Imperfect food markets in times of crisis: economic consequences of supply chain disruptions and fragmentation for local market power and urban vulnerability
Ihle, R. ; Rubin, O.D. ; Bar-Nahum, Z. ; Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2020
Food Security (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517 - 8 p.
Covid-19 - Crisis - Food security - Food supply chains - Oligopolistic food markets - Market power - Resilience
As these lines were written, the Covid-19 pandemic crisis was continuing to threaten countries around the globe. The worldwide consensus that physical distancing is an effective instrument for mitigating the spread of the virus has led policymakers to temporarily limit the freedom of movement of people between and within countries, cities, and even neighborhoods. These public health-related restrictions on human mobility yielded an unprecedented fragmentation of international and national food distribution systems. Focusing on food retailing - usually being modestly oligopolistic - we take a micro-economic perspective as we analyze the potential consequences this disruption has for the physical as well as for the economic access of households to food at the local level. As the mobility constraints implemented substantially reduced competition, we argue that food retailers might have been tempted to take advantage of the implied fragmentation of economic activity by exploiting their temporarily raised market power at the expense of consumers and farmers. We illustrate our point by providing empirical evidences of rising wholesale-retail as well as farm-retail price margins observed during the Covid-19 crisis. Subsequently, we review existing empirical approaches that can be used to quantify and decompose the micro-economic effects of crises on food demand and supply as well as the size and structure of the market, costs of trade, and economic welfare. The employment of such approaches facilitates policymakers’ understanding of micro-economic effects of public health-induced mobility restrictions on economic activity.
Assessing the resilience and sustainability of a hazelnut farming system in central Italy with a participatory approach
Nera, Elena ; Paas, Wim ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Paolini, Giulio ; Antonioli, Federico ; Severini, Simone - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Farming system - Participatory assessment - Perennial system - Resilience - Specialisation - Sustainability - Viterbo
European agriculture is facing increasing economic, environmental, institutional, and social challenges, from changes in demographic trends to the effects of climate change. In this context of high instability, the agricultural sector in Europe needs to improve its resilience and sustainability. Local assessments and strategies at the farming system level are needed, and this paper focuses on a hazelnut farming system in central Italy. For the assessment, a participatory approach was used, based on a stakeholder workshop. The results depicted a system with a strong economic and productive role, but which seems to overlook natural resources. This would suggest a relatively low environmental sustainability of the system, although the actual environmental impact of hazelnut farming is controversial. In terms of resilience, we assessed it by looking at the perceived level of three capacities: robustness, adaptability, and transformability. The results portrayed a highly robust system, but with relatively lower adaptability and transformability. Taking the farming system as the focal level was important to consider the role of different actors. While mechanisation has played a central role in enhancing past and present system resilience, future improvements can be achieved through collective strategies and system diversi?cation, and by strengthening the local hazelnut value chain.
Determinants of farm resilience to climate change: The role of farmer entrepreneurship and value chain collaborations
Kangogo, Daniel ; Dentoni, Domenico ; Bijman, Jos - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptive capacity - Entrepreneurship - Farmer organizations - Farmer-buyer relationships - Resilience
The concept of resilience gained traction in academic, policy, and development discourse in recent years, yet its conceptualization and application at the farm level has received little attention. For instance, recent policy recommendations present farm resilience as a silver bullet in dealing with agricultural risks and uncertainty, and in achieving sustainable agri-food systems. Yet, the question of what determines farm resilience in a smallholder farming set-up remains fuzzy. To address this knowledge gap, we firstly develop a novel conceptual framework based on determinants of farm resilience and farmer adaptive capacity as a pathway through which farm resilience is strengthened. The emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness inherent in studies that present socio-ecological systems as static systems. Secondly, based on a literature review, we propose mechanisms through which farmer entrepreneurship, membership in farmer organization, and farmer-buyer relationships may influence farmer adaptive capacity and thereby farm resilience. Based on our conceptual understanding of the determinants of farm resilience, we recommend approaches that augment farmer entrepreneurship, support farmer organizations, and strengthen farmer-buyer relationships.
Finding the direction of lowest resilience in multivariate complex systems
Weinans, Els ; Lever, Jelle ; Bathiany, Sebastian ; Quax, Rick ; Bascompte, Jordi ; Nes, Egbert H. Van; Scheffer, Marten ; De Leemput, Ingrid A. Van - \ 2019
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 16 (2019)159. - ISSN 1742-5689
Complex networks - Resilience - Stability
The dynamics of complex systems, such as ecosystems, financial markets and the human brain, emerge from the interactions of numerous components. We often lack the knowledge to build reliable models for the behaviour of such network systems. This makes it difficult to predict potential instabilities. We show that one could use the natural fluctuations in multivariate time series to reveal network regions with particularly slow dynamics. The multidimensional slowness points to the direction of minimal resilience, in the sense that simultaneous perturbations on this set of nodes will take longest to recover. We compare an autocorrelation-based method with a variance-based method for different time-series lengths, data resolution and different noise regimes. We show that the autocorrelation-based method is less robust for short time series or time series with a low resolution but more robust for varying noise levels. This novel approach may help to identify unstable regions of multivariate systems or to distinguish safe from unsafe perturbations.
|Defining resilient pigs after a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
Zande, L.E. Van Der; Dunkelberger, J.R. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Mathur, P.K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, M.C. ; Eggert, J.M. ; Little, E.A. ; Dee, S.A. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 471 - 475.
Accelerometers - Behaviour - Pig - PRRS - Resilience - RMSE
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious viral disease in pigs. PRRS causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory infections in growing pigs. To improve pig health and minimise economic losses, resilient pigs are preferred within the herd. Resilient pigs still become infected, yet are able to recover following infection, showing less variation in activity and feeding. In this study, 232 commercial crossbred pigs were equipped with individual accelerometer ear tags to monitor the number of active, feeding, and hyperactive events per individual per hour. At eight weeks of age, pigs were inoculated with PRRS virus 1-7-4. Data from accelerometers were collected 23 days prior to challenge and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Expected levels of activity, feeding, and hyperactivity were estimated by regressing behavioural traits on observed datapoints prior to challenge. This regression line was extended to 42 dpi. Then, deviations from the regression line were quantified as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each individual during the following time periods: pre-challenge, 0-13 dpi, and 13-42 dpi. All traits decreased and RMSE increased post-challenge. These results are consistant with clinical signs of PRRS, including lethargy and loss of appetite. In addition, association of these traits with survival was also investigated. RMSE prior to PRRS-infection was not predictive of survival after infection. However, RMSE of feeding and activity during the peak challenge period (0-13 dpi) was predictive of survival, where pigs with less deviation in behaviour were more resilient to the PRRS challenge.
|At-market sensor technologies to develop proxies for resilience and efficiency in dairy cows
Ouweltjes, W. ; Haas, Y. De; Kamphuis, C. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 246 - 253.
Feed efficiency - Precision livestock farming - Proxies - Resilience
We hypothesise that at-market sensor technologies can be used to develop proxies for complex traits such as resilience and feed efficiency (FE). This was tested by comparing variables describing sensor data patterns (“curve-parameters”) from resilient or FE cows with non-resilient or non-FE cows. Sensor data included data from weighing scales, activity (steps) and rumination activity from neck collars, and milk production from the parlour or the milking robot. Curve-parameters were calculated for each sensor for each lactation for which data was available and included the mean, standard deviation (std), slope, skewness, and the autocorrelation. Data originated from a Wageningen Research farm, and included data from 1,800 cows with calvings between 1995-2016. During this time frame, there were 98 lactations with sufficient feed intake recordings to compute FE at lactation level (DMI (kg) / milk yield (kg)), and to rank them accordingly. The 1,800 cows that could be ranked according to their lifetime resilience (ability to re-calf in combination with the number of health and insemination events) based on scores for each of the, in total, 5,771 lactations. Subsequently, the 20% or 10% most and least FE or resilient lactations, respectively, were selected. Curve-parameters of these selected lactations were compared. Results imply that using a single sensor, or a single curve parameter, is likely to be insufficient as a proxy for resilience of efficiency. Future research should focus on studying which combination of curve parameters and sensors are most informative as proxy for these two complex traits.
Prospects of bioenergy cropping systems for a more social‐ecologically sound bioeconomy
Cossel, Moritz Von ; Wagner, Moritz ; Lask, Jan ; Magenau, Elena ; Bauerle, Andrea ; Cossel, Viktoria Von ; Warrach‐Sagi, Kirsten ; Elbersen, Berien ; Staritsky, Igor ; Eupen, Michiel van; Iqbal, Yasir ; Jablonowski, Nicolai David ; Happe, Stefan ; Fernando, Ana Luisa ; Scordia, Danilo ; Cosentino, Salvatore Luciano ; Wulfmeyer, Volker ; Lewandowski, Iris ; Winkler, Bastian - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2073-4395
Biodiversity - Bioeconomy - Bioenergy crop - Biomass - Carbon capture - Climate change adaptation - Cropping system - Industrial crop - Marginal land - Resilience
The growing bioeconomy will require a greater supply of biomass in the future for both bioenergy and bio‐based products. Today, many bioenergy cropping systems (BCS) are suboptimal due to either social‐ecological threats or technical limitations. In addition, the competition for land between bioenergy‐crop cultivation, food‐crop cultivation, and biodiversity conservation is expected to increase as a result of both continuous world population growth and expected severe climate change effects. This study investigates how BCS can become more social‐ecologically sustainable in future. It brings together expert opinions from the fields of agronomy, economics, meteorology, and geography. Potential solutions to the following five main requirements for a more holistically sustainable supply of biomass are summarized: (i) bioenergy‐crop cultivation should provide a beneficial social‐ecological contribution, such as an increase in both biodiversity and landscape aesthetics, (ii) bioenergy crops should be cultivated on marginal agricultural land so as not to compete with food‐crop production, (iii) BCS need to be resilient in the face of projected severe climate change effects, (iv) BCS should foster rural development and support the vast number of small‐scale family farmers, managing about 80% of agricultural land and natural resources globally, and (v) bioenergy‐crop cultivation must be planned and implemented systematically, using holistic approaches. Further research activities and policy incentives should not only consider the economic potential of bioenergy‐crop cultivation, but also aspects of biodiversity, soil fertility, and climate change adaptation specific to site conditions and the given social context. This will help to adapt existing agricultural systems in a changing world and foster the development of a more social‐ecologically sustainable bioeconomy.
Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence
Ansah, Isaac Gershon Kodwo ; Gardebroek, Cornelis ; Ihle, Rico - \ 2019
Food Security 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1187 - 1203.
Food security - Households - Measurement - Resilience
The way economic studies conceptualize and measure resilience is very heterogeneous. This does not only challenge scientific progress, but also raises the question of whether they measure one identical concept with different methods or whether they measure different understandings of resilience. This paper provides a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence on resilience from a food security perspective, focusing on socio-economic research. We perform a systematic literature search to identify recent publications that analyze resilience from the perspective of household food security. We examine the historical evolution of concepts and methods used for measuring resilience and synthesize the evidence. We find that conceptual and analytical models have evolved over time, with important technical adjustments. Studies initially focused on measuring resilience as an end in itself, but more recently resilience is understood as a means to an ultimate end, hence resilience capacity is measured instead. Also, resilience was initially measured as an indicator of food security. Currently it is measured distinctly from food security. Multivariate techniques are found to be frequently used to quantify resilience. The empirical evidence suggests that households with higher resilience capacity tend to have less child malnutrition and better food security. We find that causal pathways through which resilience capacity affects food security in a microeconomic framework are barely explicitly considered in empirical analyses. Therefore, we suggest a model which explicitly addresses these pathways.
Manuscripts how to build a cross-disciplinary institute: the curious case of the south american institute for resilience and sustainability studies
Scheffer, Marten ; Mazzeo, Nestor - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Art and science - Art-science collaboration - Institute - Resilience - SARAS - South America - Sustainability
There is no recipe for setting up a new institute, especially if it is meant to be different from anything that currently exists. Here, we give a look behind the scenes at how we dreamt up the transdisciplinary South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Science (SARAS), located in Uruguay, and how, with help from a network of renowned freethinkers and dedicated doers, we made it happen. Trying to shape the institute over the first decade, we learned 10 important lessons that may be helpful for others in similar situations. (1) Securing a stable budget is essential, but a permanent challenge. (2) Structural international funding for a place-based institute is unlikely. (3) Having the institute outside the formal structure of a university gives liberty, but it is important to nurture good relationships. (4) An informal setting with ample scheduled time for walks, camp fires, and other leisure interactions helps participants build the trust and take the time needed to connect across disciplines and worldviews but can be seen as decadent by outsiders. (5) It is important to build resilience to the occasional reshuffling of cards inherent with government change. (6) It remains difficult for remote international board members to fathom the local dynamics and challenges inherent to running the institute on the ground. (7) Keeping the big idea alive while solving the continuous stream of everyday issues requires a combination of personalities with complementary skills in the dreamer-doer continuum. (8) There is a trade-off in selecting board members because the famous persons needed for credibility and for their extensive networks often have little time to contribute actively. (9) Truly linking science and arts requires long-term interaction between artists and scientists that are personally interested in this enterprise to allow for the necessary building of trust and mutual understanding. (10) A local sense of ownership is essential for long-term resilience.
Dancing on the volcano: Social exploration in times of discontent
Carpenter, Stephen R. ; Folke, Carl ; Scheffer, Marten ; Westley, Frances R. - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
Anthropocene - Complex systems - Pathways - Resilience - Terror management theory - Transformation
Radical recent developments such as Brexit, the rise of extreme nationalism, the gilets jaunes, polarizing leaders, the Arab Spring, and fundamentalist movements are indications of societal discontent with the status quo. Other societal phenomena such as gender fluidity, veganism, and bartering are also associated with a perceived need to change. The context is the Anthropocene, a human-dominated biosphere challenging the resilience of a livable planet. Such a broad set of developments may be interpreted in the light of new insights from theory of complex systems about what happens as resilience of the current pathway (societal organization as we know it) decreases. Rising fluctuations characterize a phase of uncertainty and exploration, potentially leading into a transition of the system toward a new pathway. We reflect on global changes that may contribute to social destabilization such as rising wealth concentration and environmental degradation and ask how responses may be understood from social-psychological forces such as the need for group identity and managing the terror of mortality. The emerging image is that of a society engaged in multifaceted experimentation. Maintaining such experimentation may help inspire novel pathways to desirable futures, but there is a risk of societies becoming trapped in backward-looking narratives that threaten long-term sustainable outcomes.
Unearthing the ripple effects of power and resilience in large river deltas
Karpouzoglou, Timos ; Dang Tri, Van Pham ; Ahmed, Farhana ; Warner, Jeroen ; Hoang, Long ; Nguyen, Thanh Binh ; Dewulf, Art - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 98 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 1 - 10.
Bangladesh - Flood - Power - Resilience - River Deltas - Vietnam
Historically, flood resilience in large river deltas has been strongly tied to institutional and infrastructural interventions to manage flood risk (such as building of embankments and drainage structures). However, the introduction of infrastructural works has inevitably brought unforeseen, major consequences, such as biodiversity and accelerated land subsidence, endangering the fertile characteristics that made them interesting places to live in in the first place. These ripple effects have sparked, a reconsideration of what deltas are, questioning the very separation and control between nature and culture, and how deltas are to be dealt with. These effects have further sparked changing modalities of power that tend to be overlooked by delta and resilience scholars alike. As a result, there is a real risk that future interventions to increase resilience, will in fact amplify unequal power relations in deltas as opposed to alleviating them. If the system as a whole has achieved some level of flood resilience (partly due to the flood defence mechanisms in place), does infrastructure have a differential effect on people's mobility under flood conditions? Are some groups experiencing less rather than more security, as water accumulates in some places but not others? This paper presents theoretical insights on the relationship between power and resilience in delta regions supported by two case studies, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh and the Mekong delta in Vietnam.
Opportunities to improve resilience in animal breeding programs
Berghof, Tom V.L. ; Poppe, Marieke ; Mulder, Han A. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Genetics Livestock Genomics 9 (2019). - ISSN 1664-8021 - 15 p.
Big data - Breeding program - Economic value - Livestock - Longitudinal data - Macro-environment - Micro-environment - Resilience
Resilience is the capacity of an animal to be minimally affected by disturbances or to rapidly return to the state pertained before exposure to a disturbance. However, indicators for general resilience to environmental disturbances have not yet been defined, and perhaps therefore resilience is not yet included in breeding goals. The current developments on big data collection give opportunities to determine new resilience indicators based on longitudinal data, which can aid to incorporate resilience in animal breeding goals. The objectives of this paper were: (1) to define resilience indicator traits based on big data, (2) to define economic values for resilience, and (3) to show the potential to improve resilience of livestock through inclusion of resilience in breeding goals. Resilience might be measured based on deviations from expected production levels over a period of time. Suitable resilience indicators could be the variance of deviations, the autocorrelation of deviations, the skewness of deviations, and the slope of a reaction norm. These (new) resilience indicators provide opportunity to include resilience in breeding programs. Economic values of resilience indicators in the selection index can be calculated based on reduced costs due to labor and treatments. For example, when labor time is restricted, the economic value of resilience increases with an increasing number of animals per farm, and can become as large as the economic value of production. This shows the importance of including resilience in breeding goals. Two scenarios were described to show the additional benefit of including resilience in breeding programs. These examples showed that it is hard to improve resilience with only production traits in the selection index, but that it is possible to greatly improve resilience by including resilience indicators in the selection index. However, when health-related traits are already present in the selection index, the effect is smaller. Nevertheless, inclusion of resilience indicators in the selection index increases the response in the breeding goal and resilience, which results in less labor-demanding, and thus easier-to-manage livestock. Current developments on massive collection of data, and new phenotypes based on these data, offer exciting opportunities to breed for improved resilience of livestock.
Towards Regenerative Supply Networks : A design framework proposal
Souza, Vitor de; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline ; Borsato, Milton - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 221 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 145 - 156.
Regenerative development - Resilience - Sustainable supply network design - Systems approach - Transdisciplinary research
Anthropocentrism and disciplinary research have not led to effective solutions to sustainability problems. A shift is required towards biocentric, transdisciplinarity-based solutions, to mitigate rebound effects and unintended, negative effects. In the field of Sustainable Supply Network Design, such shift implies on developing resilient solutions that maximize environmental benefits instead of minimizing environmental impacts. Recent researches have showed progress in this direction proposing more integrative approaches, but a framework to design supply networks with the purpose of environmental regeneration is yet to be proposed. This research aims to fill this gap, merging concepts from Regenerative Design, Transdisciplinary Research, Systems Thinking, Social Sciences and Design Sciences. Such framework is regarded as an artefact, and Design Science Research Methodology used for its development: a main problem is identified, objectives for a solution are drawn and the framework is designed. First, the Regenerative Supply Network Design is defined, to guide the elaboration of the Regenerative Supply Chain Design framework, consisting of six steps: (i) description of the network surroundings and identification of a regenerative purpose; (ii) redesign of outputs (iii) network conceptualization, (iv) optimize performance, (v) choose configuration, and (vi) implementation. Among the implications of this research are that (i) practitioners basing their design process in this framework are effectively shifting from anthropocentrism to biocentrism with a clear, defined purpose of environmental restoration and (ii), that the supply networks evolve in the integration with the environment, enhancing eco-systems resilience.
Introducing the H2020 AQUACROSS project: Knowledge, Assessment, and Management for AQUAtic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services aCROSS EU policies
Lago, M. ; Boteler, B. ; Rouillard, J. ; Abhold, K. ; Jähnig, S.C. ; Iglesias-Campos, A. ; Delacámara, G. ; Piet, G.J. ; Hein, T. ; Nogueira, A.J.A. ; Lillebø, A.I. ; Strosser, P. ; Robinson, L.A. ; Wever, A. De; O'Higgins, T. ; Schlüter, M. ; Török, L. ; Reichert, P. ; Ham, C. Van; Villa, F. ; Hugh, Mcdonald - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 320 - 329.
Freshwater - Coastal - Marine ecosystems - Resilience - Social-ecological modelling - EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy - Social learning - stakeholder engagement
The AQUACROSS project was an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set by the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. AQUACROSS aimed to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. The project focused on advancing the knowledge base and application of Ecosystem-Based Management. Through elaboration of eight diverse case studies in freshwater and marine and estuarine aquatic ecosystem across Europe covering a range of environmental management problems including, eutrophication, sustainable fisheries as well as invasive alien species AQUACROSS demonstrated the application of a common framework to establish cost-effective measures and integrated Ecosystem-Based Management practices. AQUACROSS analysed the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and built on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting within different policy processes, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales of space and time and relevant to different ecosystem types.
The resilience of social norms of cooperation under resource scarcity and inequality — An agent-based model on sharing water over two harvesting seasons
Nhim, Tum ; Richter, Andries ; Zhu, Xueqin - \ 2019
Ecological Complexity 40 (2019)B. - ISSN 1476-945X
Agent-based modeling - Cooperation - Inequality - Resilience - Resource scarcity - Social-ecological systems
Water governance remains a challenge for human societies, especially when the variation in resource inflow is large and the resource users are heterogeneous. We analyze with a coupled social-ecological systems (SES) model how socioeconomic and environmental changes affect the resilience of social norms governing resource use. In our model, agents have access to water as a common-pool resource and allocate it between rainy and dry seasons. While it is socially optimal to save water for the dry season, it is individually optimal to take water immediately. In our model, punishment of norm violators is the mechanism that may sustain cooperation. We show that the resilience of social norms could be affected by changes in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Particularly, we find that social norms may collapse in times of resource scarcity and variability, especially if several drivers act in concert. Finally, we find that user heterogeneity in the form of different skills and inequality in land endowments may undermine cooperation. This implies that climatic changes and increased inequality – both potential drivers in the field – may affect community resilience and may lead to an erosion of social norms.
Integrated Forest Governance in Europe : An introduction to the special issue on forest policy integration and integrated forest management
Sotirov, Metodi ; Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 960 - 967.
Biodiversity - Europe - Forests - Governance - Integrated forest management - Policy change - Policy integration - Resilience - Sustainable forest management
In this introduction to the Special Issue, we set out the key definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions of integrated forest governance. By so doing, we identify and account for the interplay between forest policy integration and integrated forest management as two constituting elements of integrated forest governance. Second, we summarize the main findings reported in the regular papers, and link them to the outlined definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions. This introduction further takes stock and classifies the main paradoxes of, barriers to, and drivers of forest policy integration and integrated forest management. It then structures the main empirical findings and conclusions along the key analytical dimensions and links them to the state of the art knowledge. Finally, we draw policy relevant conclusions and outline suggestions for future research.
Elements of fishing community resilience to climate change in the coastal zone of Bangladesh
Sharifuzzaman, S.M. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman ; Sarker, Subrata ; Chowdhury, M.S.N. ; Chowdhury, M.Z.R. - \ 2018
Journal of Coastal Conservation 22 (2018)6. - ISSN 1400-0350 - p. 1167 - 1176.
Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) - Fishing community - Hatiya Island - Livelihood assets - Resilience
Resilience has been conceptualized in various ways by anthropologists, ecologists, systems scientists and engineers; the boundaries of resilience are subjective and context dependent. Consequently, choosing the standards and metrics for assessing resilience remains key challenges for policy makers. In this study, using multicriteria evaluation of 40 basic criteria of human, physical, financial, natural and social assets, we have identified several elements, such as experienced fishermen, natural abundance of hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), ability to assert decision on fish selling, nets and boats ownership, social harmony and capacity of buying food as essential livelihood assets for the fishermen at Hatiya Island, Bangladesh. These assets may enhance the relative resilience of the fishing community of the island to climate change by as much as 20–40%. The results of this study will improve our understanding of the elements that lead to resilience at the community level.
Agroecological integration of shade- and drought-tolerant food/feed crops for year-round productivity in banana-based systems under rain-fed conditions in Central Africa
Blomme, G. ; Ocimati, W. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Ntamwira, J. ; Bahati, L. ; Kantungeko, D. ; Remans, R. ; Tittonell, P. - \ 2018
In: 10th International Symposium on Banana. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611924 - p. 41 - 54.
Intensification - Resilience - Small-scale farming - Year-round productivity - Yield gaps
Yield gaps in banana-based production systems have increased in the past two decades due to declining soil fertility, drought and biotic stresses. Sustainable, environmentally sound and economically viable strategies for intensification in these systems are urgently needed. Agroecological practices, such as the integration of shade- and drought-tolerant crops, nitrogen-fixing and cover crops could potentially improve soil fertility and moisture retention, reduce the weed burden, narrow yield gaps and increase overall plot/farm productivity in these systems. In Malaysia, leguminous crops like Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopogonium caeruleum and Centrosema pubescens are often cultivated as cover crops (to suppress weeds, and reduce moisture loss and soil erosion) in young rubber and oil palm plantations with low shade levels. Even in mature oil palm plantations with less than 30% light intensity, various shade-tolerant crops are grown, e.g., elephant foot yam, turmeric and arrow root. In humid tropical Africa, Colocasia (taro) and Xanthosoma (cocoyam) are reported to tolerate shade conditions and hence often planted under perennial banana/plantain plantations. Drought tolerance is a less common feature of most annual crops grown in the humid tropics. A few root and tuber crops (e.g., cassava, taro, yam and sweetpotato) remain in the field during the dry season in Central Africa and are then harvested according to household needs. This paper also reports on crops (Mucuna, lablab and chickpea) with potential for integration into banana-based systems during the dry season, if planted during the last month of the rainy season. These crops are reported to use the residual soil moisture content for continued growth during the dry season months. The paper concludes with detailed descriptions (from a literature review) on drought- and shade-tolerance characteristics of various crops which have long been integrated in Central African banana-based cropping systems, crops with a more recent cultivation history and crops with potential for system integration.
Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers
Bindraban, Prem S. ; Dimkpa, Christian O. ; Angle, Scott ; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 273 - 285.
Food loss - Human health - Innovative fertilizers - Micronutrients - Plant health - Resilience - Sector transformation
Fertilizers produce over half of the world’s food and permit less encroachment into pristine lands. Yet, the low uptake efficiency by crop plants causes nutrient losses that drive global change. Mitigating measures have been insufficient to address the problems, and policy interventions, NGO involvement, and R&D investments have been too insignificant to transform the fertilizer sector. Here, we discuss the contribution of balanced mineral fertilizers to increasing the nutritional value of crop produce to improve human nutrition and health; healthier plants to reduce biocide use; plant robustness to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses; and increased metabolite production to improve taste and shelf-life. We reflect on raising awareness about these multiple fertilizer-based public good services for realizing several Sustainable Development Goals which can be achieved through a comprehensive nutrient assessment to catalyze transformation in research, policy and industry.
Seagrass ecosystem trajectory depends on the relative timescales of resistance, recovery and disturbance
O'Brien, Katherine R. ; Waycott, Michelle ; Maxwell, Paul ; Kendrick, Gary A. ; Udy, James W. ; Ferguson, Angus J.P. ; Kilminster, Kieryn ; Scanes, Peter ; McKenzie, Len J. ; McMahon, Kathryn ; Adams, Matthew P. ; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena ; Collier, Catherine ; Lyons, Mitchell ; Mumby, Peter J. ; Radke, Lynda ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Dennison, William C. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 166 - 176.
Colonizing - Opportunistic - Persistent - Recovery - Resilience - Resistance - Seagrass - Trajectory
Seagrass ecosystems are inherently dynamic, responding to environmental change across a range of scales. Habitat requirements of seagrass are well defined, but less is known about their ability to resist disturbance. Specific means of recovery after loss are particularly difficult to quantify. Here we assess the resistance and recovery capacity of 12 seagrass genera. We document four classic trajectories of degradation and recovery for seagrass ecosystems, illustrated with examples from around the world. Recovery can be rapid once conditions improve, but seagrass absence at landscape scales may persist for many decades, perpetuated by feedbacks and/or lack of seed or plant propagules to initiate recovery. It can be difficult to distinguish between slow recovery, recalcitrant degradation, and the need for a window of opportunity to trigger recovery. We propose a framework synthesizing how the spatial and temporal scales of both disturbance and seagrass response affect ecosystem trajectory and hence resilience.