrological variation. The results indicate that widespread DOC increases in surface waters observed elsewhere, are most likely dominated by enhanced mobilization of DOC in surficial organic horizons, rather than changes in the soil water chemistry of deeper horizons. While trends in DOC concentrations in surface horizons have flattened out in recent years, further increases may be expected as soil chemistry continues to adjust to declining inputs of acidity.
Phosphorus management in Europe in a changing world
Schoumans, Oscar F. ; Bouraoui, Fayçal ; Kabbe, Christian ; Oenema, Oene ; Dijk, Kimo C. van - \ 2015
Ambio 44 (2015)Suppl. 2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 180 - 192.
Balance - Climate change - Manure - Phosphorus - Recovery - Resource cycle - Waste
Food production in Europe is dependent on imported phosphorus (P) fertilizers, but P use is inefficient and losses to the environment high. Here, we discuss possible solutions by changes in P management. We argue that not only the use of P fertilizers and P additives in feed could be reduced by fine-tuning fertilization and feeding to actual nutrient requirements, but also P from waste has to be completely recovered and recycled in order to close the P balance of Europe regionally and become less dependent on the availability of P-rock reserves. Finally, climate-smart P management measures are needed, to reduce the expected deterioration of surface water quality resulting from climate-change-induced P loss.