Pesticide registration, distribution and use practices in Ghana
Onwona Kwakye, Michael ; Mengistie, Belay ; Ofosu-Anim, John ; Nuer, Alexander Tetteh K. ; Den Brink, Paul J. van - \ 2019
Environment, Development and Sustainability 21 (2019)6. - ISSN 1387-585X - p. 2667 - 2691.
Actors - Ghana - Implementation - Pesticides - Policy - Registration
Ghana has implemented regulation on the registration, distribution and usage of pesticides in order to evaluate their environmental and human health effects. However, environmental monitoring and certified laboratories for pesticide analysis are lacking. Pesticide misuse, misapplication, contamination of the environment and human exposure still continue, and little is known to what extent pesticide registration, distribution and use is properly implemented in Ghana. This study aimed at investigating how the pesticide policy operates in Ghana, how state (policy; national/local) and non-state (importers, dealers’ and farmers) stakeholders function, what their challenges are, and to which extend the policy objectives are achieved. A conceptual framework based on the contextual interaction theory (CIT) was developed, and a review of Ghana’s pesticide policy implementation with two empirical field studies on state policy and non-state policy actors was conducted, supplemented with secondary data, and a number of interviews conducted with stakeholders and informants were used. Results indicate that pesticides are registered in compliance with the law. Non-state actors scored low with respect to their mandate which likely results in environmental and human health risks. Significant association existed between educational level attained and knowledge (χ2 = 3.614; P ≤ 0.05). Work experience or duration of farming also significantly influenced the knowledge of respondents (P < 0.001), as well as attitude (χ2 = 15.328; P < 0.05). Work experience/duration of farming also significantly influenced attitude at 95% confidence level (P < 0.001), and duration of farming was significantly associated with farm management practices at 5% level of significance (P ≤ 0.05), while state actors are not motivated and resourced. It is recommended to perform preliminary risk assessment to the aquatic environment, to derive threshold levels which are protective of communities, to screen farmers for pesticide exposure and poisoning, to develop well-targeted training programmes for pesticide retailers and farmers on pesticide use, personal protective device use, as well as pesticide management and law. Additionally, pesticide policy implementers have to be motivated and resourced to carry out their mandate, being to execute the pesticide legislation.
Biocontrol of plant diseases is not an unsafe technology!
Koch, Eckhard ; Becker, J.O. ; Berg, Gabriele ; Hauschild, R. ; Jehle, J. ; Köhl, J. ; Smalle, Kornelia - \ 2018
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 125 (2018)2. - ISSN 1861-3829 - p. 121 - 125.
Biocontrol - Safety - Registration - Metabolites
In their opinion paper "The unpredictable risk imposed by microbial secondary metabolites: how safe is biological control of plant diseases?" (J. Plant Dis. Prot. 124, 413-419; https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-017-0109-5), H.B. Deising, I. Gase and Y. Kubo criticize the use of microbial pesticides in plant protection. They point to the ability of microorganisms to form toxic metabolites and fear severe health problems when antagonistic microorganisms are increasingly released into agro-ecosystems. In our opinion, this view fails to reflect the reality because it largely ignores the ecology of microorganisms. In this contribution, we state reasons why biocontrol of plant diseases is a safe technology.
The effects of practicing registration of organ donation preference on self-efficacy and registration intention : An enactive mastery experience
Reubsaet, Astrid ; Brug, Johannes ; Vet, Emely De; Borne, Bart Van Den - \ 2003
Psychology and Health 18 (2003)5. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 585 - 594.
Adolescents - Intention - Organ donation - Registration - Self-efficacy
To evaluate an intervention to increase self-efficacy intentions to register organ donation preference, a Randomized Controlled Trial was conducted among 242 Dutch high-school students aged 15 to 18 years. On the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, practicing with a standard registration form (according to the Dutch system) was expected to increase the intention to register an organ donation preference through increasing self-efficacy. The participants in the experimental group practiced how to complete a registration form while the control group did not receive an intervention. Students in both groups completed a self-administered questionnaire before and after the intervention took place. The results showed that self-efficacy and intentions to register organ donation preferences at post-test were significantly higher in the intervention group.